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that in the bibliographical and “museographical " those in existence at or about the date of the foundlists forming the subject of the second and third ation of the Royal Society (1660) are discussed in volumes, reference is made only to museums of which considerable detail. A whole chapter is devoted to there are printed catalogues or descriptions, or to the history of the collections which formed the basis which reference is made in other works. Conse- of the British Museum, and the gradual development quently, many museums, including a few of some of that institution. Museums for the exhibition of importance, are not referred to at all. In the case special subjects and the museums of Scotland next of large institutions like the British Museum, only claim attention. From these the author passes on to such publications as refer directly to the building and museums which were run" for profit; such as the its contents are quoted, so that the strictly scientific well known museums of Lever and Bullock in * catalogues " find no place in Dr. Murray's lists. London. Incidentally, it is mentioned how the former That these lists, which must have involved an of these was disposed of en bloc by means of a immense amount of labour in their preparation, will guinea lottery; and from this there is an easy tranprove of great interest to "museographists” in the
sition to the breaking-up of museums, with, in certain future can scarcely be doubted. We are unable, how
cases, the total loss of some of the most valuable of
their contents. ever, to find any reference to Dr. A. B. Meyer's well known survey of European and American museums.
In the fifteenth chapter Dr. Murray describes the In his first chapter the author discusses what we
arrangement-or rather want of arrangementmay call rudiments of museums, directing special at
of the old style of museum, and takes occasion to tention to curiosities and rarities preserved in churches express regret that a sample of one of these has not and cathedrals. Among these we miss a reference to
been preserved to our own day, as an illustration of the horn of the aurochs, or extinct wild ox, preserved
museum evolution. Thence we pass on to modern in the cathedral at Strassburg up to the time of the
museum arrangement, local museums, and the use French revolution. “Some Old Exhibits” forms the of museums in general. In connection with museum title of the sixth chapter, in which reference is made buildings, it is interesting to note that Haltman, a to our ancestors' extraordinary belief in the medicinal pupil of Linnæus, advocated the importance of having value of mummy, “unicorn's horn," and such like. a north light to the main galleries—advice which has In discussing the so-called giants' bones, the author been strangely neglected in the planning of many of makes a strange mistake (pp. 46 and 47) in regard
our modern institutions. Of the importance of local to the bones which were assigned early in the seven
museums, if run on right lines, and not made into teenth century to Teutobochus Rex, stating that they
mere curiosity shops, the author is fully convinced; turned out to be those of a giant salamander, whereas but he is also equally convinced that they should not they were really those of a mammoth. Dr. Murray has be left to the administration of local bodies, the evidently confused these remains with Scheuchzer's members of which, as a rule, have but little concepHomo diluvii testis, based on the fossil salamander of tion of their true needs and purpose. the Eningen Pliocene.
With regard to public museums in general, and Here we may take the opportunity of alluding to especially those of the metropolis and our larger certain other errors in connection with zoological cities, Dr. Murray insists that modern methods of matters. On p. 58, for instance, we find the name conservation and exhibition, and especially the labour of the red deer given as Cervus elephas, which might of writing descriptive labels (which have to be from. well be attributed to the “printer's devil ” were it time to time renewed to keep pace with scientific not that a few lines later the author deliberately states progress), must entail constantly increasing expendi-. that this animal was the @lepas of the Greeks ! ture, both in respect to the staff and to the upkeep Again, in discussing the barnacle-goose myth, the
of the whole establishment. In one passage (p. 280) author makes the following statement (p. 76) :
he incidentally mentions that specimens shown in
museum do not grow out of date, apparently " Sir Robert Sibbald, about the same time, ex- oblivious of the terrible effects of light in destroying amined the whole subject personally, and showed that the Barnacle goose (Bernicla leucopsis) was
so many zoological exhibits. His arguments for the
a bird produced from an egg, and that the Barnacle shell increase of expenditure in the upkeep of museums (Concha anatifera) instead of being that egg was a are therefore, to a certain extent, understated rather pholas; the Scots piddocks."
than overestimated. If Sibbald made this misidentification, the mistake
In regard to the general awakening of the country should have been pointed out—we scarcely dare think of culture and every department of industry, Dr..
to the necessity of adequate training in every branch the author believes it to be true. As a minor error,
Murray writes as follows :it may be pointed out that the skeletons referred to on p. 187 as those of the mammoth are really refer
“One of the most potent engines by which this. able to the mastodon. Finally, the statement on is to be secured is the museum. Some of our p. 136 that the Sloane herbarium " has recently been museums are among the finest in the world; many transferred from Montague House to the Natural are lending valuable assistance to the advancement History Museum " is scarcely exact or up to date.
and appreciation of art and science. A large number, Reverting to our survey of the contents of the first however, are still content to be mere holiday resorts.
All, even the best, must advance, and for this end volume, we find in chapter vii. an account of some enlightened and sympathetic administration and a of the earliest museums, while in the eighth chapter liberal income are required. The museum of 1897 is
far in advance of the museum of 1847; but it in turn In this chapter even the junior chemist who may will be old-fashioned by the end of twenty years, and read the primer will object to the illustration which when the coming (= present) century is half-way shows him soda-lime as a fluid in bottles 1 and 4 through, its methods and arrangements will probably of the illustration on p. 5, and it is to be feared that be wholly superseded by something better."
the junior physicist will be inclined to regard the With these words we take leave of a very instruc.
calorimeter shown in section on p. 8 as a somewhat tive and fascinating book, which it may be hoped
impossible piece of apparatus. will in some measure serve to awaken greater public
The remaining chapters furnish accounts of interest in museums, and thereby enable them to
structure, food, digestion, circulation of the blood. receive adequate financial support from those sponsible for their management.
breathing, exertion, the skin and its uses, the history R. L.
of the food in the body, the chemical factories of the
body, the defence of the body against micro-organisms, ELEMEVTARY PHYSIOLOGY,
the physiology of movement and the muscles, the (1) A Primer of Physiology. By Prof. E. H. Star- central nervous system, feelings—the whole contained
ling, F.R.S. Pp. viii + 128. (London : John in u2 brief pages, and forming a veritable multum Murray, 1904.) Price is.
in parvo. (2) Elementary Practical Physiology. By John (2) It is somewhat difficult on first glancing
Thornton, M.A. Pp. viii + 324. (London : Long- through Mr. Thornton's book to understand why the mans, Green and Co., 1904.) Price 3s. 6d.
word practical appears on its title-page, for by far (1) AS
SSUMING an elementary knowledge of the the greater part of the text is purely descriptive,
main facts of chemistry and physics on the although at intervals directions for simple dissera part of the readers, Prof. Starling has endeavoured to tions and experiments are interspersed in an unpresent with as few technical terms as possible the
obtrusive manner. leading ideas which make up present-day physiology. On looking at the page opposite to the descriptive
It is clear that within the limited space of about title page, however, one discovers that it is a member 120 short pages the accomplishment of such a task o the “ Practical Elementary Science Series " issued is well-nigh impossible, and except in the accuracy by the publishers, and intended, as the author states of the stated facts due to the author's mastership of in his preface, to meet all the requirements of stage i his subject, we do not think that the present attempt (the elementary stage) as set forth in the syllabus is more successful than those of others which have issued by the Board of Education, and in similar preceded it.
syllabuses of other examining bodies. Hence both The great difficulty in writing such diminutive the “ elementary and the practical ” of the title primers does not lie in the direction of finding matter form, so to speak, the “class name” of the series. to insert, but in a superabundance of material which and are suggested by the syllabus and examination must be left out if the reader is not to be stifled by which have evidently given rise to their existence. a congested mass of facts crammed together into the It is, in the opinion of the reviewer, a pity s. at shortest possible space, and as a consequence expressed even elementary text-books of science should have to in the tersest and baldest of language.
be written to suit the requirements of syllabuses and It is the difficulty of freeing the mind from the examinations, but it appears to be inevitable in vieu bondage of detail and dealing only with broad out of the artificial manner in which a love of science is lines which makes such primers dry and uninterest- propagated in this country that the majority of our ing reading, and causes one to sympathise with the text-books must be so written. children who are forced to read and to attempt to It accordingly becomes a problem whether such digest them mentally.
books can best be written by experts engaged upon The primer at present under consideration is no the particular subject treated, or by the school worse, and perhaps somewhat better, in this respect masters engaged in teaching that subject along with than many similar productions; still, it would have others. served its purpose better if much of the detail had The schoolmaster can claim the advantage in thar been left out, and room so provided for more ample he is a teacher of children, and knows best hou ? treatment of the prominent and important aspects put the subject so that they will understand it; als). of the subject.
being engaged year after year in preparing pupils for In the small amount of space at his disposal the the examination, he knows the requirements of the author deals not only with the anatomy and physiology situation so far as success in the examination is of the mammal, but finds room for some instruction concerned; but his knowledge of the subject and his regarding toxins and antitoxins, and a short chapter presentation or it must be chiefly second-hand, sinut upon the defence of the body against micro-organisms. the prosecution of the study is not his daily occuredThe introductory chapter takes up the consideration tion. On the other hand, the specialist, while he 1." of the animal as a thermodynamic machine, includes give a review of the subject from a living acquaintthe famous candle-burning experiment and the use ance with it, may fail signally in writing to suit the o the calorimeter, and then passes rapidly to requirements of the syllabus and the examination, adaptive reactions, adaptation to poisons, and finally disappoint both teacher and scholars in this respect to antitoxins, thus showing that the whole of life and leave his publisher without a market. is a series of adapted reactions.
The book before us will lead to no disaster
examination results, as a comparison of the sets of maintaining the earth as an electromagnet. For examination papers included at the end of the volume example, that during the forty-five years of the last with the text of the book amply demonstrates, and century, when, according to computation from it must be added that if an observant student carries observed facts, the earth's magnetic moment hardly out the simple experiments so clearly described at changed, these emanations were continuous. At prevarious places in the volume, he will have acquired a sent there does not appear to be any ground for such very desirable knowledge of the more important a belief. seatures of physiology. But so much cannot be said In an endeavour to explain the hourly angular of the remainder of the text, which aims at far too variations of the needle, it is submitted that the much statement of detail for the space available, a earth's magnetic poles probably occupy a considermatter in which the syllabus may be much more to
able area round the centre of which certain centres blame than the author.
of primary attraction in them make a daily circuit, For example, the student who has learnt no
due to the action of the sun as the earth rotates on its chemistry previously will not be able to digest much
axis. In addition to the “primary" magnetic pole from the description of the chemical elements given in North America, it is suggested that a secondary in a single page, and the same is true of the descrip- pole of a similar nature must exist in northern tion of the chief inorganic compounds and the organic Siberia. The daily variations of the needle, both in compounds of the body, each dismissed in less than a declination and dip, in the northern hemisphere are page.
then attributed to a battle for the mastery between The valuable habit of coordinating knowledge in
the revolving centres of attraction in the two poles the form of tables is visible at places in the book, but mentioned, modified the magnetic equator is summaries have a way of becoming either too sweep approached by the attraction of the south magnetic ing or too inexact, and we fear that the pupil, poles. especially after such a concise training in chemistry
As one reads through several of the first chapters as we have just indicated, may be in danger of con- the fully expressed acceptance of the idea that the cluding from a perusal of the table on p. 13 that the attraction of the needle by the magnetic poles is the body contains " mineral salts” formed from a very
immediate cause of its variations seems unaccountstrange combination of elements, or, from the table able, until a fundamental error is reached. This is on p. 162, that these same “ mineral matters ” share
when the author takes it as generally agreed that, in only “in forming bone and assist in digestion," and
the same way as steel is attracted by the poles of an not that they are found in every cell and tissue in the ordinary artificial magnet, the magnetic needle is body, and form as essential a constituent there
attracted by the poles of that great natural magnet, the all-important proteids, which are in the same table
the earth. Such a statement vitiates whole pages of represented as the only tissue formers.
the arguments adduced. B. MOORE.
On the question of the position of the magnetic equator with regard to the terrestrial equator, the
results of observation have also been much TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM.
ignored. There have not been four crossings of the Terrestrial Magnetism and its Causes. By F. A. two equators during the last sixty years, neither are
Black. Pp. xii + 226. (London and Edinburgh : the two known points of crossing regulated by the Gall and Inglis, 1905.) Price 6s. net.
position of the magnetic poles as suggested. In the JITH regard to the earth's magnetism, the Atlantic region, the point of crossing seems to be
general conclusions from observations made chiefly regulated by local causes below the earth's on its surface are that it is partly permanent, partly surface. induced, and subject to the effects of electric currents It may be finally remarked that the chapter on in the earth's crust and the surrounding atmosphere. magnetic storms is the most acceptable in the book. Moreover, that the direct action of the sun plays a comparatively subordinate part in producing the observed phenomena.
OUR BOOK SHELF. In this book, however, various reasons are sub- Mechanical Appliances, Mechanical Movements and mitted for the belief that the general magnetism of Novelties of Construction. By Gardner D. Hiscox. the earth, and the constant changes thereof as shown Pp: 396. (London: Constable and Co., Ltd., 1905.) by the hourly variations of the needle, are due to
Price 12s. 6d, net. causes external to the earth.
In short, that the earth it is difficult to say more in its praise. It consists of
This book is luxuriously printed, with clear figures, but is to be considered as an electromagnet excited by
a series of short paragraphs, each with its illustration, electric currents proceeding from the sun and im- describing some mechanical or constructional device, pelled towards the earth with inconceivable rapidity, It is similar in plan to those “ Centuries of Invention the orbital and axial movements of the earth through of which the Marquis of Worcester's was the earliest these currents producing magnetic effects in a manner (1746). The devices described are of the most heterosimilar to the winding of an electromagnet through geneous character, old and new, important and unwhich a current passes.
important, useful and useless. They are arranged in
the roughest way in sections which have no relation In order that we may believe this to be the case, we
to any natural order of classification. It is difficult must agree that the sun gives out electric waves to see to whom such a work appeals, but in fairness continuously in every direction equal to the work of to the author it should be stated that a previous work
of which this is a continuation appears to have reached dividual and collective life is, for the sake of the coma tenth edition.
munity, greatly to be desired. Section ii. is on the transmission of power. The first The little book before us deals in a light and inexample is a screw-driver, and the second a sewer rod teresting manner with the conceptions of the physical coupling. Another example is a cash conveyor, which, world which have been used of late in investigating as money is power, is no doubt an example of trans- the phenomena of light, electricity, and radio-activity. mission of power. On the next page is a viscosi- It states the results of recent inquiries in a clear and meter, though what power is transmitted in this case intelligible manner, and, if the account of the methods is less obvious. Nor would one naturally expect four used in reaching the results sometimes seems in. examples of acoustic telephones to be found under this adequate, the difficulty of explaining those methods to heading
non-scientific readers may be urged as an excuse. Section vii., on hydraulic power and appliances, com- After an introduction, the book contains chapters on mences with some very sketchy ideas for wave motors, electrolytic ions and electrons; electrons and the and then describes a fog-horn buoy. There is nó phenomena of light; the nature of the kathode rays; reasonably good account of any one of the important the ions in gases and solids; radio-activity; mass, class of water turbines, but there is a quite impossible velocity, and electric charge of the ions and of the design for a “multinozzle turbine," and next to this electrons; and the electrons and the constitution of a duplex steam feed pump. There is a figure of a Ven- matter. The volume ends with a useful bibliography turi meter, but the description does not explain its of the subjects considered. action, and the curiously inaccurate statement is made The translation, on the whole, is well done, though that the differential velocity produces a differential a certain want of crispness in the literary style is lelt pressure in two tubes with mouths turned in “oppo- | in places. site" directions, and ends with the very misleading In a future edition one or two corrections would be statement that “the measurement is made by a advisable. The period of vibration of light cannot be meter.” The reader would not realise that the “ expressed by a fraction whose numerator is unity Venturi tube is the meter, and that what the author and whose denominator is a number of fifteen places probably mistakes for a meter is a recorder.
unless it is understood that “a fraction " is a fraction Section viii., on air power, motors and appliances, of a second. The usual figure given to illustrate the contains the “ pneumatic ball puzzle, “ aërial opposite deflection by a magnetic field of the a and 8 top, grain elevators, a magic ball," a mega- rays from radium exaggerates greatly the deflection scope,
a " sailing wagon, tail-less kite," and a of the a rays compared with that of the B rays. This " sail-rigged merry-go-round”; but nothing about the exaggeration is legitimate, in fact, necessary. in a air-compressors, air-motors, and pneumatic tools diagrammatic representation ; but it should be pointed which are now so important.
out in the text, or misconception of the relative mag. Enough has been said to indicate the general char- nitudes of the two effects is sure to follow. In Thomacter of the work. Many useful and important devices son's method of determining the properties of the ions are described amongst many others which are mere produced by the incidence of ultra-violet light on a inventors' schemes. There may be readers who like metallic surface, the exactness is limited not only by the an olla podrida of this kind.
differing velocities of the ions, as stated in the book. Perhaps the most curious section, and we think the Probably the ions are produced, not solely at the longest, is that on perpetual motions. About these the metallic surface, but also in a layer of the gas of author does not seem to have quite made up his own
finite thickness in its neighbourhood. Thus the dismind. He does warn the reader in the preface that tance from the surface reached against the influence the problem is. “ unsolvable.” But later, p. 363, he of a magnetic field may be different for different ions remarks that “ attempts to solve this problem would
even if their velocities be the same. seem, so far, only to have proved it to be thoroughly The Journal of the Royal Agricultural SocietyVol
. paradoxical," a statement which would hardly get many marks in a science examination. Further, we
Ixv. Pp. clxvi + 392. (London: Murray, 1904.) are told on the next page that, although admitting its appearance this year in a rather slimmer form than
The Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society makes difficulties in the way of its discovery, eminent mathematicians have favoured the belief in usual, due, however, more to the use of a thinner the possibility of perpetual motion ”; also that it is paper than to a curtailment of the printed matter. The evident, therefore, that even mathematicians are not
affairs of the society bulk largely as usual, taking up agreed.”
more than half the present volume, while the mic
cellaneous articles, to which the ordinary reader turns, Modern Theory of Physical Phenomena, Radio- only occupy about 150 pages. The volume is, in fact
, activity, Ions, Electrons. By Augusto Righi. burdened far too much with reports of council meet. Authorised translation by A. Trowbridge. Pp. xiii ings and committees, which have lost all interest for + 165:.. (New York : The Macmillan Co.; London : the members by the time the annual volume reaches Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price 5s. net.
them, and which would be much more to the point if It is an interesting sign of the times that so many circulated as “ proceedings "' immediately after the books have appeared during the last few months with meetings and not reprinted here. the object of explaining in non-technical words the The volume opens with a vivacious and readable recent development of physical science. Part of the in- account of Sir Humphry Davy by Mr. H. B. terest shown in these subjects by the general reading Wheatley, who well brings out the charm and fascinapublic is, no doubt, of the unintelligent and wonder- tion of Davy's personality. But we cannot help seeking order, which classes the more striking dis- thinking Mr. Wheatley rates Davy's agricultural work coveries of natural science with the latest sensation i altogether too highly; if any man is to be called of the law courts, or the cost of the flowers at a Trans-“father of the science” it is De Saussure, and not atlantic ball. But it is fair to hope that some, at all Davy, who can be identified with no new discovery or events, of those who read of the advance of knowledge novel point of view in agricultural science. In this do so with a desire to comprehend the method, as well respect Davy was somewhat like Liebig; both were as to admire the results, of scientific research. A great men who had the power of getting the world to more widely spread application of the open-minded and listen to them, and when they turned their attention truth-seeking methods of science to the problems of in- to agriculture the influence they wielded, each in their
generation, and the stimulus they gave to the progress
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. of agriculture were out of all proportion to the value of [The Editor does not hold himself responsible for opinions the knowledge or even of the ideas they contributed to
expressed by his correspondents. Neither can he undertake the subject. Davy gave dignity to the study of agri
to return, or to correspond with the writers of, rejected cultural science; where Davy had laboured no man in manuscripts intended for this or any other part of NATURE. future need be ashamed to work. Two articles follow No notice is taken of anonymous communications.] on fruit farming, by Mr. Charles Whitehead, and on vegetable farming, by Mr. James Udale. Both are
The Dynamical Theory of Gases. sound enough, but they are rather jejune perform- In Mr. Jean's valuable work upon this subject he attacks ances for the Journal of the Royal Agricultural the celebrated difficulty of reconciling the “ law of equiSociety, since from the inevitable limitations of space partition of energy " with what is known respecting the they are too lacking in detail to be of service to any specific heats of gases. Considering a gas the molecules one but the amateur. When it comes to reproducing of which radiate into empty space, he shows that in an pictures of the wireworm from the Society's text-book modes may bear a negligible ratio to that of translational
the energy of vibrational of agriculture, instructions for making Bordeaux mix
and rotational modes. ture, and similar elementary matters, the farmer reader may well wonder where the editor's blue pencil. that the difficulty revives when we consider a gas, not
I have myself speculated in this direction ; but it seems has been lying: Mr. Dudley Clarke writes on a burn- radiating into empty space, but bounded by a perfectly ing question of the day, the cost of labourers' cottages, reflecting enclosure. There is. then nothing of the nature and gives a number of sensible plans, bringing out the of dissipation; and, indeed, the only effect of the appeal cost of a brick and tile cottage with three bedrooms to the æther is to bring in an infinitude of new modes of at about 1501., including the land and the cost of a vibration, each of which, according to the law, should well.
have its full share of the total energy. I cannot give the Mr. A. D. Hall writes on the agricultural experi-reference, but I believe that this view of the matter was ments of Mr. James Mason, the well-known founder somewhere expressed, or hinted, by Maxwell. of the firm of Mason and Barry, who spent his later
We know that the energy of ætherial vibrations, correleisure in attempting to apply science to agriculture sponding to a given volume and temperature, is not inwith some success, while the rest of the volume is
For some finite or even proportional to the temperature.
reason the higher modes fail to assert themselves. A full occupied with the last Park Royal show, with reports comprehension here would probably carry with it a soluof the experiments in progress at the Woburn Farm, tion of the specific heat difficulty.
RAYLEIGH. and with other society matters. Mediaeval Lore from Bartholomew Anglicus.
The Physical Cause of the Earth's Rigidity. Robert Steele; with preface by William Morris. Pp. xv + 195. (London : Alexander Moring, Ltd.,
Since publishing the paper in the Astronomische Nach1905.) Price is. 6d. net.
richten (No. 3992), the investigations there outlined have This beautiful addition to the “King's Classics,"
been considerably extended, and lead to some remarkable of which Prof. Gollancz is the general editor, is
results. My only purpose in this letter is to direct atten
tion more particularly to the physical cause of the earth's likely to prove of interest to students of science.
rigidity. This seems to have remained rather obscure, and Written by an English Franciscan, probably before I am not aware that any definite theory has been adopted 1260, to explain the allusions to natural objects met to account for the remarkable fact established by the rewith in the Scriptures and elsewhere, it is really an searches of Lord Kelvin and Prof. G. H. Darwin. account of the properties of things in general so far It was pointed out in the Astronomische Nachrichten as they were understood by an educated' writer of the (3992) that the physical cause of the earth's high effective Middle Ages. After studying the quaint and pleasant rigidity is to be found in the great pressure existing accounts of mediæval science, medicine, geography, throughout the interior of our globe. This may be made and natural history which the book contains, the
somewhat more obvious by remembering that in any con
centric spherical surface the resistance of the enclosed student will begin to realise that during the Middle
nucleus must be just equal to the pressure of the surroundAges science was not stagnant, but, by, gradual de ing shells resting upon it, and thus the strain upon the velopment, was making possible the rapid growth of
matter of the globe increases towards the centre according scientific knowledge characteristic of the nineteenth to the same law as the curve of pressure given in the century. The reprint deserves to be read widely. Astronomische Nachrichten (3992). This pressure is Ergebnisse und Probleme der Zeugungs- und
sustained by the increasing density and rising temperature Vererbungs-lehre. By Prof. Oscar Hertwig. Pp.
of the matter in the earth's interior, which is thus under
an inconceivable strain, far surpassing the strength of any 31. (Jena : G. Fischer, 1905.) Price i mark.
known substance. As the matter is above the critical ProF. Öscar Hertwig is well known as a pioneer temperature of every element, it is essentially a gas rein the researches on fertilisation. In 1875 he made
duced by pressure to a hardness greater than that of steel, the important discovery that the essential fact in the and with an elasticity and rigidity infinitely near to perprocess lay in the fusion of a single male with a fection. The result is that the explosive strain upon the female cell, and he also saw and recognised the fusion matter of our globe from within, which is everywhere of the nuclei. It was fitting, that at the congress just equal to the pressure sustained by the enclosed nucleus, held at St. Louis last year he should choose this renders the interior matter more rigid than any known subject as the text of his lecture. The reprint forms substance; and even the outer layers, which are but a clear statement of the chief details of fertilisation, slightly, compressed, yield so little under the action of and also indicates some of the theoretical conclusions external forces that the globe as a whole is more rigid towards which modern cytology is tending. The than steel, as Lord Kelvin and Prof. G. H. Darwin found sketch of the so-called “reduction divisions ” is
from their profound researches on the long-period tides of
the ocean. specially good, and the author show's how clear a
It was these considerations which led to the conclusion light they throw on the modern experimental results that all the heavenly bodies of considerable mass when conobtained from the study of heredity. The lecture will
densed to moderate bulk have nuclei of great effective be welcomed by all who are interested in these and rigidity, and experience no sensible circulation at great kindred questions, and those who know Prof. Hert-depths.
T. J. J. SEE. wig's writings will not be surprised to find that if the L'.S. Naval Observatory, Mare Island, Cal., March 20. treatment is of necessity brief, it is masterly of its kind.
i Compare "Remarks upon the Law of Complete Radiation" (Phil
Mag., xlix. p. 539, 1900).