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Possibly, in a few instances, the ridges on the their base, which was published in the third volume hill-slopes may be due to outcropping strata, and of the Indian Memoirs. This contains a sketch of others might suggest terrace-cultivation; but there the history of the Himalayas which has been generally seems ample evidence for the view taken that accepted ever since. Neolithic cattle-tracks have survived to this day After returning to the survey in 1862 (he always around certain of our most imposing camps.' protested that he really had remained a member of
Failing large-scale maps, a sketch-plan of the the staff throughout), he examined in successive years earthworks noticed would have made the description the greater part of northern India. Various tracts even more illuminating; but the only matters of com- of the Himalayas from the Punjab to Assam, the plaint are that the book is all too short, and that the Assam valley and the hill ranges south of it, and, in paper selected to throw up the detail of the photo the Peninsula, Rajputana, Nimar, the Nerbudda graphs is as chalky as the Downs they illustrate so valley and Satpura ranges, Bundelkhand, South pleasantly.
Rewah, Chhatisgarh and Sambalpur, Chota Nagpore,
Hazaribagh, and Behar were visited and reported HENRY BENEDICT MEDLICOTT, F.R.S.
upon in turn.
Dr. Oldham retired in 1876, and Mr. Medlicott ON April 6 there passed away one of the few succeeded him as superintendent, a title subsequently
survivors amongst the small body of men who changed to director of the survey. The first work laid the foundations of Indian geology. Despite undertaken by him as superintendent was a general much excellent work, chiefly by non-professional men,
account of Indian geology. This had long been very little was really known of the geology of India, urgent, and woudd probably have been written by Dr. and especially of Peninsular India, before the middle Oldham but for failing health. The “ Manual of the of the nineteenth century, and
instance Geology of India " was published in 1879, and a very amongst many, the Vindhyans, now believed to be large portion, including the account of the Azoic Archæan, were still classed with Gondwana Permo- rocks from gneiss to Vindhyans (which between Carboniferous strata, and both were regarded as of them cover the greater part of the Indian peninsula). Jurassic age. A comparison of Dr. Carter's and of the geology of the Himalayas and sub-Hima"Summary of the Geology of India between the layas, in fact, nearly half the entire work, was Ganges, the Indus and Cape Comorin," published in
written by Mr. Medlicott himself. In many ways a 1853, with the “ Manual of the Geology of India," great impulse was given to survey work by the new issued in 1879, will show the great improvement that superintendent. As regards publication alone, the took place in the meantime in our knowledge of the
volumes of the Records from 1877 are doubled in country.
bulk when compared with previous issues, and these In this change none had a larger share than Henry volumes, containing accounts of recent geological Benedict Medlicott.
Born in Loughrea, county observations, both economical and scientific, represent Galway, he was the second of three sons of the Rev. the actual field work of the survey to a larger extent Samuel Medlicott, rector of Loughrea, and of Char
than the longer memoirs and palæontologia. lotte, the daughter of Colonel H. B. Dolphin, C.B. Throughout his career as head of the survey Mr. All three sons were men of great intellectual capacity Medlicott adopted a most liberal policy of publication. and of marked originality. The eldest, J. G. Medli- He allowed his staff to report on their own work cott, became a member of the Geological Survey of freely, and whilst assisting them in every way, both India before his brother joined; he was subsequently in the field and in the study, he never took any of in the Indian Educational Service, and died in 1866. the credit of their work. Not only did he welcome The third brother, Samuel, was 'a clergyman, who reports from the geologists of the survey, but be has also been dead several years. The subject of the published, whenever possible, contributions from inpresent memoir was educated at Trinity College, dependent observers. In this manner he secured the Dublin, and, after taking his degree, was for a short valuable assistance of the late General McMahon, the time on the staff, first of the Irish, then of the whole of whose most important observations on the English Geological Survey. In the spring of 1853 physical history of the Himalayas appeared in the he joined the Geological Survey of India under the Records of the Geological Survey of India. late Dr. Thomas Oldham, but was almost immedi- Modest and retiring, he was nevertheless a man of ately appointed professor of geology at the Roorkee high courage and independence.
One trait of this College of Civil Engineering, an appointment which he held until 1862, when, on
was shown in the Indian Mutiny, when, with one
some additions being companion, despite the mutiny of the guard that made to the staff, he re-joined the Geological Survey should have accompanied them, he saved the lives of of India, and was made deputy superintendent for a Christian family who had fallen into the hands of Bengal.
the rebels, a most gallant action, the account of which But during his tenure of the Roorkee post he spent is due to Colonel Baird Smith, the head of Roorkee part of the year surveying for the Geological Survey, College and the commanding officer. After retiring and in his first season's work he and his brother from the Indian Survey in 1887, he lived very quietly made a primary step towards the elucidation of at Clifton, devoting himself to philosophical problems. Indian geological history by separating the ancient He published a couple of short pamphlets on Vindhyans north of the Son and Nerbudda Rivers « Agnosticism and Faith" in 1888, and on "The from the Indian Coal-measures and their allies to the Evolution of Mind in Man, but a larger work on southward. In subsequent years, whilst his brother which he was engaged is, it must be feared, incommapped the last named strata, he surveyed the older plete. A strain caused by bicycling led to serious Vindhyans and their associates, and to him we owe heart symptoms some years ago, and although a parour first recognition of the Bijawur and other ancient tial recovery was made, a relapse about a year since rocks between the old gneissic formation and the reduced him so much that it was not surprising to Vindhyans. In other years he explored the Hima- hear that he passed quietly away on April 6. whilst layas, and the ranges at their base, between the seated in his study. Ganges and the Ravi, and he drew up the descrip- Mr. Medlicott became a Fellow of the Geological tion of the older unfossiliferous beds of the moun- Society as long since as 1856, and in 1888, on his tains, and of the Tertiary and other strata fringing retirement from India, he received the Wollaston
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