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of Snuff when taken, or some Salts or Corpuscles in the Air, or the Steam issued out of the Glands opened in the Nose, pass down towards the Lungs, open the Glands, and make them secrete, I am not certain. But when any Thing opens the Pores in the Nose, the Steam makes a Stop, extends the Lungs, and breaks out with strong Efforts to remove the Agents which offend, When the Steam is weak, or heavy, Admission of Cold to any of the outward Parts, stops the Steam there, and causes it to press harder upon the Glands in the Nose, and open them, and presently there succeeds a Stoppage, and those Efforts in the Lungs, or upon them, which we call Sneezing. Shutting the outward Pores by Cold, makes a greater Quantity of Steam neceffary to be discharged at the Lungs, which occasions Sneezing, by increasing Inspiration suddenly, as is described below, The Neck of the Wind-pipe is fo contrived, that when any Thing touches it, it shuts, or when the Duct to the Stomach opens, it Thuts, else Fluids, &c. would get down to the Lungs. When any of the Parts about the Throat are swelled, and the Glands straightened, they fecrete fharper Juices, which we call Rheum, which



wounds or tickles the Parts. And when any Thing touches or offends the Neck of the Wind-pipe, the Lungs extend, and the Air and Steam are push'd forth with strong Efforts, which we call Coughing, to remove the Agents which offend. When the Blood is too phlegmy or too sharp, that it stops and offends the Lungs, it occasions like Efforts; for extending the Lungs, depresses the Diaphragm, which returning suddenly to its natural Situation, makes those Efforts, compresses and jirks the Stomach, which heightens the Ferment, and by sudden Pushes, forces the Matter downward, or into the Blood, and along every Passage in the Body, and the like Matter out of the Lungs upward. Whether stopping or straightning the Neck of * the Wind-pipe makes the Wind and Steam in the Lungs make the Effort; or, whether some juices get down, and obstruct the Steam from itsuing out of the Lungs, and its breaking out makes that Effort; or, whether upon offending the Muscles they make that Effort, I am not certain.

R 4 CH A P.

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* A convulsive Refpiration occasions Sneezing, as from a violent and quick Return of the Diaphragm before depressed, by a deep Inspiration, or a full Dilation of the whole Thorax.


The Use of Alkalies, Absorbents, Astrin-

gents, Sweetners, Opiates, &c. Their ge. THERE are abundance of Medineral Ef.

I cines which they call Alkalies, Absorbents, Astringents, Sweetners, Opiates, &c. which either stop the Mouths of the Glands which secrete the Juices into the Stomach, &c. or entangle or sheath the Agents, or adhere to and load them, so that they cannot move, or move but flowly; and whenever any, or all of these are done, there is a Stop or Diminution, put to the natural Discharges of the Excrements, &c, and whether the Juices be stopped in the Glands, or the Agents clogged in the Stomach, Guts, &c. tho' it be even by Jeluits Bark, the most powerful of them all, whenever a Purge or any Thing opens the Glands, or divides the Agents from their Clogs, the Fever or other Disorder returns. And if the Agents have been long stopped, and their Number or Quantity increased, the Disorder is increased in Proportion. And if they be not some way discharged, they get loose by Degrees, and do Mischiefs

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of other Sorts. Since we cannot see the Operations in the Stomach, Observations and Experiments should be made, how Agents, which we suppose to be in the Stomach, Guts, &c. act upon such Matter as we put into the Stomach, where we can see them, before we make Expe- Observariments with them there. And

i- tions and

per Experiments should be made upon Brutes, to ments know what Effects the feveral sorts of should be Diet have upon their Stomachs, whether on the le

he made upit be possible to contract their Stomachs, Medicines, and cause the Glands in them to be replenished with Juices, and then take out their Stomachs before the Juices secrete, to try what Effects those Juiceś will have, put into the Stomach of a living Brute of the fame Species. Thus to put the Juices in the Stomach of a Calf, of which they make Rennet, into the Stomach of another live Calf, &c. or to try what the Juices of the lower Guts would do, if they were injected like a Clyfter, or what the Gall, or other Juices put into the Stomach, &c. would effect.



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Conjectures about the Ufe of Bitters. end BitOur Ivices 4 Sour Bodies are

11 great Quantities of Juice ICTS.

Gall-bladder, Pancreas
Stomach, and store

endies are framed to secrete

õuantities of Juices into the der: Pancreas, and Glands in the

and store them there, 'tis very tely those Juices are neceffary Agents ; and fince those in the Gall-bladder, and Come of these in the Glands of the Stomach, are extremely bitter, Experiments and Obfervations fhould be made, what Effects those Juices or Bitters have in Fermentation. The greatest Use we make of Bitters, is to prevent Fluids from turning acid by long keeping, or the repeated Fermentations occasioned by Change of Seasons, &c, and preserve fluid Juices fit for Nourishment, as Salt doth Fleshi and other Solids. Whether thefe bitter Juices are intended, to prevent the Juices or Excrements within us, from turning too four by Fermentation, &c. or what other Uses they are intended for; how they perform that, or their other Operations; what Effects they have when mixed with volatile Salts, acid Salts, Sea Salts, Oil, Phlegm, &c. in a fermenting


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