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secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric glands is a effect sought for occurs-absorb to a considerable extent decrease in the concentration of the hydrogen ions. the rays the absorption of which it is proposed to measure

Blood plasma is alkaline to some indicators and acid on the assumption that they are transmitted by the screen. to others, indicating the presence of both hydroxyl ions, For Auorescence of very feeble intensity the effect may upon which its alkalinity depends, and hydrogen ions, not in any circumstances be perceptible. giving an acid reaction. Any agency which increases the Furthermore, the fluorescent spectrum of uranium glass effective alkalinity of the blood, that is to say, which in- is composed of several bands, and these in turn the creases the hydroxyl ions and diminishes the hydrogen author regards as discontinuous, and made up of more ions, will increase the difficulty of separating a secretion

finely divided bands or lines. containing free hydrochloric acid.

Thus the use of the screen filters the rays, and only In cases where the gastric secretion has its acidity those which are not absorbed by uranium glass are transdiminished or reduced to zero, as is found to be the case mitted. These would not undergo any change of absorpin carcinoma, it is hence highly probable that the core.

tion. centration of the hydrogen ions in blood plasma is re- The change of absorption cannot be due to the increased duced. The action of the kidney cells in maintaining a amplitude if the vibrations are linear, but where new free definite degree of alkalinity of the plasma is hence altered, periods are produced by the exciting rays, the intensity so that a greater degree of alkalinity is maintained than and the absorption of the fluorescent light would both in the normal individual.

depend upon the number and duration of the periods thus It has been shown by Loeb that slight increase in produced, and it is this which the change of absorption alkalinity of the medium leads in certain instances to a in fluorescence most distinctly proves. more rapid cell division and growth, and if this holds “ The Direct Synthesis of Ammonia." By Dr. E. P. good generally, it is possible that increased alkalinity of

Perman, Communicated by Principal E. H. Griffiths, the blood plasma may lead to increased activity in cell

F.R.S. division, and hence be a stimulating cause leading to (1) So far as can be shown by one of the most delicate formation of new growths.

tests known to chemists, ammonia cannot be synthesised The acidity was determined by the following methods :- by heat (except under special conditions specified below).

(a) Total acidity by titration with phenolphthalein as The decomposition of ammonia by heat may, therefore, be indicator. This lay very low in the seventeen cancer cases, regarded as an irreversible reaction. (2) Ammonia may being normal in one case only, above 0.1 per cent. in four be synthesised in small quantities from its constituent cases, and in the majority one or two drops of decinormal elements (a) by heating with many of the metals; (b) by alkali sufficed to render neutral.

exploding with oxygen ; (c) by sparking. These are re(b) Günzberg's reagent for free hydrochloric acid gave versible reactions. (3) It would appear that the synthesis entire absence in eleven out of seventeen cases, a minute of ammonia is effected only when the gases are ionised ; trace in five cases (0.0036 per cent. to 0.0109 per cent.), the ionisation would be brought about by sparking, or by and 0.0365 per cent. was the highest value attained in a

the high temperature of an explosion of hydrogen and single case only.

oxygen. The immediate decomposition of the ammonia (c) Hydrolysis of methyl acetate by the filtered gastric formed would be prevented by its sudden cooling. The contents for the determination of the concentration of free metals in the presence of moisture also produce nascent hydrogen ions was carried out in ten cases, and it was or ionised hydrogen. (4) It does not appear that nitrides found that the concentration in all these never exceeded of the metals form an intermediate stage in the formation one-fifteenth of the average concentration in three normal of ammonia, for it was found that metals readily forming cases tested by the same method.

nitrides, e.g. magnesium, did not produce more ammonia March 30.—“Note on Fluorescence and Absorption."

than the others. (5) There is a close analogy between By J. B. Burke. Communicated by Prof. Larmor,

ozone and ammonia with regard to their synthesis and Sec.R.S.

decomposition; both are formed by sparking, and both In a paper On the Change of Absorption produced by

are completely decomposed by heat. Fluorescence "I the author gave an account of the experi- “Determination of Vapour-pressure by Air-bubbling." ments by which he found the existence of a very remark- By Dr. E. P. Perman and J. H. Davies. Communicated able difference in the absorption of the fluorescent light of by Principal E. H. Griffiths, F.R.S. uranium glass when in the luminous and non-luminous It was shown recently by one of the authors that the states. This difference he has attributed to a temporary vapour-pressure of water can be determined with a conchange in structure or chemical composition of the body | siderable degree of accuracy by bubbling a current of air when exposed to the influence of the exciting light, and through water in a thermostat, and estimating the amount he has been led to regard this as due to new atomic con- of water evaporated by absorbing it in strong sulphuric nections giving rise to new frequencies during the acid. period of luminosity, by the formation of unstable aggre- The accuracy of the method has since been questioned, gates, which radiate intensely, as they disintegrate, the supersaturation being specially suggested as likely to cause energy which was stored up in their formation; the

Experiments have therefore been made in order to luminosity being thus the visible manifestation of a process discover what error (if any) is introduced by superof building up and breaking down of molecules.

saturating the air with moisture before it enters the water Messrs. Nichols and Merritt have found recently that in the thermostat. The effect of dust in the air and of the change of absorption depends upon the intensity of the electrification have also been investigated. In each case fluorescence, and that a saturation effect takes place in the arrangement of the apparatus was as described in the the absorption as the intensity of the luminosity increases, previous paper. attaining a maximum with a certain intensity of the fluor- Supersaturation.--Before passing into the flasks in the escent light. They used, not the fluorescent light from thermostat, which was maintained at 70°, the air was another similarly excited body, but an acetylene flame as bubbled through a large wash-bottle containing water at the source of the transmitted rays.

about 850 M. Camichel has encountered some difficulty in detect- Dust in the Air.--A thick smoke was made by burning ing the change with the light from a flame, and this pieces of phosphorus near the inlet tube of the apparatus appears to have been due to the use of a

screen of described in the former paper. uranium glass, 7 cm. in thickness, to cut off the more Electrification of the Air.-—(1) The air was made to pass refrangible rays from the flame, a precaution which is by through a large flask in which hydrogen was being rapidly no means necessary, since the effect has been observed evolved from zinc and dilute sulphuric acid. without it. The fluorescence caused by the flame merely (2) One terminal of an induction-coil, capable of giving diminishes the apparent absorption. The screen, on the (with the battery power used) a 6-inch spark, was conother hand, must itself fluoresce, and in so doing-if the nected with a wire passing into the first (nearest the inlet)

flask in the thermostat ; the other terminal was connected 1 Philosophical Transactions, (A) 1898 ; NATURE, July 15, 1897. • British Assoc. Report, Bellast, 1902, and Phil. Mag , 1901.

with the bath, so that the silent discharge passed through 3 Physical Review, December, 1904.

the flasks and the air inside.


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(3) The X-rays from an ordinary focus-tube were allowed most readily available for the very highest temperatura to fall on the flasks in the thermostat, and were specially and the authors have been able to get satisfactory results directed on to the last (nearest outlet). A wire from one with a very simple type of construction. The important of the terminals of a Wimshurst machine was passed down points to bear in mind are the end connections (whir the gauge-tube into the last flask, the other terminal must be kept cool), protection of the tube from contact being connected with the bath.

with air, and heat insulation. Two types of furnace are The last mentioned experiments gave vapour-pressures described :I) graphite tube furnace; (2) agglomerated 237-5 and 238.0, instead of the normal value 234.0.

carbon tube furnaces. The greatest deviation from the normal value obtained

Anthropological Institute, April 4.- Prof. W. Gowland, in the other experiments was slightly more than 0.5 per

president, in the chair.—The fort and stone-lined pits at cent., which is almost exactly the same as that obtained

Inyanga contrasted with the Great Zimbabwe: R. X. Hall in the original investigation.

The walls of the fort are built upon a curved plan, and It may safely be concluded, therefore, that no naturally

the fort itself is divided into enclosures for purposes of occurring supersaturation, or dust, or electrification of the

defence. The fort has twenty-five entrances pierced air would have any appreciable effect on the result.

through the walls which are themselves pierced with a April 6.-" On Endophytic Adaptation shown by great number of loopholes. The fort is also peculiar for Erysiphe Graminis DC. under Cultural Conditions. By the employment of banquette walls, which are not met E. S. Salmon. Communicated by Prof. H. Marshall with except in a few ruins in southern Rhodesia. Another Ward, F.R.S.

peculiarity of the building is the absence of buttresses. In recent papers by the author the fact has been pointed The stone-lined pits very numerous throughout out that certain species of the Erysiphaceæ are able, under Inyanga, and are usually found in clusters of twos and cultural conditions, to infect their host-plants vigorously threes. Mr. Hall was of opinion that they were not used when their conidia or ascospores are sown on the cells of as slave-pits, as had been supposed, but as shelters from the internal tissues exposed by means of a wound, although the variable temperature. The pits consist of a hole lined the fungi in question are confined normally to the external with masonry, and a curved, paved passage used as an surface of the epidermal cells.

entrance. In almost every case the pits have a drain The author, reviewing the results of the present investi- running through the rampart, and another peculiaritt is gations, points out that they afford proof that E. graminis the erection near them of a stone monolith. Mr. Hall is not, as perhaps might have been expected, so highly also referred to the hill terraces found in the neighbourspecialised as an ectoparasite as to be necessarily restricted hood, and in conclusion contrasted the architecture of the for its food-supply to cells of the epidermis, but shows fort and pits with the temple and acropolis at Zimbabwe. itself capable of immediate adaptation to conditions closely

Chemical Society, April 6 - Prof. R. Meldola, F.RS, resembling those obtaining in endophytism.

This fact suggests the possibility that in some circum- president, in the chair.-The kinetics of chemical changes stances the mycelial hyphæ of species of the Erysiphaceæ carbamide : C. E. Fawsitt.

which are reversible. The decomposition of as-dimethyl

This investigation is a con which are normally ectoparasites may penetrate into the

tinuation of those already published on carbamide and internal tissues of their host-plants exposed through wounds caused in nature by the attacks of animals or by physical position holds good.-A new formation of acetylcamphor :

methylcarbamide, and the same explanation of the decomagency. It is pointed out, however, that the successful

M. O. Forster and Miss H. M. Judd. The imine entry of the hyphæ might be prevented, either by the drying up of the superficial layers of cells, or by the heal

CH.CMe:NH ing processes shown by many actively growing leaves.


CO “ On the Physical Chemistry of the Toxin-Antitoxin Reaction : with Special Reference to the Neutralisation of obtained by the action of magnesium methyl iodide on Lysin by Antilysin.” By J. A. Craw. Communicated by a-cyanocamphor, is resolved quantitatively by acids into Dr. C. J. Martin, F.R.S.

acetylcamphor and ammonia.- Preparation and properties Summary of Conclusions.-(1) Megatherium lysin passed of 1:4: 5-trimethylglyoxaline : H. A. D. Jowett. This through a gelatin filter, and is diffusible through gelatin. base was prepared in the course of an attempt to obtain (2) Megatherium antilysin does not pass through a gelatin substances having a constitution analogous to that of filter, and is not appreciably diffusible through gelatin. pilocarpine. The base and a number of its salts are de(3) The filtration and diffusion of mixtures show that free scribed.-Bromomethyl heptyl ketone: H. A. D. Jowett. lysin is present in neutral mixtures and in mixtures contain- This bromoketone is obtained by the action of bromine in ing excess of antilysin. (4) Free antilysin exists in neutral chloroform solution on methyl heptyl ketone obtained from mixtures, and in mixtures containing excess of lysin.

oil of rue.-Limonene nitrosocyanides and their derivatives. (5) The reaction is at least partially reversible when excess

F. P. Leach. The a-nitrosocyanide crystallises in prismas of antilysin is present. (6) False equilibria are produced whilst the B-compound forms fine woolly needles. These with greater facility when the lysin is in excess. (7) The

isomerides are regarded as having the cis and trans conneutralisation equation of Arrhenius and Madsen does not figurations, since on hydrolysis both give rise to the hold for multiple mixtures. (8) The removal of lysin from normal oxime of dihydrocarvone.—The action of carbon a solution by antilysin is not capable of interpretation as

monoxide on ammonia : H. Jackson and D. Northalla purely chemical change, but is more analogous to certain

Laurie. The authors find that the main reaction is the adsorption phenomena.

formation of ammonium cyanate, which rapidly changes to

carbamide.—The action of acetylene on aqueous and hydrom Faraday Society, April 4.-Prof. A. K. Huntington in chloric acid solutions of mercuric chloride : J. S. S. Brame. the chair.-Alloys of copper and bismuth : A. H. Hiorns. The first action of acetylene on mercuric chloride is shown Results of a further research on copper alloys carried out to be one of simple combination, the product being then in a similar manner to that on the copper-arsenic series decomposed by water forming aldehyde and the sub published in the Transactions of the society, April, 1904. stance C(HgCl),.CHO.-The basic properties of oxygen al Prof. Arnold has investigated the effect of bismuth, from low temperatures. Additive compounds of the haloger 0:1 per cent. to 0-5 per cent., on copper, and found that with organic substances containing oxygen : D. Mcintosh. the investing membranes surrounding the grains of copper Crystalline compounds of chlorine and bromine with methy appeared to be split down the centre, presenting a definite and ethyl alcohols, methyl ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, plane of cleavage. Dr. Gautier obtained a freezing-point acetaldehyde, and acetic acid have been obtained.-.Jatr curve similar to the author's, but his temperatures are the interaction of metallic cyanides and organs generally higher. The microscopic evidence mainly con- halides : X. V. Sidgwick. A possible explanation of the firms the records of the freezing-point curves, of which formation of both nitriles and isocyanides in this reacticut there are four branches.-Refractory materials for furnace from the same initial additive compound is given.-The linings : E. Kilburn Scott. (Discussion.)- Electrically chemical dynamics of the reactions between sodium thum heated carbon tube furnaces, part i. : R. S. Hutton and sulphate and organic halogen compounds, part ii, halagen W. H. Patterson. This type of furnace seems to be the substituted acetates : A. Slator. The reactions in th



thiosulphate with ethyl iodoacetate and methyl, ethyl and the system of two lenses and a mirror used by Hansky. sodium bromo- and chloro-acetates have been investigated, Details are given of the method suggested by the author. and shown in all cases to be bimolecular reactions. -The - The conclusions to be drawn from the study of homotautomerism of acetyl thiocyanate : A. E. Dixon and geneous enclosures in petrography: A. Lacroix.—The J. Hawthorne.-A method of determining the specific plants of the plateau of the Nilghirris : Gaston Bonnier. gravity of soluble salts by displacement in their own The mean temperature of Ootacamund is practically the same inother liquor, and its application in the case of the alkali as that of Paris, and a detailed comparison of the flora halides : j. Y. Buchanan.—The combination of mercap- of the two places is given. The altitude of the Nilghirris tans with unsaturated ketonic compounds : S. Ruhemann. is not sufficient for the plants to acquire all the character--The existence of a carbide of magnesium : J. T. Nance. istics of alpine plants, but they acquire certain alpine The yellow residue formed when magnesium is heated with characters. There are also special modifications induced carbon evolves hydrogen and acetylene when dissolved in by the large difference between the day and night temperaacids, and may contain a carbide.-Isomeric salts of the ture.—On the Peneideæ and Stenopideæ collected by the type NR,R,Hz. A correction. Isomeric forms of d-bromo- French and Monaco expeditions in the eastern Atlantic : and d-chloro-camphorsulphonic acids : F. S. Kipping. E. L. Bouvier. The conflict between the primary and The further study of the isomeric a and B salts has shown accidental images, applied to the theory of inevitable that the isomerism of these compounds is not due to variability of retinal impressions excited by objects illumindifference in the spatial arrangement of the groups attached

ated by sources of light of constant value : A. Chauveau. to the quinquevalent nitrogen atom, but to the existence The impression produced on the retina by a geometrical of cis and trans forms of d-bromo- and d-chloro-camphor- figure is complex, and is a resultant formed by the supersulphonic acids.- Isomerism of a-bromo- and a-chloro-position of two images, the one objective, the other subcamphor : F. S. Kipping.–1-Phenylethylamine: F. S. jective, and an experiment is described showing how these Kipping and A. E. Hunter.-The influence of the may be separated. The effects of colour, intensity of hydroxyl and alkoxyl groups on the velocity of saponifi illumination, motion of the retina, displacement of the cation, part i. : A. Findlay and W. E. S. Turner. The eye or the object, and accommodation are considered numbers obtained show that the hydroxyl group exercises systematically. The case of the n-rays is not actually an accelerating influence on the velocity of saponification,

taken by the author, but the considerations here put forbut that on replacing the hydrogen of the hydroxyl by an

ward clearly suffice to explain many of the phenomena alkyl group the rate diminishes, and the effect increases ascribed to the action of these rays.—The heat of formregularly with the mass of the alkyl group.

ation of sodium hydride. The acidity of the molecule of

hydrogen : M. Forcrand.-On the reduction of Linnean Society, April 6.-Mr. A. C. Seward, F.R.S., oxyhæmoglobin : R. Lepine and M. Boulud. The vice-president, in the chair.—Specimens and drawings oxyhæmoglobin is reduced with a titrated solution of of pitchers of Nepenthes, supplemented by slides, pre- ferrous sulphate, and the time of reduction noted, the pared by Mr. L. Farmar, to illustrate the various types of

colouring matter being considered as reduced when the pitchers and their marvellous glandular systems: W. two absorption bands fuse together. In normal blood from Botting Hemsley, F.R.S. Mr. Hemsley first exhibited a the dog the time of reduction is fixed, and is between new species, Nepenthes Macfarlanei, which differs from all

eighteen and twenty minutes, and this time is independent other known species, except N. Lowii, in the underside of the dilution. In anæmia, with a quantity of the reof the lip being thickly beset with stiff bristles, interspersed ducing agent proportional to the amount of hæmoglobin, with honey-glands. Other species were compared with the time of reduction is much increased. Prolonged inV. Macfarlanci. Briefly, all the complex arrangements of halation of ether or chloroform also increases the time these plants favour the descent of insects and other crea- of reduction. Human blood from anæmic patients shows tures into the pitchers, and hinder almost all visitors from the same characteristics.-On Rhabdocarpus, the seeds getting out again ; once in, there is little hope of escape. and the evolution of the Cordaiteæ : M. Grand'Eury.A few hybrids were also shown, notably one named Report presented in the name of the committee charged William Thiselton-Dyer,” which has produced the largest with the scientific control of the geodesic operations at pitcher known in cultivation, being a pint and three- the equator. The operations have been much delayed by quarters in capacity.--The axillary scales of aquatic Mono- the unfavourable meteorological conditions and by the illcotyledons : Prof. R. J. Harvey Gibson. The author com- ness of several members of the expedition. A short pared the ligule of Selaginella with the scales in question, account is given of the progress made in triangulation, and suggested that the latter may be looked upon as levelling, and pendulum observations. An astronomical evidence that the Monocotyledons may be regarded as station has been installed at Cuenca, and another will be modern representatives of primitive Angiosperms, and in set up near the fourth parallel. On account of the limited turn may have been genetically related to some ancestral financial resources of the expedition, it is proposed that a form allied to Isoetes.-A further contribution to the study portion of the original scheme be dropped.- Observations of Pelomyxa palustris (Greeff) : Mrs. L. J. Veley. After of the Giacobini comet (1905 a) made at the Observatory alluding to her previous memoir in the Quarterly Journal of Algiers with the 31.8 cm. bent equatorial : MM. of Microscopical Science, n. ser. xxxvi. (1894), pp. 295–306, Rambaud and Sy. The observations

made the author explained that the “ rods " present in Pelomyxa March 28, 29, and 30, and give the apparent positions of palustris (Greeff) are symbiotic bacteria (Cladothrix pelo- the comet with the positions of comparison stars. On myxae, Veley); they complete their development within March 28, when the atmospheric conditions were excepthe animal and are then ejected, breaking down into free tionally favourable, a nucleus could be clearly made out swarmers," which are ingested by other Pelomyxæ, and of about the thirteenth magnitude. -Actinometric observimmediately re-commence the cycle. The “refringent

ations at the summit of Mont Blanc in 1904 : A. Hansky. bodies" are proteid in nature, viz. some form of albumin | The weather conditions were not favourable. The most which is a waste product of the metabolism of Pelomyxa. probable value of the solar constant from the 1904 observThey supply the bacteria with a point of attachment ations is 3.28 calories.--On integral functions: Eugène necessary for development, and (probably) also with Fabry-On Monge's problem : P. Zervos.—On the nourishment.--Mansonieæ, a new tribe of the natural order equilibrium of arches in circular arcs: M. Belzecki.Sterculiaceæ : Dr. D. Prain.

On the longitudinal stability of aërostats : L. Torres. A

discussion of a paper on the same subject by M. Renard, Paris.

in which, as the result of a theoretical investigation, certain Academy of Sciences, April 10.-M. Troost in the chair. modifications of the stern are suggested. In the present - Remarks on the recognition of the solar corona at times paper it is shown that this investigation is not strictly other than during total eclipses: H. Deslandres. A correct, and that the modifications suggested will not have criticism of the results recently obtained by Hansky, in the desired effect. --On the diamagnetism of bismuth : 1. which the difficulties introduced by diffused light in the Leduc. Bismuth was fused in small spherical flasks and apparatus do not appear to have been sufficiently taken allowed to solidify in a strong magnetic field (4000 to into account. The use of a simple concave mirror, as 5000 C.G.S. units). The sphere of solid bismuth, Suseinployed by Huggins in 1883, is decidedly preferable to pended in the same field, took up the same position as it



on on

had at the moment of solidification.-Contribution to the and J. Wolff.--Experimental acid dyscrasia : M. Charrin study of ionisation in flames : Pierre Massoulier. The --On the age of the granite of the western Alps and be conductivity of an ether flame is considerable. By intro- origin of the crystalline exotic blocks of Klippes : C. G. 5 ducing increasing proportions of carbon dioxide into this Sandberg:-On the Lahore earthquake and the variations flame, although the temperature is lowered, the ionisa- of the magnetic needle at Paris : Th. Moureaux. Dis tion, as measured by the current between two electrodes turbances of the magnetic records at Paris were observed in the flame, is increased. The results are interpreted by on the day of the Lahore earthquake. the author as being due to the dissociation of the carbon

GÖTTINGEN. dioxide in the flame.-On the variation of the difference of contact potential for miscible solutions of electrolytes :

Royal Society of Sciences.—The Nachrichten physioM. Chanoz.—On the dichroism produced by radium in mathematical section), part vi. for 1904, contains the folloscolourless quartz and a thermoelectric phenomenon ing memoirs communicated to the society :observed in striated smoky quartz : N. Egoroft. Colour

October 29.-W. Voigt: Remarks on tensor-analysis less quartz, exposed to the action of radium for a week, A. Schonflies : On the geometrical invariants of the exhibited dichroism identical with that ordinarily observed

analysis of position. Eduard Riecke : Researches on the with smoky quartz. A plate of smoky quartz, heated to

phenomena of discharge in Geissler tubes. F. Bernstein 100° C. and treated with a mixture of sulphur and red

On the theory of aggregates. lead, gave a figure reproducing the striations.-An auto

December 17.-G. Herglotz: On the calculation of te matic damping arrangement applicable to pendular and

tarded potentials. oscillatory movements : V. Crémieu.-On a photograph of a lightning flash showing the air in incandescence : Em. Touchet. The persistent glow which is visible in some

DIARY OF SOCIETIES. cases after a lightning flash is due to the incandescence of the air. This effect is not physiological, as it is clearly INSTITUTION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, AT 8?-Discussion : M. BI shown in some photographs taken by the author and by Arnold's Address to the Joint Meeting at St. Louis on the Problems of other experimenters.-The etherification of glycerin :

Alternate Current Motor applied to Traction. --Paper: The Alternae

Current Series Motor: F. Creedy. Marcel P. S. Guédras.—The liquefaction of allene and

FRIDAY, APRIL 28. allylene : MM. Lespieau and Chavanne. The two gases EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30. were prepared with great care in a pure state and solidified in liquid air. Allene melts at - 146° C., boiling at -32° C., its critical point being about 121° C. Allylene


PAGE melts at - 110° C., boils at -23°5 C., and has a critical point of 129°:5 C., the temperatures being all measured

Man and Scenery .

577 by an iron-constantan thermo-couple. The purity of the A Magnetic Survey of Japan. By Prof. Arthur gases was determined by a combustion analysis.—On the Schuster, F.R.S. hydrogenation of benzonitrile and paratoluonitrile : A.

The Technology of the Vegetable Fibres. By Prof. Frébault. Sabatier and Senderens, who have already Aldred F. Barker. applied their reaction to this case, found that nickel carried

579 the reduction too far, toluene and ammonia being the only

English Estate Forestry

580 products, and were obliged to replace the nickel by copper Our Book Shelf :to obtain benzylamines. Working under somewhat “ Index Kewensis Plantarum Phanerogamarum."different conditions, the author has obtained results

A. B. R. with nickel.--Secondary diazoamines : Léo Vignon and A.

Beavan : “ Birds I have known.”_W. P. P. Simonet.-On the hydrates of acetol : André Kling.

581 On the use of the metal ammoniums in chemistry: the

Muir : “The Elements of Chemistry” preparation of paraffins : Paul Lebeau (see p. 592).-On Salt: “Richard Jefferies : his Life and Ideals."-R.L. 582 isodimorphism : Fred. Wallerant.-On a new indiarubber Letters to the Editor :Euphorbia : Henri Jumelle. This tree grows in the northwest of Madagascar, and its indiarubber producing proper

Historical Note on Dust, Electrification, and Heat.ties were discovered accidentally by the natives. It appears

Sir Oliver Lodge, F.R.S. . to be a new species, and is named Euphorbia elastica.

The Late Prof. Tacchini.-Prof. R. Meldola, The action of ether and chloroform on dried seeds : Paul F.R.S.

583 Becquerel. The result is due to action of these sub- Propagation of Earthquake Waves.--Rev. O. Fisher 58: stances on the fatty material of the cell, but the effect of The Ancient Races of the Thebaid.-Prof. Arthur the chloroform is much more energetic.—On the formation Thomson ; Prof. Karl Pearson, F.R.S. ... 58; and function of fatty materials in fungi : A. Perrier. It is shown that the fat acts as a reserve food material for

Inversions of Temperature on Ben Nevis.-Andrew the plant.-On some points of anatomy of the male organs


583 of the Edentata, and on their means of fixation : Rémy

Stanton Drew.-A. L. Lewis Perrier. It is shown that this is not a case of retro- Alcohol in Industry gression, but that the condition of the male organs corre- The Capital of Tibet. (Illustrated.) sponds to a primitive form. This view confirms the

By T. H. H. 555 palæontological results as to the age of the Edentata. The Treatment of Cancer with Radium The weight of the brain as a function of the body weight Notes in birds : L. Lapicque and P. Girard. The exponential Our Astronomical Column :formula given by Dubois for expressing the weight of the brain as a function of the body weight holds for the case

Astrophysical Work at the Smithsonian Institution of birds, the index having the same numerical value as in

Value of the Astronomical Relraction Constant mammals (0.56).-On the alternation of eclipses and the Reality of Various Features on Mars . lustre of feebly lighted objects : Th. Lullin.-The spectro- Stonyhurst College Observatory .

592 scopy of the blood and of oxyhæmoglobin : M. Piettre Nature of Sun-spots . . and A. Vila. The reaction of sodium fluoride upon the

596 absorption spectrum of blood is a very delicate one, and

Instructions to Solar Observers . can be used to detect traces of fluorides down to 5 parts in Recent Changes in the Crater of Stromboli. (Tlitasa million. A diagram is given of the relation between the

trated.) By Dr. Tempest Anderson . intensity of the absorption bands of oxyhæmoglobin and The Institution of Naval Architects.

$94 the dilution.-On the normal presence of alcohol and | Unsolved Problems in Electrical Engineering. . acetone in the liquids and tissues of the organism : F.

995 Maignon.- Researches on hæmatogen : MM. Hugouneng University and Educational Intelligence and Morel.—The influence of the state of liquefaction of Societies and Academies starch on its transformation by diastases : A. Fernbach Diary of Societies




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Camomile Street, E.C
For Photography, Unsurpassed for fine definition.


High-Class Apparatus for Röntgen P. E. BECKER & CO. (W. and
Ray and High Frequency Work.

10", 12" & 14" INDUCTION COILS.



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Send a card merely quoting 2140.



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