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of the square shield, very long spear, and sword of the is always associated with intrusive masses and dykes of present inhabitants. These men are provided (Fig. 3) pegmatite-granite and pyroxene, which cut the gneiss and with a small round shield and three javelins, thus proving crystalline limestone. The mica produced is chiefly used that they are Libyco-berber " productions.
for electrical purposes. A. C. H. Apatite is widely distributed in Canada in deposits in the
crystalline rocks, and in fossiliferous strata of Cambrian age.
In 1889 the province of Ontario produced as much as 3547 THE MINERAL RESOURCES OF CANADA.
tons, but since then, owing to the competition of the cheaply
mined phosphates of Carolina, the output has rapidly deTHE publications of the Geological Survey of Canada have creased. Graphite is widely distributed in the gneiss and
long been characterised by the want of promptness crystalline limestones of Canada, the output in 1901 having of publication. This defect is, however, to a large extent been 2210 tons. Zinc ore is produced at one mine in Olden removed by the new departure made by the section of mines township, Ontario. The ores of molybdenum and tungsten under the direction of Mr. E. D. Ingall. It consists in are of frequent occurrence in Canada. Copper ores have issuing a series of bulletins, giving in condensed and popular been known in eastern Canada for nearly a century, and large form information regarding the mineral resources of the amounts of capital have been expended in developing what Dominion, together with particulars of similar occurrences appeared to be promising localities, but little economic sucin other countries, which may be of use to mining engineers cess has as yet resulted. in Canada. We have received thirteen of these bulletins, and The Canadian peat resources are dealt with by Dr. R. from the information given it is evident that the mineral Chalmers in a bulletin of forty pages. The peat bogs in the resources of the Dominion are of a most varied character, and eastern provinces are attracting attention in view of the dethat the mineral industry is in a healthy condition. The pletion of the forests and the increasing prices of coal, and subjects dealt with are platinum, coal, asbestos, infusorial attempts are being made, in many cases with poor success, earth, manganese, salt, zinc, mica, molybdenum and tung- to utilise them in the production of fuel, coke, and mosssten, graphite, peat, apatite, and copper.
litter. So far the production of platinum has been obtained from In connection with this valuable series of bulletins of the placer workings on the 'Similkameen river in British Geological Survey, reference may be made to a memoir in Columbia. At Sudbury, Ontario, it is found in situ in com- the Ottawa Naturalist on the marl deposits in Ontario, bination with arsenic and associated with the nickeliferous Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia, by Dr. R. W. pyrrhotite deposits. The yield of platinum in Canada has | Ells, the author of most of the bulletins mentioned. The been falling off for some years past and is now insignificant. chief value attributed to this shell-marl was supposed
The bulletin on coal covers sixty-four pages, and contains to be confined to its use as a fertiliser for soils deficient a collection of analyses of typical coals and a valuable in calcareous matter. Recently it has been found to be bibliography of the subject. In 1902 the output of coal in specially adapted for the manufacture of the best grades of Canada exceeded seven million tons. The principal areas at Portland cement, when mixed with a proper proportion of present worked are the Nova Scotia coalfields with rocks of clay; and large manufacturing establishments have been Carboniferous age, and the Cretaceous coalfields of Van- established at several points, more especially in the province couver island, and of the Crow's Nest Pass, British Columbia. of Ontario. Anthracite is mined in Alberta, and lignite is mined in the The latest publication of the Geological Survey of Canada Souris river district, Assiniboia, and in the Yukon district. is an exhaustive report by Dr. A. E. Barlow on the origin,
The asbestos industry of Canada is of considerable im- geological relations, and composition of the immense nickel portance, the production having increased from 380 tons in and copper ore deposits of Sudbury, Ontario. Details of 1880 to 40,000 tons in 1902. Canada now furnishes about the mining, smelting, and refining methods are given, and 88 per cent. of the world's supply. The deposits are found reference is made to the character and extent of all the in serpentine. In 1896 the manufacture of asbestic was more important nickel ore deposits in other countries. With begun. This is a finely-ground serpentine in which there is a production of 6253 tons of metallic nickel in 1903, valued a small amount of very fine fibre disseminated, and the re- at 5,002,204 dollars, Sudbury is the largest producer of sulting product is specially adapted for fine plaster for walls nickel in the world ; and this monograph of 236 pages, with and interior decoration. Its value per ton is low, but as its numerous plates and maps, summarises all the previous preparation involves little extra expense, it is claimed that a original investigations and supplies the most detailed and profit results from its manufacture.
accurate information regarding these important deposits yet Infusorial earth was produced in Canada in 1902 to the
available. amount of 1000 tons, valued at 3300l. It is mined at Bass river lake, and St. Ann's, Nova Scotia, and is sold chiefly in the United States. The uses to which it is put are varied.
THE ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SUCIETY.1 Formerly it was largely used in the manufacture of dynamite, THE history of the Royal Horticultural Society has been but it has now been replaced by cheaper absorbents, such as chequered to an extent probably exceeding that of wood pulp. It is now chiefly used as a polishing material any other society. At one time fashionable, it enjoyed a and as a boiler covering. It can also be used in the manu- fictitious prosperity. We say fictitious, for horticulture, facture of bricks when great lightness is required.
especially scientific horticulture, was neglected, and, as a Although Canada has not yet taken a prominent place consequence, the wave or waves—for there were severalamong the manganese-producing countries of the world, this of prosperity broke on the shores of adversity, with the is not due to lack of deposits of the ore. The extent of the result that the gardens were curtailed, the expenditure was production depends on the development of steel manufacture, reduced in all directions, the valuable collections were sold and, as Canada is now making great strides in this direction, or destroyed, the herbarium and the library were dispersed. its deposits will probably soon assume greater importance. It is, however, not our purpose now to dwell on ancient The ores represented comprise pyrolusite, manganite, psilo- history, but rather to point out the satisfactory progress in melane, and wad, and as some of the Canadian deposits con- recent years of which the journal before us affords evidence. tain a large proportion of the first-named mineral, the ore is Some foreshadowings of that progress date back to the year specially adapted for chemical manufacture.
1866, when an international horticultural exhibition on a At present Ontario is the only province producing salt, the very large scale was held on the ground where the Natural output in 1902 having been 64,000 tons. The country's chief History Museum now stands. The exhibition itself differed resources consist of the rock salt beds underlying some 2500 from others mainly in its extent and in the larger participasquare miles on the eastern shores of Lake Huron. The tion of foreign exhibitors. It was organised and managed, amount of salt imported into Canada is at present double the not by the society, the financial position of which at that time amount produced in the country, owing to the fact that salt is precluded it from embarking on such an enterprise, but by produced more cheaply in England, whence the bulk of the a special committee presided over by the late Sir Wentimports come.
worth Dilke, to whose organising faculty and strenuous In eastern Canada mica occurs in large and important de labour the success obtained was largely due. posits, the mining industry being chiefly confined to the
1 The Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, vol. xxix., parts i., ii., provinces of Ontario and Quebec. The merchantable mica
If this exhibition had been merely a flower-show on a Henslow ; gooseberry mildew, by Mr. Salmon ; diseases of gigantic scale there would have been little or no need to Calanthes, by Mr. Bidgood ; note on electric heating, by advert to it in these columns. But associated with it was Mr. Rogers; diseases of the potato, by Mr. Massre; Indian a botanical congress attended by many of the chief primulas, by Sir George Watt; and a large number til European notabilities, and presided over by the late other communications which tend to show that the scien Alphonse de Candolle. The results of their discussions tific side of horticulture is not neglected. The abstracts were recorded in a report of proceedings which still forms from botanical and horticultural literature which havr of
most valuable document. Copies are now rarely met late formed so important a feature of the Journal are with, although they were distributed widely among foreign omitted from the present part, possibly because so much and British botanical libraries.
space has, not unnaturally, been devoted to the proceedings We have a special reason for alluding to this nearly in connection with the centenary celebration and the formal forgotten congress, because it may be looked on as the pro- opening of the new hall by H. M. the King. genitor of two important events in the modern history of The interests of the commercial side of horticulture, how. the Royal Horticultural Society. A large surplus was ever great their importance, can very well be left to take eventually derived from the exhibition, and this surplus care of themselves. Nevertheless, the cultivators may well was devoted to the publication of the proceedings before look to the society for light and guidance in such matters mentioned, to charitable purposes, and to the purchase of as cucumber spot, and the many diseases which w wers the valuable library of the late Dr. Lindley. This library seriously affect their business prosperity. Progressive hortiwas placed in the hands of trustees for the benefit, culture looks to the society to investigate outstanding primarily, of the fellows of the Royal Horticultural Society, problems, open out new paths, and generally to acquire and and, under certain regulations, of the general public also. diffuse useful knowledge. Even if not immediately useful In this way the society once more became possessed of an such knowledge is sure eventually to be of advantage eveni extensive library, which cannot be alienated if evil days to the practical man. With a research station at should again arise. It is now, after various vicissitudes, Wisley, a competent director, a sympathetic scientific com fittingly installed, at the expense of Baron Sir Henry mittee to direct and advise, and an energetic secretary, the Schröder, in the new building erected for the society in society may on entering its second centenary look forward Vincent Square, Westminster.
to being able to advance scientific horticulture in a more Thus has been accomplished one result of the congress of thorough manner than it has ever done before. 1866. Another consequence of that meeting was the formation of a scientific committee under the presidency of Sir Joseph Hooker, which has endeavoured so far as circum
UNIVERSITY AND EDUCATIONAL stances permitted to carry out the objects formulated in
INTELLIGENCE. M. de Candolle's presidential address. The early days of THE Pioneer Mail states that a gentleman of Nagpur the committee, when such men as Sir Joseph Hooker, Mr.
has bequeathed a sum of fifty thousand rupees to the Berkeley, Prof. Westwood, Mr. Wilson Saunders, Colonel
Central Hindu College, Benares, Clarke, Mr. Andrew Murray, Sir William, then Mr., Thiselton-Dyer, and other naturalists took part in the discus
At the spring graduation ceremony of the University of sions, remain as a pleasant memory. The Rev. Prof. Edinburgh on April 7 the honorary degree of LL.D, vas Henslow, who acted as secretary for the last quarter of a
conferred upon Prof. W. W. Cheyne, C.B., F.R.S., Dr. century, has only lately relinquished his office. The com
J. H. Jackson, F.R.S., Dr. A. Ó. Waller, F.R.S., Sir mittee still includes a body of experts in many departments
Frank E. Younghusband, and Prof. G. A. Gibson. of horticulture and natural history generally.
The Catholic University of America will receive, says We have alluded to the new building, to the erection of Science, a bequest of 20,000l. from Miss Helen Tyler which Baron Schröder has magnificently contributed, whilst Gardiner. We learn from the same source that Vr. others have not been backward. Much, however, remains Andrew Carnegie has agreed to give a 10,000l. library to to be done, and until the existing debt is cancelled the Washington and Lee University on condition that the much in the way of scientific experiment or research can university raises an endowment of 10,000l. for maintainbe effected. The society has been exceptionally fortunate in ing it. its centenary year. Not only has it secured a fine hall for
The Glasgow Herald announces that by the will of the exhibition purposes, together with commodious offices and
late Mr. Donald the sum of 20,000l. is bequeathed to the accommodation for the library, but through the generosity
Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College, to be of Sir Thomas Hanbury it has come into possession of the
paid on the death of Mrs. Donald. After various other late Mr. G. F. Wilson's interesting garden at Wisley, near
bequests have been made, the residue of the estate is tu Weybridge. The old garden at Chiswick, the value of the services of
go to the governors of the Glasgow and West of Scotland
Technical College for purposes specified in the trust diswhich in the past is beyond compute, has been abandoned,
position and settlement. soil and climate no longer being propitious for gardening operations. The cultural trials hitherto carried out
The committee of the Privy Council has decided to reChiswick will henceforth be conducted at Wisley, and there commend the King to grant a Charter incorporating is every reason to hope that in a short time a research university in Sheffield. I large sum of money has already station under a competent director may be established, and
been given or promised for the endowment of the unithus a great and pressing need may be supplied.
versity, and, in addition, the city council has pledged the This is rather a long preface to the notice of the Journal,
city to the gift annually of a sum cqual to the proceeds but we hope it will not be thought irrelevant. The neces
of a rate of id. in the pound (the capitalised value of sity for a journal to link together all the otherwise separate
which gift is 200,0001.). The draft Charter of the prodepartments of the society has always been recognised, but
posed university provides for the establishment of a teachin the evil days aforementioned the publication was often ing university with powers to grant degrees in the faculties spasmodic and irregular. Since the appointment of the
of arts, science, technology, and medicine. Rev. W. Wilks as secretary, and under the steady impulse The articles of agreement under which it is proposed ! of the president, Sir Trevor Lawrence, a great improvement combine the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and all round has been manifested, and in no way more re- Harvard University have been made public. Provision in markably then in the contents and regularity of issue of made for a joint school of industrial science, to be knuun the journal. So marked is the improvement that it has under the present name of the Institute of Technologyto become too much for the digestion of some people, and be governed by an executive board of nine members, of some of the fellows are crying out, not for more, but for a which three shall represent Harvard, and to be maintaiari more limited supply.
by present institute funds, augmented by the income of all Our notice has extended to such a length that we can funds of the Lawrence Scientific School, by three-fifths ol only indicate some of the contents other than those relating the net income which may accrue from the Gordon Mekay merely to practical cultivation ; such are Dr. Cooke's article bequest, amounting to several millions, and by the inccer on the fungous pests of the shrubbery, with coloured illus- of all property which Harvard may hereafter acquire for trations; on the heredity of acquired characters, by Prof. the promotion of instruction in industrial science.
The new regulations recently issued by the War Office, under which commissions in the Army may be obtained by university candidates, provide that commissions shall be allotted each half-year to the University of London. To satisfy the requirements of the regulations, the Senate has appointed a nomination board for military commissions which will nominate qualified students for commissions, and arrangements have been made for the instruction of candidates in military subjects. To be eligible for a commission, a candidate must have graduated as an internal student, and this involves three years' study at one or more of the schools of the university. Before a student can be nominated for a commission he must, as a rule, have attended the various courses of instruction in military subjects in the university, and he must have been attached for two periods of six weeks, or for one period of twelve weeks, to a regular unit. Courses of lectures in military subjects are being given at the University of London by Colonel H. A. Sawyer, P.S.C., and Lieut.-Colonel F. N. Maude, P.S.C., late R.E.
Karasjok is situated well within the Arctic Circle (69° 17' N.), and during the winter has a severe Arctic climate, so that it is well situated for finding the influence of meteorological elements and the presence or absence of direct sunlight on the electrical conditions of the atmosphere.
The observations were limited to determinations of the potential gradient, electrical dissipation, atmospheric ionisation, and atmospheric radio-activity. A continuous record of the potential gradient was obtained by means of a Benndorf self-registering electrometer, and inents of the dissipation and ionisation were made three times each day unless the weather made it impossible to use the instruments. Measurements of the radio-activity were made between the hours of 10 to 12 a.m., 3 to 5 p.m., and 8.30 to 10.30 p.m. on 253 days, and in addition 42 measurements were made between 3 and 5 a.m. sults of the work are shortly as follows:YEARLY VARIATION.--Potential Gradient.--The yearly
was found to be in accordance with the general rule for the northern hemisphere--rising rapidly from October to February, when it reaches a maximum, then falling more rapidly until the end of May, after which it remains constant until the winter sets in again during October Dissipation.—The yearly course
is exactly opposite to that of the potential gradient, the curves representing the two being almost mirror images of one another. Ionisation.--The course of the ionisation consists of a nearly linear six months' fall from the beginning of September to the end of February, followed by a similar six months' rise from March to the end of August.
DAILY VARIATION.-Potential Gradient.—The daily course for the whole year consists of a single period having a minimum about 5 a.m. and a maximum about 9 p.m. Dissipation.-For the whole year the dissipation is slightly higher at midday than earlier in the morning, while the evening observations show the lowest dissipation of the three. Ionisation.—The daily period of the ionisation is not so pronounced as that of the dissipation, but the ionisation is slightly lower in the evening than in the morning or at midday during the whole year.
RELATION BETWEEN THE METEOROLOGICAL AND ELECTRICAL CONDITIONS
ATMOSPHERE.— Il'ind.--As is to be expected, the dissipation increases greatly with the wind strength. Temperature.-Both the ionisation and dissipation become much less as the temperature goes down. With temperatures between 10° C. and 15° C. the dissipation is 4.95 per cent, and the ionisation 0.44 per cent., while with temperatures below – 20° C. these become 0.83 per cent. and 0.17 per
cent. respectively. The potential gradient increases the temperature falls. Relative Humidity.--With rising relative humidity the dissipation falls rapidly, and the ratio of negative to positive dissipation increases. When the whole year is taken into account, the same result is found for the ionisation ; but for the winter and summer six months, taken separately, the effect of the humidity of the air on the ionisation is not apparent.
INTERRELATION OF ELECTRICAL FACTORS.-Both the dissipation and ionisation greatly influence the potential gradient. Low values of ionisation and dissipation are accompanied by high values of the potential gradient, and vice versa. The dissipation increases with the ionisation.
THE AURORA AND THE ELECTRICAL CONDITION OF ATMOSPHERE.-No relation whatever could be detected between the aurora and the electrical conditions of the atmosphere. The most careful watching of the electrometer needle revealed no variation of the potential gradient with variations of the aurora.
RADIO-ACTIVITY. - Measurements of the radio-activity were made by Elster and Geitel's method, and their arbitrary unit was used in expressing the results. A most distinct yearly course of the radio-activity was found, the maxi. mum, 129 (mean for month), falling in December, and the minimum, 47, in June. The radio-activity has also a very pronounced daily course, the maximum, 162 (mean for year), falling in the early hours of the morning, and the minimum, 58, about midday.
There is a distinct connection between the radio-activity and the meteorological conditions of the atmosphere; the radio-activity increases as the temperature falls, rises as
SOCIETIES AND ACADEMIES.
LONDON. Royal Society, February 23. —"Two Cases of Trichromic Vision.' By Dr. F. W. Edridge-Green, Communicated by Dr. F. W. Mott, F.R.S.
One case (Prof. J. J. Thomson) sees only three colours in the bright spectrum-red, green, and violet. He can distinguish nothing of the nature of pure yellow, like the sensation given him by the sodium flame, in the spectrum. There is no definite colour to him at the portion of the spectrum where the normal sighted see pure blue. Reddishgreen would describe the orange and yellow regions and greenish-violet the blue. 1 5950 (orange-yellow) is the point which differs most from red and green. There was no shortening of either end of the spectrum.
Difference of Hue Perception.—The author then tested him with his apparatus for ascertaining the size of different parts of the spectrum which appear monochromatic, and found him defective in distinguishing differences of hue.
Colour Mixtures.-Tested with Rayleigh's apparatus for matching spectral yellow by a mixture of red and green, the mixed colour of his match always appeared green to the author.
Classification Test.-Only a few colours were selected in each case. On being asked to pick out all the yellows he chose those with orange in them. He had considerable difficulty in matching the colours. In common with the cases previously observed, the effects of simultaneous contrast were much more marked than in the normal sighted. Two wools changed colour to him on being contrasted, when no change was evident to the author.
Lantern Test.-He correctly named the red, green, and violet with and without the neutral glasses, and saw them at the normal distance. He had difficulty with yellow and blue. He called pure yellow “greenish yellow. The other
is that of Mr. P. S. Barlow, a research student in the Cavendish Laboratory, and was similar in most respects to the above.
The author uses the term trichromic as a statement of the fact that persons having this vision see only three colours in the bright spectrum, whilst the normal sighted see six, and may, therefore, be designated hexachromic. It is probable that the appearance of the bright spectrum to the Trichromic is very similar to that of a spectrum of feeble luminosity to the normal sighted, in which only three colours-red, green, and violet-are seen. The defective difference perception which is found in these cases accounts for most of the facts. Both these cases are bordering on the tetrachromic, as the sodium flame appears to give rise tu a distinct sensation.
March 2.--" Atmospheric Electricity in High Latitudes." By George C. Simpson, B.Sc. Communicated by Arthur Schuster, F.R.S.
This paper is an account of a year's work on atmospheric electricity undertaken at Karasjok, Norway, from October, 1903, to October, 1904, with the results of a month's observations on atmospheric radio-activity made at Hammerfest.
the relative humidity rises, decreases with increasing wind that the deviations from the simple logarithmic law in strength, and is greater with a falling than with a rising catalysis by platinum have their exact analogy in the barometer. All these facts support Elster and Geitel's theory hæmase catalysis. On the “ chemical velocity bypothat the source of the emanation in the atmosphere is the thesis it would seem rather remarkable that two catalysers soil of the ground. Those meteorological conditions which of so different origin should show exactly similar behaviour, prevent the air immediately above the ground from ascend- but this becomes at once intelligible on Vernst's hypoing tend to increase the radio-activity ; on the contrary, all thesis, according to which the chemical action plays quite those conditions which cause a rapid circulation of the air a secondary part in the reaction-velocities in question. greatly reduce the radio-activity when measured in the
Mineralogical Society, March 15.---Piol. II. A. Miers, lower atmosphere. OBSERVATIONS AT HAMMERFEST.-The mean values of the
F.R.S., president, in the chair.-Description of the big
diamond recently found at the Premier Mine, Transvaal : radio-activity were found to be lower at Hammerfest on
Dr. F. H. Hatch and Dr. G. S. Corstorphine. Thr the coast than at Karasjok inland. The most important result of the Hammerfest measurements was the great
stone weighed more than 1} lb., and its greatest linear
dimension was 4 inches. It was part (probably less than difference between the radio-activity of the air from the
half) of a distorted octahedral crystal.-On some sea and that from the land. The mean radio-activity with
mineral localities in Cornwall and Devon : A. E. 1. M. a wind from the sea was only 6, while with a land breeze
Russell. An account was given of various new finds of the mean was 72.
the minerals anatase, scheelite, wolframite, childrenite, March 16.-" A New Radio-active Element, which apatite, and connellite.-On a crystal of phenakite from Evolves Thorium Emanation.” Preliminary Communi- Africa : L. J. Spencer. This crystal, which was transcation. By Dr. O. Hahn. Communicated by Sir William parent and rich in faces, was brought back together with Ramsay, K.C.B., F.R.S.
crystals of tourmaline, corundum, and amethyst, by the The radio-active preparation was gained from barium
Rev. A. Vorth Wood from the Csagara country in radium bromide, obtained from thorianite from Ceylon, German East Africa.- Notes on various minerals from the while fractionating it in order to separate the radium. It Binnenthal, Switzerland : G. T. Prior and G. F. Herbert collected along with small traces of iron and other impuri- mith. Further crystallographic and chemical details ties in the more soluble portions, and was precipitated by were given of the three new red minerals from the ammonia. From this preparation a quantity of about Binnenthal originally described by R. H. Solly, and 10 mg. of a strongly radio-active oxalate was obtained, named by him Smithite (after G. F. Herbert Smith), giving off a strong emanation and imparting bright Hutchinsonite (after A. Hutchinson), and Trechmannite luminosity to sensitive screens. The emanation was found (after C. 0. Trechmann). Smithite is a sulpharsenite of to be identical with that of thorium; different samples silver having the composition represented by the formula gave for the half-period of decay from 52 to 55 seconds. AgAss, ; it is monoclinic with a :b:0=2.2205:1:1-9570, For the half-period of the induced activity somewhat more B 78° 40'. A perfect cleavage parallel to 100 distinguishes than 13 hours was found. The emanation given off by it from the other two red minerals. Hutchinsonite is the 10 mg. of the oxalate, dissolved in hydrochloric acid,
rhombic with a : b:c=1.6356: 1:0-7540. A prominent corresponds in intensity to more than that of a kilogram form is
140. Trechmannite is rhombohedral with of thorium in solution; consequently it was more than c=0.7265. The symmetry is the same as that of quarta. 100,000 times stronger than the common thorium eman
new oxychloride of copper from Sierra Gorda, ation when compared weight for weight. Further work Chili : G. T. Prior and G. F. Herbert Smith. This new led to the separation of about 20 mg. of a substance mineral, to which the name paratacamite was given, has giving nearly 250,000 times more emanation than thorium. the same chemical composition as atacamite, but begins to
Whether this active substance is the constant radio- lose its water at a higher temperature than that mineral. active constituent of thorium preparations, or whether it It is pseudorhombohedral with rr' = 83° nearly. Twins is another new radio-active element, remains still un- about rare common. It displays optical anomalies, for decided. It is hoped that an more strongly radio- minute fragments under the microscope are found to be active product may be obtained, and that it may be biaxial.-On Dundasite from North Wales : G. T. Prior. possible to describe more in detail the properties of the The mineral was found by Mr. H. F. Collins in the Welsh substance.
Foxsdale Mine, Trefriw, Caernarvonshire; it occurs in Recent researches would appear to show that the amount white silky radiating tufts on cerussite with allophane : of this substance in soil is comparable with, but still analysis showed it to be identical with Dundasite, hitherto considerably smaller than, radium.
known only from Dundas, Tasmania. A probable formula March 30.—“ The Role of Diffusion in the Catalysis of
is PbO. A1,0,.2C0.4H,0 or PbH,(CO,).. AL..OH.. Hydrogen Peroxide by Colloidal Platinum.” By Dr. Zoological Society, March 21. - Mr G. A. Boulenger, George Senter. Communicated by Sir William Ramsay, F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair,- Exhibits.-PhotoK.C.B., F.R.S.
graph of a wounded Oryx (Oryx beisa) hiding in under. The deviations from the simple logarithmic formula in growth of wood in its native haunts, in order to show the the catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by protective nature of the coloration of the animal: F colloidal platinum are probably due to disturbances caused Gillett.-A series of pencil sketches of fishes of the Rio by convection currents. When the velocity-constant calcu- Negro and its tributaries made by Dr. A. R. Wallace lated on Nernst's diffusion hypothesis is great compared about fifty years ago : C. Tate Regan.--Radiograph of a with the chemical velocity-constant, increased convection living snake showing the skeletons of two frogs it had can produce no appreciable effect on the observed reaction- swallowed some hours previously : M. Yearsley.-Skulls of velocity.
the fallow deer (Dama vulgaris) and the red deer (Certu In the case under consideration, therefore, since in- elaphus) showing arrest of the growth of the antlers due to creased convection modifies the observed reaction-velocity, complete or partial castration : R. E. Holding.-Papers.there must be some error in the assumptions which lead Effects of castration upon the horns of the prongbuck to the conclusion that the diffusion velocity-constant is (.Intilocapra americana): R. I. Pocock. The effects great in comparison with the chemical velocity-constant. the operation were curvature in growth. prevention of This error is probably to be found in the assumption that exuviation, and practical suppression of the anterior tyor the whole surface of the platinum is, under ordinary con- -The mammals and birds of Liberia : Sir Harry ditions, active towards hydrogen peroxide.
Johnston, G.C.M.G., K.C.B. Although Liberia was tant It cannot be claimed, from the above considerations, that marked off clearly by any natural features from eithes Nernst's hypothesis is true for the platinum catalysis, but Sierra Leone on the one hand or the Ivory (oast on the only that the diffusion-velocity is not great in comparison other, it possessed a certain distinctness and a sligát with the chemical velocity. Other considerations, how degree of peculiarity as regards its flora and fauna is ever, such the small value of the temperature regards mammals and birds. Liberia was, to a grea coefficient, make it probable that the above hypo-extent, a meeting-place for the forms of northern Guinea thesis does apply to this particular action. Further (Sierra Leone to the Gambia) and those of the Gold Coast support for this view may, perhaps, be found in the fact the Niger Delta, and the Cameroons. The species
mammals peculiar to it included the dwarf hippopotamus, March 7.-Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., president, the zebra antelope. Jentink's duiker, and Büttikofer's in the chair.-Two new aldehyde reactions : W. B. monkey. The author enumerated eighteen species of mammals and twenty of birds, specimens of which had been March 21.-Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., president, obtained by various collectors in Liberia.--Abnormal re- in the chair.-A new genus Nevillina, of the subfamily mains of the red deer (Cervus elaphus): M. A. C. Hinton. Miliolininæ, of the Foraminifera : H. Sidebottom.-On The remains consisted of three antlers which were obtained the temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity of carbon from different post-Pliocene deposits in the south of low temperatures : H. Morris-Airey and E. D. England. They agreed in having all the tynes suppressed Spencer. The method of taking observations at temperaand in being supported upon very long pedicles, thus re- tures between the normal temperature and that of boiling sembling in form, though much exceeding in size, those oxygen was described, and the results plotted in the form of the pricket. Rudimentary offsets were seen on the most of curves. The shape of the curves was discussed in conperfect example, which proved the antler to be the third nection with the theory that carbon conductors behave like in the series. These antlers belonged to individuals who loose powders. had suffered testicular injury at an early period of life,
Paris. by which the characters of youth were retained for a Academy of Sciences, April 3.-M. Troost in the chair. longer period than was usual.-On the affinities of Pro- -On the use of the hot and cold tube in the study of colophon: Dr. R. Broom. The author believed that chemical reactions : M. Berthelot (see p. 568).--Observreptiles in Permian times became specialised along two ations on the new Giacobini comet made at the Obserydistinct lines, the one represented by the pareiasaurians, atory of Paris : G. Bigourdan. The observations were anomodonts, therocephalians, and theriodonts, and termin- made on March 28 and 31; the positions of the comparison ating in the mammals, the second giving rise to all the stars and apparent positions of the comet are given. On other reptilian orders. The common ancestor was believed March 28 the comet appeared as a nebulosity of about the to have been a true reptile probably belonging to the thirteenth magnitude, with a nucleus sensibly brighter than order Cotylosauria. Procolophon was held to be an early the rest. On March 31 the size had diminished, and the member of the branch which led to the rhynchocephalians, apparent brightness increased.--On the relation between and possibly fairly closely allied to the land ancestor of the integrals of the total differentials of the first and Mesosaurus.-Skuils of the fossil reptile Procolophon from second species of an algebraic surface : emile Picard.Donnybrook and Fernrocks : Prof. H. G. Seeley. The The variation of the band spectra of carbon with the author concluded that the main affinities were with the
new band spectra of carbon : H. Anomodontia, chiefly with the Pareiasauria, and in the Deslandres and M. d'Azambuja. The kathode spectrum teeth with the Theriodontia ; but that in a less degree in air having shown peculiar variations with the pressure, there were indications of affinity with reptiles classed as it was thought desirable to study the effect of pressure labyrinthodonts. All parts of the skeleton supported the upon the carbon spectrum. The negative spectrum of separation of the Procolophonia as an order of extinct carbon is a band spectrum which appears at the kathode Reptilia.
in the oxygen and hydrogen compounds of carbon, and is Geological Society, March 22, -Dr. J. E. Marr, F.R.S.,
especially intense in the case of carbon monoxide and president, in the chair.-An experiment in mountain
dioxide. Two spectra were photographed simultaneously building, part ii. : Lord Avebury, P.C., F.R.S. In this
on the same plate, one from a Geissler tube containing paper some experiments are described, which were
the gas at a pressure of about 0.2 mm., and the other
from the kathode of a tube in which the pressure was ducted by an apparatus by means of which pressures could
The be applied in two directions at right angles to one another,
capable of being varied up to nearly atmospheric. a space of 2 feet square being reduced to one 22 inches
variations noted strongly resemble those already studied square. In the first series, plastic materials, such as cloth
for the negative spectrum of air. Details of a new specand thin oilcloth, were used, with layers of sand between
trum of carbon dioxide, given by the kathode at a pressure them. Two main folds crossing at right angles were
of 30 cm. of mercury, are given.-On the grains found
In formed, the upper one shifted over the lower. The use of
attached to Pectopteris Pluckeneti : M. Grand'Eury. two layers of linoleum produced a different type of folding,
the search for fronds giving rise to fossil seeds, the author and the lower layers of the linoleum were broken along
has found fronds of the above species to which are fixed, the principal ridges. In the second series, a layer of
not one or two, but many hundreds of grains, proving plaster was introduced ; this was found to be fractured,
that the fossil ferns of the Coal-measures, other than the tilted up into a writing-desk form, and forced irregu
Neuropterideæ, are gymnosperms, and must be placed larly into the sandy layers. Overthrusts were thus pro
among the Cycadeæ. Two reproductions of photographs of duced, so that in some cases a boring would have passed
the fossils are given.-On the new Giacobini comet : M. through two or even four layers of the rigid substance.
Giacobini. The elements of the comet are given, calcu
lated from observations made at Nice on March 26, 28, and In other cases, the edges of the primary fracture broke off more or less regularly, and the detached pieces were
30.—The provisional elements of the Giacobini pushed up, assuming gradually a very steep angle. The
(1905, March 26): E. Maubant. The elements are calcu" remainder of the edges of the plate of plaster, having now
lated from observations made at Nice on March 26, and room, were able to approach each other, Pliable material
by M. Bigourdan at Paris on March 28 and 31.-Abel's above the plaster was thrown into one or a few extensive
theorem on algebraic surfaces : Francesco Severi.—On folds, while that beneath assumed a greater number of
linear differential equations of the second order with a small folds.-The Rhætic rocks of Monmouthshire : L.
periodic solution : Maxime Bôcher.-On a hyperelliptic Richardson. The Rhætic rocks occur only in the neigh
surface : E. Traynard.—On the dynamics of the point
and bourhood of Newport, and the present paper describes three
the invariable body in
energy system : new sections and four new exposures.
Eugène and François Cosserat.-On the properties of tungstic anhydride as a colouring material for porcelain :
Albert Granger. The yellow enamel was obtained by MANCHESTER
heating with tungstic anhydride at 800° C., using lead Literary and Philosophical Society, February 21.- monosilicate as a flux. With the addition of bismuth Prof. H. B. Dixon, F.R.S., vice-president, in the chair.- oxide this colour withstood firing well. The conditions Electrically-heated carbon tube furnaces : R. S. Hutton under which these colours tend to become opaque have not and W. H. Patterson. These furnaces are intended for been fully worked out, and work is being continued by experimental work, and not only enable extremely high the author in this direction.-On the production of the temperatures to be attained, but with them the tempera- hyposulphites : M. Billy. The production of sodium hypoture, being un ter perfect control, can be kept steady at sulphites by the action of sulphur dioxide on sodium in any value up to the maximum.
presence of a neutral solvent has been claimed by a German February 28.-Prof. W. Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., presi- patent, but the author's experiments have led invariably dent, in the chair.- The early history of seed-bearing to a negative result. In presence of alcohol the reaction plants, as recorded in the Carboniferous flora (Wilde lec
take place. By the introduction of Ture) : Dr. D. H. Scott, F.R.S. (see p. 426).
sulphur dioxide into magnesium powder in suspension in