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There is no lack of literature dealing with Tibet, the Himalayas can fill up the pictures with the grace literature dating from the early Jesuit and Capuchin of nature's colouring from Mr. Landon's description friars of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries to alone, although here and there his colour notes are the latter-day expeditions of the native explorers of perhaps a little indefinite. What, for instance, are the Indian Survey, to whose marvellous performances lightning greys "? But where colour reproduction in the field Mr. Landon is about the first writer to do has not been left to the reader's imagination, and passing justice; but we have never yet had an in- has been attempted by some process of block printing, telligent and accurate representation of the social the results are not so satisfactory. The distances are existence of the people, nor a careful exposition of hard and obtrusive, and atmosphere has vanished the weird eccentricities of that extraordinary from the view. Even in Tibetan highlands there is anachronism, the Government of Tibet, at all com- a certain amount of atmospheric influence, however parable to that which Mr. Landon now gives us. thin it may be, which affects one's appreciation of Nor is this all. The enthusiasm of the true explorer distance. pervades the book; that nameless joy in treading new To the great majority of readers Mr. Landon's de. and untouched fields; that absorbing interest in the scriptions of the beauty of the Brahmaputra valley to aspects of nature, in its lights and shadows, fields the south of Lhasa, of the glory of Tibetan sunsets, of and flowers, outline and colour; aspects which enchain the splendour of the Turquoise Lake set in the midst the imagination everywhere, but acquire fresher value of the Power-strewn plain, of the vast impressiveness
The dark central
Fig. 1.-Part of the Potala Palace from the buildings at its base. It is built of granite and whitewashed once a year.
portion is crimson. Fro'n Landon's "Lhasa."
and larger interest the farther they are removed from of the isolated city of mystery itself as it bursts on the the area of the well trodden world. Certainly there view from a mountain-ringed depression beyond the must be many more beautiful landscapes than those Potala—the guardian sanctuary of its western gates of the southern valley's of Tibet, the beauty of which all these things will be just as new and as surprising exists, so to speak, in scraps--large scraps, perhaps, as are the kindly amiability of its half barbarous people but scraps that are separated by wide intervening and the friendliness of disposition which they evinced spaces of stony desolation and dreary outlook. Yet towards the foreigner. Not that Mr. Landon is unmany of the best pages of the book are full
to the duly optimistic. The extraordinary contrasts between brim with vivid descriptions of the beauty of Tibetan barbarous magnificence and indescribable filth and scenery as Mr. Landon saw it in the basin of the squalor are not missed. Where the sweet scent and Brahmaputra River.
brightness of English flowers is noted as a passing The illustrations are excellent, and there is an added incident there is no lack of intimation as to the value to them in the notes which are appended in- nature of the rotting filth from which they spring, dicating the general tones and local colour of each The interior of temples and dwelling houses, described view. If Mr. Landon has invented this method of as often impressive in its magnificence, and always recording the principal charm of Tibetan scenery for surprising in the character of its artistic decoration. the benefit of those who know not Tibet, he is much involves an approach through knee-deep slush and to be congratulated thereon. All who know and love mud, terminating in the ascent of a greasy stairway foul with the accumulation of rancid butter and poisonous forms of putrid filth.
Animate nature in Tibet is no better than inanimate. We will pass by the pigs and the dogs, and refer only to the people. It was discovered by the medical stail of the mission who attended to the wounded warriors of Guru that the natural complexion of the Tibetan was quite fair-as fair as that of any European, in spite of the fact that no soap is ever used. But to judge from the aspect of the Tibetan as he (or she) appears in the ordinary unclean garb of daily life, the general tint of the skin appears to be that of a well baked potato picked out from amongst the charred sticks of a burn-out bonfire. The children are pretty and remarkably affable, and the general unloveliness of their parents is due quite as much to dirt as to exposure to the rigorous climate.
The story of the advance of the mission through
Not the least interesting chapters of Mr. Landon's book are those which deal with the superficial aspects of lamaism, and the relation between the Tibetan hierarchy and our frontier politics. Tibet affords a notable example (if one were needed) of the degrading, stilling, destroying effects of a dominant priesthood on a country's developments. Between the lamaism of Tibet and the pure faith of early Buddhism there is indeed a great gulf fixed, and Mr. Landon is well within the mark when he describes modern lamaism as sheer animistic devil worship. Yet he is quite ready to recognise the power and the strength which are gained by the lofty isolation—the stern aloofness of the head of the Tibetan Church; and he is probably correct in estimating the Dalai lama as being still the recognised head of the Tibetan Church and State wherever he may be, at Urga or at Lhasa. Nor does he fail to reckon up the im
FIG. 2.- Nicbi-kang-sang (24,000 feet). This peak guards the road to Lhasa over the Karo la. The track passes suddenly through the mountain
barrier between the darker hill an efields of Nichi-kang.sang. From Landon's “Lhasa."
the tangled forests and over the bleak passes of pressive effect of certain ceremonials, and the really Sikkim is well told. There is none of the reiteration awe-inspiring aspects of the temple interiors hallowed of the guide book or of the monotony of the intelli- by the ever-dominating figures of the great Master. gence report in Mr. Landon's tale. He takes the Here we cannot quite follow him, for if his sketch reader with him through the narrow and slippery ways of the head of the Great“ Jo " in the holy of holies at of Chumbi, over the Himalayan backbone (not so for- Lhasa is realistic, the original can hardly be immidable as the Sikkim-Chumbi passes), down the pressive. gentle slope to Gyantse, with an ever-varied interest It will be news to most people that our Queen gathered from what is to be seen around him as he Victoria of blessed memory was, and is, a Tibetan rides. Mountains and stone-strewn slopes,
incarnation, and is represented by a bloodthirsty blue (where there are any), flowers, and the small things goddess who revels in horrors such as would astonish that become great in a land where vegetation barely even the gifted kali of the Hindus. Yet she is reexists, all are noted in their turn, whilst we happily garded rather as a beneficent and protective goddess miss the daily routine of military movement and the than a malignant one. This is encouraging, for it everlasting repetition of marching experiences. Only shows that something at least of the world-wide venerwhen we get to the fighting stage do we hear much ation that surrounded our ever-loved Queen had about the little army which formed the escort; and filtered through the almost impenetrable armour of then there is enough of incident to make a fascin- lamaistic isolation. The Tsar has only recently been ating and lasting record of really great achievement. canonised, so to speak, on Dorjieff's recommendation. As a recent incarnation, or “ last-joined ” saint, he
NOTES. invested the Dalai lama with a complete suit of
SINCE the appearance in NATURE of April o of an article bishop's canonicals. Perhaps this recognition of a certain analogy between the two Governments is not
on the proposed amalgamation of the Society of Arts and quite so inappropriate as it at first appears.
the London Institution, a ineeting of the proprietors of Mr. Landon concludes his delightful book with an
the London Institution has been held to coosider the expression of his opinion that the doors of Lhasa are
managers' proposals in connection with the amalgamation. once again closed to the European. Not again | The proposals met with a determined opposition from (according to our author) for many a long year will some proprietors; and after a somewhat noisy and unany Englishman watch for the flashing cupolas of the dignified discussion, it was resolved to deter the further Potala from the banks of the Kyi Chu, or penetrate consideration of the scheme of amalgamation until after into the inner sanctuary of the everlasting Jo. With the annual meeting of the London Institution on April 28 this view of the future of Tibet we can hardly agree. The result of this meeting is to be regretted, since it By his own showing there is quite enough of un
implies the loss for the present of an excellent opportunity certainty, even in the present political situation, to warrant the making of a straight road over the
to accomplish the establishment of an important and Himalayan passes with as little delay as possible; and powerful institute designed to develop a popular interest it should not be forgotten that the right of way to
and regard for scientific work and results. It is to be Gyantse is already secured.
T. H. H. hoped that it may prove possible to arrive ar som agree
ment which will lead to the formation of a vigorous
scientific organisation, in which the privileges offered by THE TREATMENT OF CANCER WITH
the Society of Arts and the London Institution will be RADIUM.
combined. HE discovery of radium was speedily followed by
THE Paris Geographical Society has awarded its gold THE its use in the treatment of cancer, and it was
medal to M. Paul Doumer. hoped that at last a remedy had been found for this
It is intended, if found practicable, says the Pionen terrible disease. Great interest has been aroused by Mail, to arrange for daily weather reports from the 4ndaa recent report in a contemporary of a case of cancer which has been successfully treated by this agent.
mans by wireless telegraphy. The case appears to be undoubtedly one of cancer, as TUE death is announced of Prof. A. Piccini, professy the patient was carefully examined before, during, of chemistry at the R. Istituto di Studi superiori, Florence. and after treatment by competent authorities; but and author of several works on chemistry, the report of cure must be accepted with caution. We are informed that the treatment began in March,
The President of the Board of Agriculture and Fishers 1904, and although the disease has now disappeared, has appointed a committee to inquire into the nature and it is still possible that it may recur.
causes of grouse disease, and to report whether any, and, A very large number of cases of cancer have been if so, what, preventive or remedial measures
can with treated by radium in this country, on the Continent, ! advantage be taken with respect to it. and in America. Some have improved remarkably, but in most instances there has been no apparent
The Paris correspondent of the Times announces the benefit, and in no case has sufficient time elapsed to
death of Colonel Renard, the director of the National speak with certainty of cure. No surgeon would feel
Aërostatic Park at Meudon. The investigations and cojustified in reporting a cure of cancer until at least periments of the Renard brothers have done much to two years had passed without recurrence, and there promote the progress of aërial navigation. are many instances on record where a longer period
It is announced that the Liége International Exhibition of apparent immunity has been followed by a appearance of the disease.
will be opened on Saturday, April 22, and that, unlike
The It must be remembered that the effect of radium
most exhibitions, the buildings will be complete. upon a cancerous growth is, so far as
exhibition will be of a very attractive and picturesque
we are at present aware, purely local. The terrible feature of character, and the buildings cover a greater area than at cancer is the early involvement of the lymphatic any previous exhibition, except those of Paris in 1900 and glands, followed by the formation of secondary of St. Louis. During the period of the exhibition several tumours in the internal organs. It is impossible to congresses will be held in Liége, that of mining and follow these internal developments by such a remedy metallurgy, from June 26 to July 1, promising to be the as radium. Only too often a patient is found, on most largely attended. first seeking medical advice, to have already these secondary deposits, and treatment by local measures
The Times correspondent at Athens states that at the is purely palliative. That relief may be afforded in last meeting of the Archæological Congress, on April 13, it some cases which are beyond operation is recognised,
was decided that the present executive committee should but nothing has yet been reported which will warrant
continue to exist until the next meeting of the congress, a surgeon using radium in a case of cancer where which was fixed to take place at Cairo after a minimum there is a possibility of complete removal by the interval of two years, the Egyptian Government having knife.
signified its willingness to accept this arrangemeni. Radium is applied in small tubes to the surface of a tumour, and in some
Press telegrams from Martinique report that Mont cases it has been found possible to place it in the interior of a growth through
Pelée is again showing volcanic activity. On April 9-10 a small incision. The quantities available are
the escape of vapour was fairly abundant. On April minute that only a small area can be treated at one
10-11 a marked recrudescence manifested itself ; numerous time. In the case of cancer mentioned above, the
small clouds issued from the vent, and there was a small quantity which
ten milligrams. flow of lava into the valley of the White River. On April Fortunately the radium be used again and 13-14 frequent rumblings were heard, and it was noticed again, for its energy appears practically to be that blocks of rock, accompanied by white clouds, were inexhaustible.
expelled from the south side of the crater.
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