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DUBLIN.

zones, these being, in ascending order, the Nairn, Alves,

and Rosebrae beds. Reference was made to the affinity of Royal Dublin Society, March 21.-Sir Howard Grubb,

the Rosebrae fish-fauna with that of Dura Den, the yellow F.R.S., in the chair.-(a) The temperature of healthy dairy

sandstones of which locality constitute the highest member cattle, (b) the temperature of tuberculous cattle, not

of the Upper Old Red of Fifeshire. Dr. Traquair specially clinically affected : Prof. G. H. Wooldridge. The author

desired to acknowledge his great indebtedness to Mr. W. inade 520 observations on 63 healthy dairy cattle which

Taylor, of Lhanbryde, without whose assistance in furnishwere subsequently submitted to the tuberculin test, and

ing material the paper could not have been prepared.--The failing to react were considered free from the disease. His conclusions are that the temperature may vary between

constitution of complex salts, i., derivatives of the sesqui

oxides ; A. T. Cameron. Retger's method of investi1004 F. and 100°.8 F., with an average mean temperature of 1014 F. Feeding caused an average rise of 0°:3 F.

gating isomorphous mixtures was applied to the blue

chromoxalates of ammonium and potassium, and showed above the temperature of the same cattle at the same time on other days, but not feeding. In the afternoon,

that they had no definite composition, there being, there

fore, no conclusive reason for doubling the formulæ of between 4 and o'clock, the average temperature was

these and similar compounds. The striking analogy 0.5 higher than at 8 a.m. Pregnant cows had an average

between the so-called double fluorides, chlorides, cyanides, temperature 0°3 F. higher than the average of the other

&c., and the complex derivatives of dibasic acids was Cuttle in the same building. Tuberculous cattle numbering

pointed out. It was shown that to almost all such com74. apparently perfectly healthy, but subsequently reacting 10 tuberculin, were the subjects of 305 observations. These pounds, whether derived from monobasic or dibasic acids, animals had a much wider range of variations. The hydroxyl radicals of the metallic hydroxide to be replaced

simple constitutions can be assigned by supposing the average was 101°7 F. The lowest observed was 100°4 F.

by complex groups.—Theorems relating to a generalisation and the highest 104°3 F. The widest range of an individual was from 100°.7 F. to 104°3 F., with an average

of Bessel's function, ii. : Rev. F. H. Jackson. of 102°2 F. (temperature taken 15 times).

Out of 137

March 6.---Lord M’Laren in the chair.--A study of three apparently healthy dairy cattle, 74 (54 per cent.) reacted to vegetarian diets : Drs. Noël Paton and J. C. Dunlop. tuberculin, thus emphasising the advisability of using that

Of the three diets described, one was a totally insufficient agent in attempts to obtain a dairy free from tuberculosis. diet of bananas, a second was a fairly typical vegetarian -On the petrological examination of macadam : Prof. J.

diet showing the difficulty of avoiding an excess of sugary Joly, F.R.S. Various specimens of macadam used on

food, and the third was the far from economical diet of a Scottish roads have been examined. The general results vegetarian glutton. These were compared with the diets of the investigation are to elucidate the characteristics of

of the labouring classes in cities as illustrated by the these macadams, as well as apparent abnormalities of

author's own investigations in Edinburgh, and those of behaviour, and to demonstrate the value of petrological

Rowntree, Alswater, and Lumsden respectively in York, methods in such cases. On the construction of fume- New York, and Dublin, and as regards rural districts by chambers with effective ventilation : Prof. W. N. Hartley,

Wilson Fox's report. It was shown that these normal F.R.S. The results of a series of experiments on ventil

diets more nearly approached the physiological standard ation and of practical experience with fume-chambers have

than the vegetarian diets studied. A further contribution shown the conditions which are necessary for the removal

to the fresh-water plankton of the Scottish lochs : W. and of noxious fumes from a chemical laboratory with the

G. S. West. The thirty-six lochs studied were in the greatest efficiency and the least possible trouble and

north-west Highlands. There

abundance of expense. Measurements were made daily over a period of

Desmids, a fact attributed to the geological character of six months of the gas burnt, the air extracted, the differ

the country. The Protococcoideæ were not abundant, in ence between inside and outside temperatures, the baro

marked contrast to what occurs in Continental Europe. metric pressure, the direction of the wind and its strength.

Diatoms were very abundant, and did not disappear in The direction and dimensions of the flues, and the relation

May and June. Myxophyceæ, again, were relatively few. of the passage of air up the flues to the cubic contents

The Swedish lakes alone approached the Scottish in the of the chambers, are stated. The average quantity of air

richness of the plankton. The Danish plankton was reexhausted per minute was 354 cubic feet per chamber of latively much poorer in Chlorophyceæ, especially Conju51 cubic feet, and on an average the air of each chamber

gates. This was to be attributed principally to the fact is completely changed every nine seconds. The small

that the geological formations are mostly of Tertiary age. height of the flues, being 25 feet, renders such a means

-On the Sarcodina of Loch Ness : Dr. E. Penard. Of of ventilation as that described readily adaptable to small

a list of nearly fifty species of Rhizopods and Heliozoa out-buildings, such as school laboratories. Details are

obtained at depths of upwards of 250 feet, several were of given as to the construction of Alues with a descending interest on account of their rarity, some being found for draught as fitted to a lecture table and fume-chamber in

the first time in Europe, others being previously known a lecture room.-On the structure of water-jets and the

only from the Lake of Geneva. The majority of the effect of sound upon them, part ii. : Philip E. Belas.

Rhizopoda had probably been derived from the shallow

margins of the lake or from the neighbouring peat bogs; EDINBURGH.

but some half dozen species or varieties were regarded as Royal Society, February 20.—Sir John Murray in the

peculiar to the abyssal portions of large lakes.--The chair.-On the graptolite-bearing rocks of the South

Rhizopods and Heliozoa of Loch Ness : J. Murray. In Orkney Islands : Dr. J. Harvey Pirie. The presence of

this paper the list of species given in the previous paper

by Penard Silurian sedimentary rocks in these isolated islands in

was supplemented by a number of species dicates a former much greater extension of land in the

observed by the Lake Survey, bringing the list of Loch area lying to the south-east of Cape Horn. The fossils

Ness Sarcodina up to sixty-six species. The difficulty of Pleurograptus and Discinocaris indicate their age as corre

accounting for the transmission of peculiar abyssal forms

from one deep lake to another was met by the suggestion sponding to the Caradoc or Lower Llandovery, and the structure of the rocks suggests that they belong to the

that the abyssal forms originate separately in each lake same series as the Silurian rocks of the Argentine.

and are probably not good permanent species, but modified Paläontology of the Upper Old Red Sandstone of the

forms due to the direct action of the environment on the Moray Firth area : Dr. R. H. Traquair. The fossils dis

growing individual. cussed in this paper, which embodied the research of the

Paris. past fourteen years, were almost entirely fish remains, Academy of Sciences, April 17.-M. Troost in the chair. other remains, in the shape of badly preserved plants and -Second note on the principle of cellular flotation in certain_tracks, probably of invertebrate animals, being ships : M. Bertin.-Mixed treatment by arsenious acid rare. Twenty-one species of fish were recorded, of which and trypan red of infection due to Trypanosoma : A. only seven were known from the Upper Old Red of this

Fresh experiments on monkeys confirm the region when the author took up the subject. The favourable results previously obtained on rats and dogs.character of the fish remains suggested the division of the Observations on the new comet Giacobini (1905, March 26) strata of the Moray Firth Upper Old Red into three made at Toulouse Observatory: F. Rossard.—On the

Laveran.

624

a

differential equation y" +1A(x)y=0: Max Mason.-On the relation which exists between the velocity of combustion of powders and the pressure : R. Liouville.—Optical properties of iono-plastic iron : L. Houllevigue.-On the theory and imitation of the motion of sails : A. Bazin.On the use of the centrifugal method in the analysis of cocoa and chocolate : F. Bordas and M. Touplain. It is necessary, to avoid some practically impossible filtrations, to use an apparatus capable of nearly 2000 revolutions a minute.--New method for a quick analysis of milk : F. Bordas and M. Touplain, By centrifugal means one avoids much filtration as well as the protracted desiccation of the casein.-An apparatus for giving warning of the presence of luminous gas and afterdamp: MM. Hanger and Pescheux.—The crystalloluminescence of arsenious acid : M. Guinchant. This appears to be due to chemical phenomenon corresponding with the reversible reaction

As, 0, +6HCI=3H2O+2AsCig. -On the emission spectrum of the high tension electric arc : J. de Rowalski and P. Joye.—On a simple method for the study of oscillating sparks : G. A. Hemsalech. The method depends on the fact that a current of air directed on such a spark can separate out the oscillations. -Apparatus and methods in the medical applications of statical electricity : L. Benoist. An attempt to systematise the usage based on the consideration of electric density. -On the mode of formation of some monosubstituted derivatives of urethane : F. Bodroux. When small quantities of ethyl carbonate are dropped into an ether solution of the magnesium derivative of an aromatic primary amine, a lively reaction takes place. If aniline be used, phenylurethane is formed.-On the mineralogical analysis of arable earths : J. Dumont. The author describes methods for quantitatively determining

the proportions of sand, mica, felspar, quartz, &c.-On

Crustacea resulting from the expedition of the Princess Alice : H. Coutière. By the use of a net with a large aperture a considerably more valuable collection was made.-On the excitation of nerves by a minimum of energy, and its application to electrodiagnosis : M. Cluzet. By experiments made on the nerves of human beings, it has been found through the application of a formula that the duration of minimum excitation may be 0.00020 second. -Physiology of the spleen : MM. Charrin and Moussu. The experiments made tended to elucidate the much discussed question as to the functional relationship between the liver and the spleen.—The action of intestinal Auid on enteric secretion : A. Frouin. Many facts seem to prove that this exciting action is not due to secretin.-Researches on animal lactase : H. Bierry. The experiments show that lactase is not contained in the pancreatic juice of suckling puppies.--On the production of alcohol and acetone by muscles : F. Maignan. The author replies in the affirmative to the question as to whether these substances, which are normally present in muscle tissue, arise by alcoholic fermentation of glucose by the agency of protoplasm. But while the acetone continues to be formed, the alcohol is sooner or later destroyed again.

E. A. Minchin.-Some Notes upon the Anatomy of the Ferret-Badger (Helictis personata): F. E. Beddard, F.R.S. -Contributions to the Osteology of Birds, Part vii., Eurylamidæ, with Remarks on the Six

tematic Position of the Group : W. P. Pycraft, ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-The Study of Extinct Animals : Prof. L C.

Miall, F.R.S. SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 4.30.-The Monumental Treatment of Broare: J. Starkie Gardner.

WEDNESDAY, MAY 3. ENTOMOLOGICAL Society, at 8.-The Structure and Life-histcry of Ps.

choda sexpunctata, Curtis : J. A. Dell. SOCIETY OF PUBLIC ANALYSTS, at 8. SOCIETY OF ARTS, at 8.-Recent Excavations in Rome : Mrs. Burtoo-Brest

THURSDAY, MAY 4. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Flame : Sir James Dewar, F.R.S. CHEMICAL Society, at 8.-The Synthesis of Substances Allied to

Adrenaline : H. D. Dakin.-Methylation of p-Aminobenzoic Acid by Means of Methyl Sulphate : J. Johnston.-Some Notes on Sodiuen Alum: J. N. Wadmore.-Camphoryl-v-Semicarbazide : M, 0. Forste zad

H. E. Fierz. RÖNTGEN SOCIETY, at 5, (1) to Medical Members only. Forty-two Cases of

Ureteral Calculus Diagnosis by X-Rays proved by Operation on the Passage of the Calculi ; (2) at 8.15 p.m.,, to the General Meeting Measurement and Technique in Therapeutic Dosage : Dr. C. Lester

Leonard, Philadelphia. LINNEAN Society, at 8.-Ecology: its Present Position and Protable

Development: A. G. Tansley.--The Flora of Gough Island : R NR

Brown. CIVIL AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS' SOCIETY, at 7 30.-Annual General Meeting.–At 8.-Card-Indexing and Filing: J. C. Osborne.

FRIDAY, MAY 5. Royal INSTITUTION, at 9.-Problems underlying Nutrition : Prof. H. E Armstrong, F.R.S.

SATURDAY, MAY 6. ROVAL INSTITUTION, at 3.-Moulds and Mouldiness: Prof. Marstal

Ward, F.R.S.

some

603

605

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CONTENTS.

PIGE Three Cambridge Mathematical Works. By Prof. G. H. Bryan, F.R.S.

601 Rein's “Japan.". By Dr. Henry Dyer Making a Pasture Sociology. By F. W. H.

005 Our Book Shelf :

Balfour : “First Report of the Wellcome Research

Laboratories at the Gordon Memorial College,

Khartoum.”- Prof. R. T. Hewlett
Grindon: “ Till the Sun Grow's Cold"
Gregory :

"A Short Introduction to the Theory of
Electrolytic Dissociation
Letters to the Editor :-

Electromagnetics in a Moving Dielectric.-Oliver

Heaviside, F.R.S.
The Dynamical Theory of Gases.-J. H. Jeans
Growth of a Wave-group when the Group-velocity is

Negative.-Dr. H. C. Pocklington
The Transposition of Zoological Names.-Dr. R.

Lydekker, F.R.S. .
A little known Property of the Gyroscope.-Prof.

William H. Pickering
Have Chemical Compounds a Definite Critical Tem-

perature and Pressure of Decomposition?-Geoffrey

Martin
Experiment on Pressure due

Waves. - Sidney
Skinner

600
Tantalum. (Illustrated.) By Dr. F. Mollwo Perkin 010
Primitive Water-Supply. (Illustrated.)
Henry Benedict Medlicott, F.R.S. By W. T. B. 612
Notes

or; Our Astronomical Column :Astronomical Occurrences in May.

01"
Elements and Ephemeris for Comet 1905 < (Giacobini) 611
Changes on Mars .
Photography of Planetary Nebulæ

612 Radial Velocities of “ Standard velocity Stars"

618 Magnitude Equation in the Right Ascensions of the

Eros Stars
Memoirs on Marine Biology
The Physical History of the Victoria Falls. (Illas

trated)
Seismological Notes
Societies and Academies
Diary of Societies

to

011

DIARY OF SOCIETIES.

THURSDAY, APRIL 27. InstitutION OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS, at 8.- Discussion : Mr. B. J.

Arnold's Address to the Joint Meeting at St. Louis on the Problem of the Alternate Current Motor applied to Traction. -- Paper: The Alternate Current Series Motor: F. Creedy.

FRIDAY, APRIL 2?. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SOCIETY, at 8.30.

MONDAY, MAY 1. ROYAL INSTITUTION, at 5.-Annual Meeting. SOCIETY OF CHEMICAL INDUSTRY, at 8.-(1) The Study of the Action of

Hydrogen peroxide on a Photographic Plate in the Dark; (2) On the Influence of the Length of the l'ime of Development on the Degree of

Darkening of the Photographic Plate : Prof. Chiri Otsuki. VICTORIA INSTITUTE, at 4.30.-The Influence of Physiological Discovery on Thought : Dr. E. P. Frost.

TUESDAY, MAY 2. ZOOLOGICAL Society, at 8.30.-On Leucosolenia contorta, Bowerbank, Ascandra contorta, Haeckel, and Ascetta spinosa, Lendenfeld : Prof

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