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There is no lack of literature dealing with Tibet, literature dating from the early Jesuit and Capuchin friars of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to the latter-day expeditions of the native explorers of the Indian Survey, to whose marvellous performances in the field Mr. Landon is about the first writer to do passing justice; but we have never yet had an intelligent and accurate representation of the social existence of the people, nor a careful exposition of the weird eccentricities of that extraordinary anachronism, the Government of Tibet, at all comparable to that which Mr. Landon now gives us. Nor is this all. The enthusiasm of the true explorer pervades the book; that nameless joy in treading new and untouched fields; that absorbing interest in the aspects of nature, in its lights and shadows, fields and flowers, outline and colour; aspects which enchain the imagination everywhere, but acquire fresher value

the Himalayas can fill up the pictures with the grace of nature's colouring from Mr. Landon's description alone, although here and there his colour notes are perhaps a little indefinite. What, for instance, ar

lightning greys "'? But where colour reproduction has not been left to the reader's imagination, and has been attempted by some process of block printing, the results are not so satisfactory. The distances are hard and obtrusive, and atmosphere has vanished from the view. Even in Tibetan highlands there is a certain amount of atmospheric influence, however thin it may be, which affects one's appreciation of distance.

To the great majority of readers Mr. Landon's descriptions of the beauty of the Brahmaputra valley tu the south of Lhasa, of the glory of Tibetan sunsets, of the splendour of the Turquoise Lake set in the midst of the flower-strewn plain, of the vast impressiveness


Fig. 1.–Part of the Potala Palace from the buildings at its base. It is built of granite and whitewashed once a year. The dark central

portion is crimson. Fron Landon's "Lhasa."

and larger interest the farther they are removed from of the isolated city of mystery itself as it bursts on the the area of the well trodden world. Certainly there view from a mountain-ringed depression beyond the must be many more beautiful landscapes than those Potala—the guardian sanctuary of its western gates of the southern valleys of Tibet, the beauty of which all these things will be just as new and as surprising exists, so to speak, in scraps--large scraps, perhaps, as are the kindly amiability of its half barbarous people but scraps that are separated by wide intervening and the friendliness of disposition which they evinced spaces of stony desolation and dreary outlook. Yet towards the foreigner. Not that Mr. Landon is LDmany of the best pages of the book are full to the duly optimistic. The extraordinary contrasts between brim with vivid descriptions of the beauty of Tibetan barbarous magnificence and indescribable filth ang scenery as Mr. Landon saw it in the basin of the squalor are not missed. Where the sweet scent and Brahmaputra River.

| brightness of English flowers is noted as a passing The illustrations are excellent, and there is an added incident there is no lack of intimation as to the value to them in the notes which are appended in nature of the rotting filth from which they spring dicating the general tones and local colour of each The interior of temples and dwelling houses, described view. If Mr. Landon has invented this method of as often impressive in its magnificence, and als als recording the principal charm of Tibetan scenery for surprising in the character of its artistic decorarnir the benefit of those who know not Tibet, he is much involves an approach through knee-deep slush and to be congratulated thereon. All who know and love mud, terminating in the ascent of a great staira » foul with the accumulation of rancid butter and Not the least interesting chapters of Mr. Landon's poisonous forms of putrid filth.

book are those which deal with the superficial aspects Animate nature in Tibet is no better than inanimate. of lamaism, and the relation between the Tibetan We will pass by the pigs and the dogs, and refer hierarchy and our frontier politics. Tibet affords a only to the people. It was discovered by the medical notable example (if one were needed) of the destaff of the mission who attended to the wounded grading, stilling, destroying effects of a dominant warriors of Guru that the natural complexion of the priesthood on a country's developments. Between the Tibetan was quite fair--as fair as that of any Euro- lamaism of Tibet and the pure faith of early pean, in spite of the fact that no soap is ever used. Buddhism there is indeed a great gulf fixed, and Mr. But to judge from the aspect of the Tibetan as he Landon is well within the mark when he describes (or she) appears in the ordinary unclean garb of daily modern lamaism as sheer animistic devil worship.” life, the general tint of the skin appears to be that ! Yet he is quite ready to recognise the power and the of a well baked potato picked out from amongst the strength which are gained by the lofty isolation—the charred sticks of a burn-out bonfire. The children stern aloofness of the head of the Tibetan Church; are pretty and remarkably affable, and the general and he is probably correct in estimating the Dalai unloveliness of their parents is due quite as much to lama as being still the recognised head of the Tibetan dirt as to exposure to the rigorous climate.

Church and State wherever he may be, at Urga or at The story of the advance of the mission through Lhasa. Nor does he fail to reckon up the im


FIG. 2.- Nichi-kang-sang (24,000 feet). This peak guards the road to Lhasa over the Karo la. The track passes suddenly through the mountain

barrier between the darker hill and the icefields of Nichi-kang.sang. From Landon's " Lhasa."


the tangled forests and over the bleak passes of 'pressive effect of certain ceremonials, and the really Sikkim is well told. There is none of the reiteration awe-inspiring aspects of the temple interiors hallowed of the guide book or of the monotony of the intelli- by the ever-dominating figures of the great “ Master." gence report in Mr. Landon's tale. He takes the Here we cannot quite follow him, for if his sketch reader with him through the narrow and slippery ways of the head of the Great “Jo” in the holy of holies at of Chumbi, over the Himalayan backbone (not so for- Lhasa is realistic, the original can hardly be immidable as the Sikkim-Chumbi passes), down the pressive. gentle slope to Gyantse, with an ever-varied interest It will be news to most people that our Queen gathered from what is to be seen around him as he Victoria of blessed memory was, and is, a Tíbetan rides. Mountains and stone-strewn slopes,

incarnation, and is represented by a bloodthirsty blue (where there are any), flowers, and the small things goddess who revels in horrors such as would astonish that become great in a land where vegetation barely even the gifted Kali of the Hindus. Yet she is reexists, all are noted in their turn, whilst we happily garded rather as a beneficent and protective goddess miss the daily routine of military movement and the than a malignant one. This is encouraging, for it everlasting repetition of marching experiences. Only shows that something at least of the world-wide venerwhen we get to the fighting stage do we hear much ation that surrounded our ever-loved Queen had about the little army which formed the escort; and filtered through the almost impenetrable armour of then there is enough of incident to make a fascin- lamaistic isolation. The Tsar has only recently been ating and lasting record of really great achievement. canonised, so to speak, on Dorjieff's recommendation. As a recent incarnation, or last-joined saint, he

NOTES. invested the Dalai lama with a complete suit of

Since the appearance in NATURE of April o of an article bishop's canonicals. Perhaps this recognition of a certain analogy between the two Governments is not

on the proposed amalgamation of the Society of Arts and quite so inappropriate as it at first appears.

the London Institution, a meeting of the proprietors of Mr. Landon concludes his delightful book with an

the London Institution has been held to consider the expression of his opinion that the doors of Lhasa are managers' proposals in connection with the amalgamation. once again closed to the European. Not again The proposals met with a determined opposition from (according to our author) for many a long year will some proprietors; and after a somewhat noisy and unany Englishman watch for the flashing cupolas of the dignified discussion, it was resolved to defer the further Potala from the banks of the Kyi Chu, or penetrate consideration of the scheme of amalgamation until after into the inner sanctuary of the everlasting Jo. With the annual meeting of the London Institution on April 2& this view of the future of Tibet we can hardly agree. The result of this meeting is to be regretted, since it By his own showing there is quite enough of un

implies the loss for the present of an excellent opportun'ty certainty, even in the present political situation, warrant the making of a straight road over the

to accomplish the establishment of an important and Himalayan passes with as little delay as possible; and powerful institute designed to develop a popular interest it should not be forgotten that the right of way to

and regard for scientific work and results. It is to be Gyantse is already secured.

T. H. H. hoped that it may prove possible to arrive at some agree

ment which will lead to the formation of a vigorous

scientific organisation, in which the privileges offered by THE TREATMENT OF CANCER

the Society of Arts and the London Institution will be WITH

combined. RADIUM. HE discovery of radium was speedily followed by

The Paris Geographical Society has awarded its gold THE its use in the treatment of cancer, and it was

medal to M. Paul Doumer. hoped that at last a remedy had been found for this

Ir is intended, if found practicable, says the Pioneer terrible disease. Great interest has been aroused by Mail, to arrange for daily weather reports from the Andaa recent report in a contemporary of a case of cancer which has been successfully treated by this agent.

mans by wireless telegraphy. The case appears to be undoubtedly one of cancer, as The death is announced of Prof. A. Piccini, profesor the patient was carefully examined before, during, of chemistry at the R. Istituto di Studi superiori, Floren, and after treatment by competent authorities; but and author of several works on chemistry. the report of cure must be accepted with caution. We are informed that the treatment began in March,

The President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisher: s 1904, and although the disease has now disappeared, has appointed a committee to inquire into the nature and it is still possible that it may recur.

causes of grouse disease, and to report whether any, and, A very large number of cases of cancer have been if so, what, preventive or remedial measures can with treated by radium in this country, on the Continent, advantage be taken with respect to it. and in America. Some have improved remarkably, but in most instances there has been no apparent death of Colonel Renard, the director of the National

The Paris correspondent of the Times announces the benefit, and in no case has sufficient time elapsed to speak with certainty of cure. No surgeon would feel Aërostatic Park at Meudon. The investigations and <Ijustified in reporting a cure of cancer until at least periments of the Renard brothers have done much ! two years had passed without recurrence, and there promote the progress of aërial navigation. are many instances on record where a longer period

It is announced that the Liége International Exhibition of apparent immunity has been followed by a

will be opened on Saturday, April 22, and that, unlike appearance of the disease.

The It must be remembered that the effect of radium

most exhibitions, the buildings will be complete. upon a cancerous growth is, so far as we are at

exhibition will be of a very attractive and picturesque present aware, purely local. The terrible feature of character, and the buildings cover a greater area than a cancer is the early involvement of the lymphatic any previous exhibition, except those of Paris in 1900 and glands, followed by the formation of secondary of St. Louis. During the period of the exhibition several tumours in the internal organs. It is impossible to congresses will be held in Liége, that of mining and follow these internal developments by such a remedy metallurgy, from June 26 to July 1, promising to be the as radium. Only too often a patient is found, on most largely attended. first seeking medical advice, to have already these secondary deposits, and treatment by local measures

The Times correspondent at Athens states that at the is purely palliative. That relief may be afforded in last meeting of the Archæological Congress, on April 13, it some cases which are beyond operation is recognised,

was decided that the present executive committee should but nothing has yet been reported which will warrant

continue to exist until the next meeting of the congress, a surgeon using radium in a case of cancer where which was fixed to take place at Cairo after a minimum there is a possibility of complete removal by the interval of two years, the Egyptian Government having knife.

signified its willingness to accept this arrangement. Radium is applied in small tubes to the surface of

Press telegrams from Martinique report that Mont a tumour, and in some cases it has been found possible to place it in the interior of a growth through

Pelée is again showing volcanic activity. On April 9-10 a small incision. The quantities available are

the escape of vapour was fairly abundant. On April minute that only a small area can be treated at one

10-11 a marked recrudescence manifested itself: numerous time. In the case of cancer mentioned above, the

small clouds issued from the vent, and there was a small quantity which was used was ten milligrams.

flow of lava into the valley of the White River. On April Fortunately the radium can be used again and 13-14. frequent rumblings were heard, and it was noticed again, for its energy appears practically to be that blocks of rock, accompanied by white clouds, wert inexhaustible.

expelled from the south side of the crater.


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Supplement to Nature,April 20, 1905




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