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THE EVOLUTION

OF MAN.

No. 15.

THE GEOGRAPHICAL JOURNAL.

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(PROFESSOR AT JENA UNIVERSITY). and Pacific Islands: Fiji Folk-lore. The Monthly Record. Obituary :-The Earl of Soutbesk ; Stephen William Silver ; Gabriel James Morrison ; Prof. Eduard Richter ; ihe Rev. S. L. Graham Sandberg.

The time has come for a complete, comprehensive, and Correspondence :-Protection from Snow-glare. By Major R. L. Kennion. Botany of Grinnell Land. By H. C. Hart.

constructive presentment, in a popular form, of the now London : EDWARD STANFORD, 12, 13, 14 Long Acre, W.C.

irresistible evidence for the evolution of man. This Prof.

Haeckel accomplishes in the new edition, recently issued in ROYAL DUBLIN DUBLIN SOCIETY.

Germany, of his “ Anthropogenie.” It is virtually a new

work, and it entailed the better part of a year's arduous SCIENTIFIC TRANSACTIONS.

labour from its author. The text has been considerably New Series. Volume VIII.

Sewed, with One Plate, 19.

augmented, the number of full-page coloured plates has ON THE TEMPERATURE OF CERTAIN STARS. grown to thirty, the number of engravings (many full-page By W. E. WILSON, D.Sc., F.R.S.

size) to 512, and the number of genetic tables to sixty.

These illustrations have all been designed and painted New Series. Volume VIII. No. 16. Sewed, is. THE PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF

afresh by the author on a larger and finer scale, and are MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS. Part I.

splendid examples of the artistic skill which Prof. Haeckel By A. W. CONWAY, M..., F.R.U.I., Professor of Mathe

counts among his many attainments. It is now, both in matical Physics, University College, Dublin.

the scientific text and the illustrations, a superb manual

of human developnient. PROCEEDINGS

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DECANI” OF ST. PATRICK'S CATHEDRAL. written for the general reader, though even for the student By the Very Rev. J. H. BERNARD, D. D., Dean of St. Patrick's.

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production, nerves, &c. The argument and attitude are AND OTHER BLOOD PARASITES.

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Mr. C. H. Hamilton records in Science that the world. I that of Sir F. Pollock, will soon fructify in accomplished renowned volcano Kilauea, in the Hawajian Islands, has fact. A select advisory council on which men of science again become active, after a rest of thirteen years. Fresh familiar with the scientific advances of recent years took lava appeared the last week of February, heralded by a a prominent place would assist statesmen to secure national slight earthquake. On March 10 the Volcano House re- efficiency more than any other expedient. ported the existence of a large lake of lava. Heavy rumblings and explosions indicate that another outbreak

REPORTs of the annual general meeting of the Chemical is imminent." Thus there seems to be a restoration of

Society and of the anniversary dinner are given in the the old-time activity-such as will cause a large increase

Proceedings of the society, just issued. The following in the number of visitors.

extracts from the official account of remarks made at the

dinner by Mr. R. B. Haldane, as to the neglect of science DR. DAVISON states in a letter to the Times that a de

by the British nation in the past, and the promise of an tailed record of the Indian earthquake was given by a hori

improved position in the future, are of interest :--The zontal pendulum at Birmingham. The first tremors were

problem which lay in front of the British nation was how registered at ih. 6m. 18s. a.m., and were succeeded at

to develop what he might call the grey matter of the ih. 29m. 25. by long-period undulations lasting for more

executive brain. All the things spoken of that night rethan an hour and a half. The more prominent of these

presented something new in the nation, and not only someundulations

in two series, separated by a few thing new, but something of which they would have to minutes, and little more than two hours later the diagram

see a great deal more if the nation was to hold its own in showed another double group of waves. The early tremors

these days. Science counted for more than ever it did. The took a direct course through the body of the earth ; the West had had a rude awakening at the hands of the East. first double series travelled along the surface by the shortest

The controversies which agitated the minds of politicians way to Birmingham, while the second double series were of less importance than 'the great question of how to followed the longest possible route, through the antipodes,

make the permanent element in politics more powerful and and back again to Birmingham.

better than it was. There was too little science in the

present day, although one or two things had been done for It is announced in Science that Dr. Frank Schlesinger which they were very grateful, in connection with the has been elected director of the New Allegheny Observ- Navy and the Army and the Defence Committee. If they atory. The observatory has an endowment fund, and a turned to the different departments of the Government there regular income from the time service, besides owning a was hardly one which did not require science, if its policy large and valuable property in the City of Allegheny, which was to be an effective policy. Wherever they turned science will become a source of income in the near future. Work was needed, and yet there was not sufficient attraction to has not been suspended on account of lack of funds, and a man of high attainments to put himself at the disposition much has been accomplished toward the instrumental of the State. Foreign Governments held out careers far in equipment during the past year. The Keeler memorial excess of any rewards and honours which the British telescope of 30-inch aperture is now ready to be set up, Government could afford. Was it impossible to see an era and the large (Porter) spectroheliograph is almost com- in which the head of the Government could have at his pleted. The 30-inch objective is well under way, and other disposition the first intelligence and the best brains which instruments will be installed during the year under the the nation could command ? If we were to hold our own directorate of Dr. Schlesinger.

we must not be behind Berlin, the United States, or the

French nation. Science never stands still, and if science At the meeting of the Royal Colonial Institute, held on

does not stand still, Governments cannot afford to stand April 11, Sir Frederick Pollock read a paper on Imperial still in their use of science. These were speculations which, Organisation. He deprecated the national faculty of com- perhaps, went beyond the moment, but he had a strong promise, and asked, could we go on trusting to feeling that the time was very nearly, if not quite, ripe promises and accidents? It is necessary to look, he con- for them. They would see what was the mind of the tinued, for some plan which will avoid elaborate legislature

nation on this point, and doubtless they would be subjected and formal change in the Constitution. We must be

to the acute disappointment to which all were usually content for the present with a council of advice which will

subjected when they formed great expectations. He hoped have only persuasive authority." A permanent secre

to see the position of science raised in the next few years, tary's office is required, independent of any existing de- and he looked to the time when brute force would count partment, but immediately under the president of the for little, and knowledge for more. Imperial council. The best living information ought to be at the service of this Imperial council through its We have received from Messrs. R. Friedländer and secretariat ; and this can be most effectively done, without

Sons, of Berlin, a priced catalogue of books and papers ostentation and with very little expense, by the constitution

dealing with vertebrate anatomy and physiology. of a permanent Imperial commission the members of which

Part Xxxi. the Transactions of the Yorkshire will represent all branches of knowledge and research, out

Naturalists' l'nion contains the reports of that body for side the art of war, most likely to be profitable in Imperial

the years 1903 and 1904, and also a reprint of the excursion affairs. Not only learned and official persons would be

circulars for the same period. A satisfactory feature in included in such a body, but men of widespread business,

the work of the union is the care devoted to the collection travellers, ethnologists, comparative students of politics

of photographs of important geological sections within its might all find scope for excellent work. It need not be

sphere of influence. paid work. It would be willingly done without pecuniary reward as the more formal and laborious work Prof. J. S. KINGSLEY discusses in the February number of Royal Commissions, as to which there has never been of the Imerican Vaturalist the current nomenclature and any difficulty. Of the need for some such advisory council homology of the component bones of the lower jaw of to secure national efficiency there can be no doubt, and it reptiles, pointing out that there is still some uncertainty is earnestly to be desired that hopes and schemes, like with regard to the proper determination of one of these

com

as

590

as

elements in crocodiles. The other articles are on natural Indian Public Health for March (vol. i. Vo, s) contains and artificial parthenogenesis, by Dr. A. Petrunkevitch ; articles on septic tank installations in Bengal. pwape on the angle of deviation from the vertical at which stems disposal in India, Hankin's views on plague epidemiology, show the strongest geotropical response, by Miss Haynes ; the Finsen method, &c. and on the variation in the ray-flowers of Rudbeckia, by Dr. R. Pearl.

In the Revue scientifique (April 8) M. Calmette, the

director of the Pasteur Institute, Lille, writes on the imIn the April number of Bird Notes and News reference

portant role played by medical science in the surerssful is made to certain common misapprehensions in regard to

colonisation of tropical countries, instancing such disease. the authorities responsible for protective regulations, and it

as cholera, leprosy, plague, and malaria, which can te is pointed out that many of these emanate from county

robbed of their terrors only by the institution of efficient councils. To the agriculturist and the horticulturist it is, sanitary control in the districts in which they occur. however, of little consequence whether the alleged overprotection of birds in his particular district is the work MAJOR RONALD Ross, F.R.S., in a letter to the Times of the local or of the Imperial Parliament, for the diffi. (April 7) directs attention to the remarkable diminution culty of getting ordinances repealed appears as difficult in malarial disease which has accompanied the institution in the one case as in the other. In the statement on p. 61 of anti-mosquito measures at Klang and Port Swetter

to the sale of skins of Argus pheasants from the ham in the Federated Malay States. The former, with . Himalayas," it should have been pointed out that " Argus population of 3576, and the latter of about 700, were boil pheasant

is the trade name for the peacock pheasants perfect hotbeds of malaria, and in 1901, for the iwv (Euplocamus) of the Himalaya, the true Argus having a towns, 236 sick certificates and 1026 days of leave were very different habitat.

granted. In 1902, after anti-mosquito measures had berri The following quotation in the February issue of the

energetically pursued, the figures were 40 and 198, and in American Naturalist from a work by Messrs. Gilbert and

1904 these had further fallen to 14 and 77 respectively Starks on the fishes of the two sides of the Isthmus of

Dr. Malcolm Watson, district surgeon, from whose re

port these statistics are taken, sums up by saving :-" In Panama has a very great interest from the point of view whatever direction one turns, it is plain that the two areas of distribution in general :-“The ichthyological evidence which were so malarious in 1901 are now practically, it is overwhelmingly in favour of the existence of a former open communication between the two oceans, which must

not absolutely, free from the disease, and that the distry: have become closed at a period sufficiently remote from the

surrounding these two areas remains much as it was present to have permitted the specific differentiation of a

These anti-mosquito measures were initiated by the De

partment for Medical Research, Federated Malay State. very large majority of the forms involved. ... All evidence (which is affiliated with the London School of Tropical concurs in fixing the date of that connection at some time prior to the Pleistocene, probably in the early Miocene."

Medicine), under the direction of Dr. llamilton Waghi. This agrees precisely with the conclusions drawn from IN short paper which appeared in the Botanic at the study of the fossil mammalian faunas of North and Gacette (February) Mr. C. H. Chamberlain advances the South America, which indicate that land communication opinion that in alternation of generations as underolehed between those two continents was interrupted during a

by botanists for plants can be recognised in animals. The considerable portion of the Tertiary epoch, and only re

egg with the three polar bodies constitutes a generation established about the close of the Miocene or early part

comparable with the female gametophrte in plants of the Pliocene epoch.

similarly, the primary spermatocyte with the four sperts

atozoa constitute a generation comparable with the male The existence of an entirely distinct second family type gametophyte in plants. All other cells of the animal cu of lancelets (Cephalochordata) is demonstrated by Dr. R.

stitute Goldschmidt in Biol. Centralblatt of April 1.

a generation comparable with the sporophytu

It appears generation in plants. that in 1889 Dr. A. Günther described a lancelet obtained during the Challenger Expedition as a new species, under Two debated points connected with the problems the

of Branchiostoma pelagicum, its characteristic being the absence of a tentacle-apparatus.

special geotropism in plants, i.e. the seat of geotropic sensibilit,

and the statolith theory simultaneously advanced by Hatet. Although on this ground Gill proposed the new generic landt and Venec, form the subject of a critical revire in name Amphioxides in 1895, while Delage and Hérouard Dr. Linsbauer, who writes in Naturuissenschafthit. pointed out that if the character in question was not due llochenschrift (March, No. 1). The reviewer mas to to imperfection the creature indicated a distinct ordinal regarded as an adherent to the statolith theory, and not type, yet it has generally been allowed to remain in the that although the role of statoliths is generally attribulat type genus, as in Prof. Herdinan's account of the group to starch grains, in their absence other bodies, such a in the "

Cambridge Natural History.” The examination crystals of calcium oxalate, or certain bright bodies frum' of twenty-six entire specimens obtained during the recent in the rhizoids of Chara, may function similarly. German deep-sea expedition enables Dr. Goldschmidt to state that A. pelagicus, together with two closely allied Tue Bulletin of the American Geographical Societi put species, represents a distinct family of Cephalochordata, tains an article on the work of the Reclamation Seri which may be distinguished from the typical family as of the l'nited States, by Mr. C. J. Blanchard. Durir follows :--Family Branchiostomatida.-A peribranchial the last three and a half years a sum of nearis tsen. space; the ventrally-opening mouth surrounded by ten- five million dollars has been realised from the sale on tacles; gill-canal furnished throughout its diameter with public lands, and work has been begun on right irrigatar lateral gill-slits. Family Amphioxidida.-No peribranchial projects which will make an area of about one miles space; the slit-like mouth opening on the left side; gill- acres productive. The National Geographic Magan ho slits situated in the ventral median line: gill-canal divided March has a short article, with excellent illustration is into a dorsal nutritive and a ventral respiratory half. the same subject.

a

name

at

museum use.

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as

on

Messrs. W. STANFORD AND Co., of Oxford, have sent

of aurora borealis. He also gave tabular and graphical us specimens of a number of outline maps of the world, on results of its occurrence

Pavlovsk from January 1, Mollweide's equal-area projection; also

a map of the

1878, to the end of 1903. The tables show, generally, an Atlantic Ocean, on the same projection. The maps are

eleven years' period, as in the case of sun-spots, but the well drawn and clearly printed; the larger scale maps details of the two curves do not correspond. The maxima should be extremely useful for purposes of research and

of the auroræ occurred in 1887 and 1896, and the minima teaching, while the smaller maps are well adapted for in 1884 and 1894, but this divergence may be due to the

The employment of equal-area maps in re- occurrence of cloud. The annual period is well marked, presenting distribution cannot be too strongly

the maxima being in March and October, and the minima mended, and in providing such maps at very moderate

in January and July. prices Messrs. Stanford have done good service.

In the Archives des Sciences physiques et naturelles of In ore-dressing operations and in laboratory work much March last M. F. A. Forel summarises his own obseryconfusion is caused by the practice of describing the sieve

ations and those made by others on the occurrence of or screen employed by the number of the mesh. A sieve

Bishop's Ring, following the great volcanic eruption of of 30 mesh, for example, does not possess an aperture of Mont Pelée (Martinique) on May 8, 1902. Bishop's Ring. one-thirtieth of an inch, nor does it yield a product of

most of our readers are aware, consists of a solar which the largest particles will be one-thirtieth of an

corona of great diameter; it appears to be formed of two inch in diameter. With coarse sieves the error is not of

parts, a limb of a dazzling silvery hue being immediately great moment, but with fine sieves the wire itself occupies

round the sun, and, beyond this, a coppery red ring so much space that the size of the particle passed by the

of some 20°-25° exterior radius. The ring appears to have sieve may vary from a quarter to two-thirds of the size in

been first observed in the winter of 1902-3, but only dicated by the word “mesh.” Consequently, in ordering became general towards the end of July, 1903, and was wire screens or in recording results it is desirable to

constantly seen until November of that year. After that specify the size of aperture rather than the number of the

time it became less frequent, and ceased altogether in mesh. In order to enable this to be done, Mr. G. T.

July; 1904. The phenomenon is best seen from an elevated Holloway has drawn up a valuable series of tables, calcu

station, and when the sun is high above the horizon.. The lated the British Imperial Standard wire gauge, intensity of the colours of the ring was less than in that showing the size of aperture in screen wire cloth of all

which followed the Krakatoa eruption in 1883. the principal sizes in use down to the very finest. The tables have been duplicated, one series showing the figures

Bulletin No. 35 of the United States Department of in decimals of an inch, and the other, for the use of

Agriculture, Weather Bureau, will be found of great those who still prefer to employ vulgar fractions, in both

interest to those who wish to know something about the decimals and vulgar fractions. The tables, which have present stage of long-range weather forecasting. The first been published in pamphlet form (Bulletin No. 5 of the chapter is written by Prof. Garriott, and presents a verifiInstitution of Mining and Metallurgy), have been calcu

cation of the work of the most prominent of the solated with great care, and should do much towards effect- called long-range weather forecasters in the United ing unitormity in the nomenclature of sieve-mesh.

States. Prof. Garriott considers chapter and verse of the

forecast with the actual facts, and shows conclusively The Geological Survey of Western Australia is publish- the fallacy of these predictions. Prof. Woodward, in the ing, in handy octavo form, a valuable series of bulletins, second chapter, devotes his attention to the impossibility of which we have received three. One of them, dealing of basing weather predictions on planetary influences, and with the mineral production of the colony up to the end at the same time criticises the work of Mr. Tice emof 1903. is written by Mr. A. Gibb Maitland and Mr.

bodied in a book on the elements of meteorology. PerC.F. 1. Jackson. It shows that the total value of the haps the most interesting portions of this Bulletin are the mineral products was 47,779,000l., gold alone representing pages devoted to a discussion by Prof. Garriott of the a value of 46,441,0001. Other minerals mined include

subject of long-range forecasting by many of the leading copper, tin, lead, silver, iron, antimony and cobalt ores, meteorologists of the world. It may be said to be a brief coal, graphite, limestone, precious stone, mica, asbestos, review of the literature on the subject, and gives quotaand salt. In the other bulletins Mr. C. G. Gibson deals

tions of their opinions regarding the practicability of longwith the mineral resources of the Murchison goldfield and range work. It the end is given a summary of the reof Southern Cross, Yilgarn goldfield. The reports and marks and opinions expressed and a series of conclusions the accompanying coloured maps throw much light on based on them, and we refer the reader to the Bulletin the geology of the districts, and indicate that the areas for these conclusions. There is one which may be men. described deserve more attention from the mining pro- tioned here, since by recent work in this country it has Spector than they have hitherto received. The Murchison been brought prominently forward. * Advances in the goldfield is of some historical interest in that in 1855. when period and accuracy of weather forecasts depend upon its economic value was purely prospective, it was officially

exact study and understanding of atmospheric stated to have the appearance of being one of the finest pressure over great areas and a determination of the ingoldfields in the world. Although it has not come up to Ruences, probably solar, that are responsible for normal these high expectations, it is one of the most important and abnormal distributions of atmospheric pressure over goldfield in the colony, and contains not only one of the the earth's surface." largest quartz veins mined anywhere, but also the iron ore deposits of the Weld range, which, though practically

No. 3 of vol. ii. of Le Radium contains useful articles valueless owing to their inaccessibility, are among the

on uraniferous minerals and their deposits, and on the richest in the world.

methods used in the measurement of the quantity of heat

pvolved by radio-active substances. MR. 1. KOUSNETZOFF communicated to the Bulletin of I'ROF. McCLELLAND has recently shown that the emanthe St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences of September last ution of radio-active substances does not carry an electrical some usiful formule for the determination of the height charge, and the same conclusion is arrived at by means

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