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BAHUSEN, (Benedict,) an "arithmetician" of Amsterdam, about the middle of the seventeenth century, a great collector of theological books. He published various works of ascetic divinity by other persons, but wrote nothing himself. His books were sold by auction in 1670, a year after his death. (Biog. Univ.)
BAIADUR, (Abulghazi Khan,) a celebrated Tartar historian, descended in a direct line from Jaghatai, the second son of Jenghis Khan, lived about the middle of the seventeenth century. He composed a work, in Turkish, on the history of his nation, of which the original MS. is preserved in the imperial library of Petersburg, and a copy of it in the library of Göttingen. A translation of this work, into French, was made by the Swedish officers, who were sent prisoners to Siberia after the battle of Pultova, and was published under the title, Histoire Généalogique des Tatares, traduite du Manuscrit Tartare d'Abulgazi Baadur Chan, enrichie d'un grand Nombre de Remarques sur l'Etat présent de l'Asie Septentrionale, par D. *** (de Varennes), 8vo, Leyden, 1726, with maps. From this French translation a Russian one was made by Vasili Nikitich Tatischew. The latest German edition is a translation from the original Turkish, by Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt, Petersburg, 1780. Abulgazi derives the Tartars from an ancestor Tatar, the seventh from Japheth. BAIANUS, (Andreas,) called also Baiaon, an Indian from Goa, perhaps born of Portuguese parents, who took the degree of Baccalaureus at Coimbra, and went subsequently to Rome, where he published, Oratio de S. Joanne Evang. habita coram Paulo V. in Sacello Vatic. Romæ, 1610, 4to; Panegyricus de Joanne Samoscio Cancell. Polon. Romæ, 1617, 4to; and some other works. Baianus composed subsequently many poems in praise of the men who had contributed
towards the spreading of his works, which were also collected and published. Leo Allatius mentions also many of his manuscripts. (Leonis Allatii Apes Urbanæ. J. N. Erithreus elog. Baiani in Pinacotheca.)
BAIARDI, or BAIARDO, the name of two old Italian writers.
1. Andrea, a poet of Parma, who flourished at the end of the fifteenth and beginning of the sixteenth centuries, and enjoyed the favour of Ludovico Sforza, duke of Milan. He was rich, possessing the castle of Albari, in the Parmesan, which was taken and dismantled in 1482. His poetry possesses no great merit: his principal work, entitled Libro d'Arme e d'Amore nomato Philogine, &c., went through numerous editions at Parma and Venice. (Biog. Univ.)
2. Ottavio Antonio, an ecclesiastic and antiquary, born at Parma about 1690, and employed by Charles III. king of Naples, to publish the description of the antiquities then recently discovered in the city of Herculaneum. He was a man of great learning, but little judgment; and his Prodromus to the great work, in five vols, 4to, yet unfinished, is a signal example of ill-arranged erudition. He had more or less share in all the earlier volumes of the great work, Le Antichità di Ercolano esposte; but his vanity led him to quarrel with the Neapolitan government, and he returned to Rome, where he had previously shone as an ecclesiastic, and where he held several high offices. The date of his death is not known, but it was posterior to 1760. (Biog. Univ. Suppl.)
BAIDHAR, or BAISSAR, according to some Arab authors, was a king of Egypt, who divided his kingdom amongst his four sons, Cabth, Ishmoum, Atrib, and Ssa. The time at which he reigned does not appear quite clear. (Champol lion, l'Egypte sous les Pharaons.)
BAIDHAVI, (Nassereddin Abusaid Abdallah ben Omar,) the author of a celebrated commentary on the Koran, entitled, Anwar Attanzil va asrar attawib, was a native of the town of Beidhah; was Cadi of Shiraz, and afterwards of Tebriz, where he died in the year of the hegira, 685; or, according to other accounts, 692 (A.D. 1286 or 1293). Of his commentary the sieur Du Ryer made great use, in his French translation of the Koran, and in some instances he has interwoven passages of it into the text. Baidhavi wrote several other works, among which was one entitled Attavaleh, On the foundations and principal doctrines of the Mohammedan religion. The author of the Lebtarikh quotes a work by him, entitled Nezàm Attawarikh, A general history.
BAIDU KHAN, son of Targai, and grandson of Hulaku, was placed on the throne of Persia by the Mogul nobles, A.D. 1295, (A.H. 694,) on the deposition of his cousin Key-Khatu, or Ganjatu. His reign, however, was short; after holding the supreme authority only eight months, he was dethroned and put to death by Ghazan, son of Arghun, and nephew of Key-Khatu. The brief rule of Baidu (who was the sixth of the dy nasty of Hulaku,) presents no event of importance. (D'Herbelot. De Guignes. Malcolm.)
BAIER, (Ferdinand Jacob,) a celebrated physician, son of John James Baier, born at Altdorf, Feb. 13, 1707, and studied at that university, and at Weimar and Wurzbourg. He travelled into Holland, and remained some time at Leyden; he visited the mines of Saxony, and returned to his native country in 1730, when the degree of doctor of medicine was conferred on him at the university of Altdorf. He was also admitted into the College of Physicians of Nuremburg, and in 1732, elected a member of the Academy of the Curious in Nature, and became its president in 1736. He died at Altdorf, Oct. 23, 1788. He published several professional works, and edited vols 4, 5, 6 and 7, (from 1770 to 1783,) of the Acts of the Academy of the Curious in Nature, and wrote many papers inserted in those volumes.
BAIER, (Johann Wilhelm,) a learned theologian, was born at Nuremburg, in 1647, studied at Altdorf and Jena, and in 1674 was appointed tutor of theology and church history in the latter university. On the foundation of the uni
versity of Halle, he was appointed professor of theology there in 1694, a choice which he owed as much to his mildness, moderation, and aversion to controversy, (a rare quality in those times,) as to his known learning and ability. But a difference between him and his colleague, on the proper course of study to be pursued by their classes, shortened his continuance in this office, and in the following year he went to Weimar, where he held important ecclesiastical offices, but he died in the same year, (1695.) He wrote Compendium Theologiæ Positivæ, which appeared first in 1686, and was nine times reprinted between that date and 1750. He also composed Compendium Theologiæ Moralis, 8vo, Jena, 1697; and a vast number of dissertations.
BAIER, (Johann Wilhelm,) eldest son of the above, was born at Jena, in 1675, studied there and at Halle, and was chosen professor of mathematics and natural philosophy at Altdorf in 1704, obtained a theological tutorship in 1709, and died in 1729. His works consist chiefly of dissertations, and he edited several of his father's works.
BAIER, (Johann Jacob,) a celebrated physician and naturalist, was born at Jena in 1677, studied medicine, and graduated at the university of that city, and afterwards resided at Halle, where he divided his time between lectures and the practice of medicine; afterwards he removed to Nuremburg, and after that, (in 1704,) to Altdorf, as professor of physiology and surgery. He was also a member of the imperial academy of natural history, who elected him in 1729 director, and in 1730 president of their body. He died at Altdorf in 1735. His works are, Oryctographia Norica, 4to, Nuremburg, 1708; Sciagraphia Musei sui, 4to, Nurem. 1730; Monumenta Rerum Petrificarum præcipua, fol. 1757; Adagiorum Medicorum Centuria, 4to, Altdorf, 1718; Horti Medici Academiæ Altdorfianæ Historia; accedit ejusdem Auctoris Commemoratio celebr. Germaniæ Hortorum Botan. Medicorum, 8vo, Alt. 1727; Biographia Professorum Medicinæ qui in Academia Altdorfiana vixerunt, 4to, Nuremburg and Altdorf. 1728; Orationum varii Argumenti Fasciculus, 4to, Alt. 1727; Animadversiones Phys. Med. in Novum Testamentum, 4to, Alt. 1736; and a number of letters, which were published by his son with the answers. He wrote also many dissertations, often under other names,
and several papers in the Transactions of the academy just mentioned.
BAIER, (Johann David,) the youngest brother of the above, born at Jena in 1681, was deacon at Weimar, superintendant at Dornburg, and in 1730 professor of theology at Altdorf, where he died in 1752. He was much esteemed as a teacher, but his writings are little known.
BAIF, (Lazare de,) a French diplomatist, born at the beginning of the sixteenth century, died in 1547, was a counsellor of Francis I., master of requests, and ambassador of France, at Venice, and in Germany. He was a profound scholar, and gained a wide reputation by his treatises De Re Vestiaria; De Re Navali; and De Re Vascularia. He translated into French verse the Electra of Sophocles, and the Hecuba of Euripides.
BAIF, (Jean Antoine de,) son of the preceding, was born at Venice in 1532. He was the schoolfellow and friend of Ronsard; and, perhaps, in imitation of him, wrote much poetry, of different kinds. His principal works are indicated in the Biographie Universelle; they are now most of them rare. He died at Paris in 1589.
BAIKOV, (Theodore, or Phedor Isakievitch,) the son of a Russian boyar, was sent by the tzar Alexis Mikhaelovitch on an embassy to China, in 1654, and may be considered as the first who was formally despatched thither in that character, for although there had been preceding missions from Russia to that country, the first of them in 1567, in the reign of Ivan Basilivitch, the others in the years 1608, 1616, and 1619, respectively, these were rather exploratory journeys than regular embassies. That of Baikov is supposed to have been occasioned by an invitation on the part of the emperor of China to the Russians bordering upon his territories, to trade with his subjects.
This mission occupied Baikov somewhat more than three years, and the relation which he has given of it in his Journal affords the earliest authentic and circumstantial account of any intercourse between Russia and China. It is printed entire in the 4th volume of the second edition of the Drevnaya Raskossi Bibliotika, or Ancient Russian Library; and again, with annotations, in the Siberian Væstnik for 1820. An abridgement of it, in Dutch, is also given by Wittsen, in Nord en Ost Tarterey, Amsterd. 1692
1703, and it is there stated that the original had been previously translated into both German and French. Wittsen's abridgement appeared again in French, in the Recueil de Voyages au Nord, Amsterd. 1732, accompanied with remarks, which Miller supposes to be Wittsen's own; and he further conjectures that the latter, who, in the earlier part of his life, resided many years at Moscow, had obtained a copy of the original, and was the first to call attention to it, and to cause it to be translated. Baikov's name, however, has been sadly metamorphosed by all his translators, who call him Saedor Sacowilk Boicoot! (Snegirev.)
BAIL, (Louis,) a French theologian, born at Abbeville, and died at Paris in 1669. His works had formerly a certain reputation. He was a doctor of the Sorbonne, and curé of Montmartre. He was made by M. de Marca superior and director of the celebrated monastery of Port-Royal. (Biog. Univ.)
BAIL, (Charles Joseph,) born at Béthune in 1777, died 1827, distinguished himself, in some degree, as both a soldier and a man of letters. As a soldier, he served in the Belgian campaign of 1793, and by his activity merited some appointments under the empire. Being employed in the administrative organization of the new kingdom of Westphalia, he published, in 1809, the Statistique of that country, which has always been regarded as the best book on the subject. He edited the Correspondence of Bernadotte with Napoleon, 8vo, Paris, 1819; and published two works on the condition of the Jews. A further account of his works is given in the Supplement to the Biog. Univ.
BAILA, (Joseph,) a Piédmontese jurist, was born at Monreale in 1585, and graduated in 1608. His reputation as a lawyer speedily became extensive, and the discharge of many important offices was entrusted to him. In 1625, he was invited to Rome, where he became advocate to the consistory and the poor. His practice was considerable, and he numbered amongst his clients, the daughter of Amadeus II., duke of Savoy. He died in 1645. When the news of his death was conveyed to Innocent X., that pope observed, "Ministrum amisimus de cujus fide, probitate et justitia securi vivebamus." (Mazzuchelli.)
BAILA, (H. de,) a Bolognese doctor, who graduated in 1669. He composed a treatise on Actions. (Savigny. Gesch.)
BAILEY, or BALEY, (Walter,) was the son of Henry Baley, and born in 1529, at Portsham, in the county of Dorset. He received his education at the school of Winchester, whence he was sent to New college, Oxford, and after having served two years of probation, was admitted in 1550, a perpetual fellow of the college. He took the degree of master of arts at the university in the same year, then studied medicine, and was admitted to practice in 1558. He did not take his doctor's degree until 1563, at which time he was proctor of the university, having previously held the prebendary of Dulcot, or Dultingcote, in the cathedral of Wells, which he resigned in 1579. Previous to taking the degree of doctor of medicine, he had been appointed in 1561 one of the regius professors, and soon after taking it, he was named one of queen Elizabeth's physicians. He was much esteemed by his sovereign, and in her court he enjoyed great reputation. He died March 3, 1592, at the age of sixty-three years, and was buried in the inner chapel of New college. His works are, A Brief Discourse of certain Medicinal Waters in the County of Warwick, near Newnham, Lond. 1587, 12mo; A Discourse of three Kinds of Pepper in common use, Lond. 1588, 8vo; A Brief Treatise on the Preservation of the Eyesight, Lond. n. d. 12mo; again in 1602, 1616, 1654, and 1673; Directions for Health, Natural and Artificial, with Two Treatises of Approved Medicines for all Diseases of the Eyes, Lond. 1626, 4to. A MS. by Bailey was preserved in the collection of Robert, marquis of Aylesbury, entitled, Explicatio Galeni de Potu Convalescentum et Senum, et præcipuè de nostræ Alæ et Biriæ Paratione.
BAILEY, (Peter,) an ingenious author, and editor of a periodical called The Museum, was the son of a solicitor at Nantwich, in Cheshire, and received his education at Rugby and Merton college, Oxford; whence he proceeded to London for the purpose of reading for the bar. He entered himself at one of the Temples, but the nature of his pursuits may be supposed from the fact, that he, about the same time, published a humorous poetical work, entitled, Sketches from St. George's Fields, by Giorgine di Castel Chiuso; a poem of his entitled, Idwal, printed, but not published, founded on the events connected with the conquest of Wales. At the end of the volume was a Greek poem, afterwards
published in the Classical Journal. last publication was an anonymous poem, called, A Queen's Appeal, in the Spenserian stanza. He died suddenly on the 25th of January, 1823, leaving children. (Gentleman's Magazine.)
BAILIE, (Cuthbert,) lord high treasurer of Scotland, was descended from an ancient family in Lanarkshire, and at an early age entered the church, for which he had been educated. In the first instance he was made a canon of Glasgow, and then rector of Cumnock in Ayreshire. King James IV. made him (being then commendator of Glenluce) treasurer on the 29th of October, 1512, which office he held until his death in 1514. (Crauford's Officers of the Crown in Scotland.)
BAILIE, (Edward,) an active English officer, who was born of an Irish family, on the 15th of December, 1778, and after the completion of his education received a commission in the marines, in February 1796. In the same year he
sailed for the Mediterranean, where, as well as in the Channel, he saw much service during that and the next year. In 1798 and 1799, he was much employed on the coasts of France and Ireland, and was in one of the ships which mutinied. In 1800 and 1801, he was engaged in the expedition to Egypt, and was the only officer of marines who debarked with the army on the 8th of March. He, at first, did duty with the 27th regiment, and afterwards joined the battalion, formed by his corps, under lieutenant-colonel Smith, to which he became adjutant, and was present at most of the engagements which preceded the decisive battle of the 21st of March. 14th of March the marines were thanked in general orders by Sir Ralph Abercrombie, for their conduct on the preceding day. Joining the earl of Dalhousie before Aboukir, they assisted at the capture of that town, and again received the thanks of the commanderin-chief. In 1803 and 1804, Bailie was in Newfoundland, and in 1805, 1806, and 1807, in the West Indies, where he was present in the action of Sir John Duckworth off St. Domingo. He also saw much boat service in the Pique, under the command of admiral Ross. In the Mediterranean, where he was from 1808 to 1814, both years inclusive, he again saw much boat service. In the attacks upon Reggio, he manifested the greatest courage and enterprise, which also marked his conduct in the well