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own in the flooded fenlands against William and his Norman followers.
The mythology of Greece and of northern Europe
is largely influenced by the character of the scenery V.LV AND SCENERY.
in which it took shape. It was recognised that the Landscape in History and Other Essays. By Sir plain of Thessaly had once been covered with a sheet
Archibald Geikie, F.R.S. Pp. viii + 352. (London : l of water, of which the remaining portions formed two Macmillan and Co., Ltd., 1905.) Price 8s. 6d. net.
considerable lakes. The opening of the gorge by IN this collection of essays Sir Archibald Geikie which it was drained was attributed to Poseidon, the
has given us in a connected form some of his God of the Sea, or in later times to Hercules. Here contributions to the study of the effect of geographical we seem to have the tradition of an old controversy environment and geological changes, not only in to whether the sea, the natural operation of determining the distribution of population and of the
water running out of a lake or connected with incentres of rule and of commerce, but also in in-roads of the sea, or even artificial operations, had fluencing literature and the interpretation of history. contributed most to bring about the draining of the In some of them he treats of the part man has played in controlling and directing those forces of nature The snowy summits of Olympus, rising serenely which tend to produce change on the surface of the above the shifting clouds into the calm, clear, blue earth. and he has added a few essays dealing with heaven, naturally came to be regarded as the fit subjects which arise naturally out of such inquiries. abode of the gods who ruled the world, and soon In this way he has produced a most readable book, the Olympus came to be synonymous with heaven itself. several parts of which hang well together.
So, also, in the countries of western and northern When we have exhausted all the available docu- Europe the grandeur and ruggedness of the scenery ments, sought out the meaning of all the de- and the “ mountain gloom” are faithfully reflected scriptive place-names and gathered the local tradi- in the Teutonic myths and superstitions. tions, there remains the most trustworthy evidence of Our author gives three examples of typical districts all, namely, the examination of the ground to see
to show how a knowledge of the causes which have whether the events recorded can have occurred on the brought about the varied scenery of each, far from area to which they have been assigned, either under checking the free play of fancy, enhances the pleasure present conditions or other conditions the former derived from their contemplation. existence of which we can learn from what we see. He takes first the little cake of rock which caps Our author gives as an example the story of the Slieve League in Ireland, and leads the imagination Battle of Bannockburn, where the army of Edward to recall the time when it extended over all the was compelled to crowd its attack into a
surrounding area; but it has been removed over most space because Bruce had rested his left flank on what of the district, a patch being left here and there to the trained eye can see must at that time have been indicate the wide area over which it once extended. a morass with impassable bogs and sheets of water, Then our author takes us to the Isle of Wight, and though it is now dry and richly cultivated.
showing us the “ long backs of the bushless downs,” Estuaries and the rivers which run into them pro- explains how they come to rise as they do from the vided landing places and opened up the inland regions waves and run across the island from side to side. to the vessels of primæval man, and on their banks The long story that they tell is a stimulus to the were sites for the settlements of the first comers and imagination that greatly heightens the pleasure the cities of later more civilised times; while, on derived from the scene. the other hand, mountain ranges and tangled forests Again he carries us to the flanks of Slioch and the separated tribes and offered an insurmountable barrier shores of Loch Maree, and makes them tell their tale. to expansion and intercourse.
He then goes on to describe the influence of scenery Man, by cutting down or burning forests, and by upon our literature. Here he is, of course, dealing draining lakes and swamps, has altered the con- with a later stage of mental development, and what ditions of many extensive tracts of country, changing he gives us is chiefly a sketch of the distinguishing the climate, the amount of rainfall, and the rate of physical features which inspired the descriptive waste of the hill-slopes and valleys.
passages in the poets of nature. The south of Scotland and parts of the north of He tells us of the simple, child-like delight in nature England were once covered with small shallow pans which was so characteristic of Chaucer.
He points of water like Finland, “ the land of a thousand out the placid rural quiet of the Colne Valley, lakes.” Most of these have got filled up in the where Milton dwelt, and which inspired the two finest British Isles, and the process of reclaiming and lyrics in the English tongue. He describes the cultivating the areas once covered with water has scenery of the Ouse near Olney and Weston, so been hurried on by the advance of agriculture; but thoroughly characteristic of the southern lowlands history tells us how the early dwellers in these broken which filled Cowper with images of rural peacefulgrounds took advantage of them in their struggles ness and gentle beauty. against the powerful races that from age to age in- He points out how the poetry of Thomson ever vaded them. The Caledonians met the Romans on showed the impress of his early life in the Scottish such ground, and the Scotch the English in later lowlands within sight of the Cheviot and Lammertimes; and, further south, the Saxons long held their muir Hills.
Our author is at his best when he comes to deal fidence reposed in the accuracy of such inferences with the genius of Burns, to whom the hills and must depend upon the probability or improbability woods were not merely enjoyable scenes to be visited that the observer has seen enough to justify his and described, but became part of his very being; generalisations, and that no contradictory evidence who found in their changeful aspects the counterpart can be forthcoming. of his own variable moods, and whose feelings found The geologist and physicist will probably arrive at vent in an exuberance of appreciation which had a compromise when the one admits that his calculanever before been heard in verse.
tions, based on the rate of waste, may be entirely He touches lightly the descriptive passages in Scott vitiated by earth movements, which will cither hurry and Wordsworth, and the ballad singers of the border, on or retard such waste, and that life will change who, though mostly inspired by war-like achieve- more rapidly with the changes of environment proments, often wove into their tales a thread of tender duced by carth movements, and when, on the other affection and romance. In the poems attributed to hand, the physicist has corrected his estimate of the Ossian, although Highland scenery is not specially rate at which the earth is cooling by taking more described, it forms a visible and changing back- careful account of the variety of conducting material ground.
of which the earth is composed, has estimated the Our author turns from the consideration of the planetary fuel for ever being thrown into the sun influence exerted by the geographical features of a from space, to say nothing of the new views of radice country upon the development and habits of thought activity, and has re-considered his inferences from of its inhabitants to the discussion of the origin of tidal friction, which some of our highest mathethose features themselves. This is a subject which maticians admit is still open to doubt. has of recent years received much attention both in Such speculations suggest the name of the great this country and in America. Our author describes apostle of evolution, and an essay on the life and the scenic features under several heads. Mountains work of Charles Darwin follows, while a biographical and valleys may be considered as correlatives, the sketch of Hugh Miller is fitly introduced among mountains being there because the valleys have been essays which so largely deal with the influence of a scooped out between them. Under lakes, we turn man's environment
upon his imagination and with interest to his views on the glacial erosion of writings. rock basins, which he holds could be effected by land In an age like this, when the relative place and ice only. He makes, however, the qualifying remark value of technical and literary training are so strongly that a terrestrial surface of crystalline rock, long ex- forced upon the attention of the country, an essay posed to the atmosphere or covered with vegetation on science in education by one whose experience and and humus, may be so deeply corroded as for two outlook are so wide will be welcomed. Then, to or three hundred feet downward to be converted into bring us back to the main subject with which he loose detritus, and the ice may thus have had much commenced, he gives an interesting sketch of the of its work done for it, and would be mainly employed building up and moulding of the Campagna and the in clearing out the corroded débris. Whether, how- surrounding country, fitting it for the site of many ever, this will explain many of the rock basins of the
an ancient city, and at last for the eternal city so British Isles is not very clear.
long the centre of the world. In another essay he show's what Hutton did by his theory of the earth to pave the way for the accurate scientific treatment of all those questions of the
VAGNETIC STRIET OF JAPAN. changes which the earth has undergone in attaining Magnetic Survey of Japan reduced to the Epoch its present configuration. Playfair, Hall,
1895.0 and the Sea Level. Carried out by order of others helped on the work. The obvious question the Earthquake Investigation Committee, reported arising out of such speculations is, how long must it by J. Tanakadate. Pp. sii+ 347 and plates. (Pubhave taken to bring about such great results? and
lished by the l'niversity, Tokyo, Japan, 1904.) thus we are taken through the controversies as to
'HE completion of the detailed magnetic survey whether uniform change, which we observe, or local of a country is a task requiring great skill and and intermittent catastrophic action, of which we see industry. We congratulate Prof. A. Tanakadate and proofs everywhere, have done most to bring about his colleagues on the successful accomplishment of a the results in every individual case. The physicists tell heavy piece of work, which will be welcomed by all us that from a consideration of the rate at which the who are interested in the science of terrestrial mag. earth parts with its heat, of the limitation of the age netism. The work is the result of the voluntary of the sun, of the retardation of the earth's angular cooperation of sixteen observers, of whom seven are velocity by tidal friction, they are not prepared to professors or assistant professors of the Imperial allow such a vast age as geologists have claimed for Cniversity, Tokyo, the others also occupying rethe earth. The geologists, on the other hand, having sponsible positions. Prof. Tanakadate modestly only regard to the rate at which changes on its surface claims for himself the position of a reporter "uhu are observed to be brought about by existing agents, has collected the work of the different parties, but no and the time demanded for the evolution of living imagine that we owe to him also the detailed disthings, insist upon a much larger estimate of time cussion of the results which forms an essential porthan the physicists are prepared to allow. The con- tion of the volume before us.
A clear account is given in the initial paragraphs To put the matter plainly : If the magnetic forces of the method of observations and the instruments at all points of the surface of a sphere can be repreused, but not too much space is devoted to these sented in terms of a potential which is expressed as details, so that the reader is soon brought to the a series of spherical harmonics proceeding by negative first difficulty which occurred in the working out of powers of the radius vector, then there are no magthe observations. It was necessary, in order to reduce nets or electric currents outside the sphere. If the them to a common epoch, to take account of secular passage quoted is intended to deny the truth of this. variations. This might most easily have been done proposition, the author is guilty of a heresy which by choosing as observing stations the same places he does not justify either by his hydrokinetic analogy at which the magnetic elements had been determined or by his reference to one of Lord Kelvin's papers. in a previous survey, but in attempting to carry this It should be said, however, that in other parts of his out it was found that the changes which had taken volume the author seems to adopt Gauss's reasoning place in their surroundings made it impracticable as to the discrimination between outside and inside to observe at most of the old stations. Some effects by spherical harmonic analysis. It may be, other method of reduction had therefore to be therefore, that the apparent meaning of the passage adopted. Empirical expressions were found for the is not the one which it was intended to convey. It magnetic elements in terms of longitude and latitude is of some importance to avoid misunderstanding on similar to those deduced by Prof. Knott for the so important a matter, and it is for this reason that previous survey. A comparison of the
I feel compelled to direct attention to the only pressions gave the secular variation. The results of criticism which can fairly be raised with regard to all the observations for each station are given in a very meritorious and heavy piece of work. the report. The reduction of the observations to May other countries follow this example of sea level is always to some extent arbitrary. The Japanese enterprise, and may, especially in English process employed in the present case, where use is colonies, scientific men receive such help from their made of relations given by the theory of the potential Governments as will enable them to keep pace with between the radial variation of the horizontal com- foreign nations in the successful prosecution of ponents and the horizontal variation of vertical force, similar work. It is not the enterprise or the knowis an improvement on the more empirical methods ledge which is wanting, but the material assistance and which have sometimes been adopted.
the official recognition that a certain duty is imposed A further application of the potential theory may on each country to take its share in the working out serve as an important check on the accuracy of the of geophysical problems. ARTHUR SCHUSTER. observations. If a potential exists, the rate of variation of the northerly force towards the west must be
THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE VEGETABLE equal to the rate of variation of the westerly force
FIBRES. towards the north. If this relation does not hold, the earth's magnetism cannot be completely represented
The Spinning and Twisting of Long Vegetable Fibres by a potential, and this would mean that vertical
(Flax, Hemp, Jute, Tow, and Ramie). By Herbert electric currents traverse the earth's surface. The
R. Carter. Pp. xvi+ 360. (London : Chas. Griffin authors of the present survey calculate the intensities
and Co., Ltd., 1904.) Price jos. net. of these vertical currents, but rightly do not attach WORKS written for the textile industries may be much importance to them. They are much greater divided into three classes, viz. descriptive works than observations on atmospheric electricity allow us
of a more or less technical and practical character, to contemplate as possible. We may therefore take educational works leading students up to an apprecithe calculated values of these currents to be indica- ation of the difficulties to be faced, and works which tions of the extent of uncertainty in the observations. combine the descriptive and educational but which
We must refer the reader to the original for the too frequently meet the requirements of neither discussion of local disturbances, but cannot avoid manager nor student. The work under consideration directing attention to one passage, which seems to meets the requirements of the mill manager indicate some kind of misapprehension on the part
advanced student in a manner perhaps more than of the author.
satisfactory. On the other hand, to place such a " It is often erroneously believed,” he says,
work as this in the hands of the elementary student the expansibility of the earth's magnetic potential in would be anything but satisfactory, rather suppressnegative powers of the radius vector is a proof that ing than developing that genuine interest without the source of action is inside the earth."
which it is impossible for the student to make true In a preceding sentence the writer connects his progress in his studies. In its particular line, howsupposed error with the fact that “inasmuch as the ever, we must highly commend the work as represurface integral of the force over the earth vanishes, senting up-to-date practice in most of the sections of the so-called seat of action may be placed either inside the textile industries of which it treats. or outside."
The work is really arranged in four sections, the In this passage the author seems to doubt a well- first three chapters being devoted to general parestablished theorem which is quite independent of the ticulars respecting the fibres in question, chapters iv. question whether the surface integral of normal force to xv. dealing with the mechanical processes necessary when taken over the whole surface of the earth has for the formation of the said materials into satisa finite value or not.
factory yarns, chapters xvi. and xvii. referring to
miscellaneous processes, such as the manufacture of manager. Chapters xix., xx., and xxi., however, in threads, twines, cords, and ropes, while chapters our opinion, are somewhat out of place, it being imxviii. to xxi. treat on general mill management, possible satisfactorily to consider modern mill conarrangement, and engineering.
struction, boilers and engines, steam and water In the first section, very interesting and useful power, and electric power transmission in the fifty. particulars are supplied respecting the fibres and their six pages devoted to this subject. Mere statement marketing, the only difficulty being the grasping of usually very excellent, is all that is possible. We the multitude of details here given. Had these de- would, however, question the advice given respecting tails been represented by maps illustrating (a) area clectric lighting in factories. There is a marked of growth, (b) area of manufacture, (c) area of distri- tendency to revert to incandescent gas lighting. not bution and use of the fibres in question, with only on account of the expense, but also on account graphical illustrations of quantities, &c., the facts pre- of the light value. sented would have been vastly more interesting and The work is not only to be commended to those useful. This method, we believe, is employed in the engaged in the particular trades in question, but also textile museums of certain of our northern technical to those engaged in the allied textile industries, as colleges.
such questions as the position of the nip of the rollers The author wisely remarks in his preface that were in relation to the spindle and with reference to length it not for the similarity in the processes necessary of fibre, the varieties of gills emploved, Combe's esfor the preparation and spinning of many of the pansion pulley and quick change motion in place of fibres here treated, it would be impossible to bring the cones in cone drawing frames, &c., constitute the work within reasonable limits. The similarity in interesting mechanical arrangements which may be treatment is certainly marked, and practically leads of marked value in these allied industries. the author throughout to the employment of the The work is illustrated by 161 figures, usually of * comparative method.” Thus, in the first prepar- a most interesting type. The general arrangement is ation of ramie, the hand and the chemical certainly such as will commend itself to the mill mechanical methods are naturally compared with manager, who will naturally wish to refer to the work reference to quality of result and price, this latter under conditions requiring speed and accuracy, necessarily involving the question of native hand
Aldren F. BARKER. labour versus European machine-labour. Then the difference between ramie and flax is naturally noted,
ENGLISH ESTATE FORESTRY. and so on.
English Estate Forestry. By A. C. Forbes. The comparative method would naturally arrange
Pp. xi+ 332. (London : Edward Arnold, 1004) itself under some six heads :-(1) methods of deal- Price 12s. 6d. net. ing with the fibres in the raw state commercially; (2) methods of preparing, that is, of cleaning for the A instruction of
S the title suggests, the book is intended for the
A instruction of English foresters. In the subsequent mechanical operations; (3) ultimate length, preface, the author states that he feels, diameter, colour, &c., of the fibres; (4) the conditions for preparation of the fibres as necessarily deciding the
* probably in common with many practical foresters,
that English forestry is sufficiently distinct from Contypes of machines required; (5) the types of machines tinental, or even Scotch forestry to entitle it to be for each quality of fibre; (6) value of resultant thread regarded as a separate subject. or fabric as revealed by scientific and “use" tests. The author further emphasises this point in his
This is approximately the grouping employed. chapter on thinning and pruning, where he seems The greater proportion of the book is devoted to the to hint that all the mistakes and failures in English mechanical side, and it must be recognised that this sylviculture, about the middle of the nineteenth cenis just, as in many cases not only has the machine
due the bad influence of Scotch taken the place of the hand method, but actually does forestry and Scotch foresters, who, according to what would be impossible without mechanical aid. Mr. Forbes, were imported into England about Perhaps one of the most interesting comparisons in that time, bringing with them their mistaken ideas the book is that afforded by chapters xii. and xiii., in of thinning and pruning, to the detriment of Englisti which dry, semi-dry, and wet methods of spinning | forestry: are successively dealt with.
The following extract from the preface gives the The section dealing with threads, twines, ropes, author's own views regarding the book :&c., is chiefly interesting as introducing machines This book is intended to be suggestive rather which are practically unknown in the ordinary textile than instructive to the practical forester. There in industries. It very often happens that principles de- little in its pages but what he already knows, and veloped in one industry would be of great value in possibly a great deal with which he will not agree another were they known; in this way the present experience it is offered as
But as a more or less faithful record of individual
a small contribution to work mar indirectly be of considerable use to indus- forestry literature, which, if it does not enrich, it will tries other than those specially dealt with.
| not, it is hoped, disgrace." Chapter xvii. deals in an interesting manner with The concluding paragraph of the preface states the mechanical department, including the hackle
" that this book is not, nor does it make a pretene setting, wood turning, fluting, oils, and oiling; this of being, a text-book. The intelligent reader, then. is certainly a useful chapter for the ordinary mill fore, who discovers that it does not contain a planter's