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P. Clodius were ever menacing your welfare, he took measures not only to control them by his worth, but also to throw a sop to them with the help of his three fortunes, in order that your lives might be more secure.' For the phrase eam se fecisse ut flecteret, comp. Læl. c. 12: 'invitus feci ut Flaminium e senatu ejicerem. See also de Off. 1. 31.

tribus suis patrimoniis. Asconius supposes that one of these fortunes was derived from the Papian family; another from the Annian, into which he had been adopted; and the third from his mother.

muneribus, 'by public exhibitions. See Introduction, § 2, n. 7. Comp. Plin. H. N. xxxvi. 15: 'ipsum Milonem sestertium septingenties æris alieni debuisse inter prodigia animi humani duco.'

vestrorum ordinum. See notes on § 4.-occursationes, 'friendly advances ;' comp. pro Planc. c. 12: ‘facilis est illa occursatio et blanditia popularis.'—sermones, ‘kind expressions.'

§ 96. vocem præconis. When the election of prætors or consuls was over, a crier (præco) announced (renuntiavit) the person on whom the choice of the people had fallen. Comp. in Verr. V. c. 15: 'tu quum esses prætor renuntiatus,... non ipsa præconis voce excitatus es, qui te TOTIES SENIORUM JUNIORUMQUE CENTURIIS ILLO HONORE AFFICI pronunciavit ?—quam minime desiderarit, 'of which he was in no want at all.'

nunc denique...obstare, 'he remembers also that even now at the last moment, if these arms are meant to be turned against himself, that which stands in his way is, not the charge of having committed a crime, but the suspicion that he has some bad design. Comp. Vell. Paterc. 11. 47: 'Milonem reum non magis invidia facti quam Pompeii damnavit voluntas.' The antithesis here is between facinoris and facti. Facinus is sometimes used to denote ' an intrigue,' as in § 73, or 'a bad design, as in Ovid. Trist. iv. 4, 43:

Ergo ut jure damus pænas, sic abfuit omne

Peccato facinus consiliumque meo. The meaning of facti crimen, on the other hand, is clearly marked in Juv. Sat. v. 13, 210:

Nam scelus intra se tacitum qui cogitat ullum

Facti crimen habet. quibus ea res...civibus, 'for whom such conduct has gained honour from their fellow-citizens.' Comp. Thuc. vi. 15: wv év [cou a Ti ÚTTÓ των αστων.

qui beneficio...vicerint, 'who have outdone their fellow-citizens in good services.

§ 97. si esset...præmiorum, if the rewards must be taken into consideration.'


cujus gradibus...adscendere, 'by the steps of which even human beings seemed to mount to heaven.' Comp. Paradoxa, 1. 2 : 'quibus tandem gradibus Romulus escendit in cælum? iisne quæ isti bona appellant, an rebus gestis atque virtutibus ?'

§ 98. nulla...vetustas, 'no distant age shall ever cease to make mention of me.' Comp. Virg. Æn. x. 792:

Si qua fidem tanto est operi latura vetustas. quum omnes...subjiciantur ; literally, 'though brands of every kind are being applied by my enemies to the flame of ill-will against me: according to our idiom, though every means is being used by my enemies to fan the flame of ill-will against me.' See notes on § 75, and comp. Vell. Pater. 11. 48: 'bello autem civili...non alius majorem flagrantioremque quam C. Curio tribunus plebis subjecit facem.'

omni sermone celebramur, 'we form the theme of every conversation.'

Omitto...dies,' I pass over the Etrurian festivals, both kept (already) and appointed to be kept (hereafter'): i.e. to celebrate their deliverance from the depredations of Clodius, mentioned in $8 26, 74.

centesima...altera, 'it is now a hundred and two days, I think, since Clodius perished.' The et is generally omitted, as in Liv. 111. 33 : anno trecentesimo altero ;' and sometimes alter is put first; as in Cic. ad Fam. XII. 2: 'altero vicesimo die’(the two-and-twentieth day). The speech was delivered, according to Asconius, on the eighth of April, and Clodius was murdered on the twentieth of January; there was therefore an intercalary month of twenty-three days between the twenty-third and twenty-fourth of February. See Dict. of Antiq., art. Calendar, (Roman) pp. 179, 180, and Introduction, $ 6, n. 42.

CHAPTER XXXVI. $ 99. Te quidem quod...possum, ‘yourself, indeed, I cannot praise enough for manifesting such a temper.' Many editions read quum instead of quod, but it is doubtful whether quum was ever used with an indicative in the sense of since,' that is, with a purely causative signification.

nec vero...accessero,' and besides, if you are snatched from me, I have not still left me that usual power of protest for my comfort notwithstanding (your removal), that I could vent my spleen on those at whose hands I should (in that case) have received so deep a wound.' Obserye, tamen is to be taken in connexion with the words illa ad consolandum querela, and not with reliqua est.

aliquando, 'at some time:' semper, 'at all times.'

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Nullum unquam...feceritis, 'there is indeed no pang that


will ever cause to rankle in my breast so deeply,-and, though none could do so more deeply, I will say it even of this very pang to which I was alluding,—that I can ever forget the estimation in which you have always held me.' Comp. Philipp. xi. 15: 'tertio vero generi...importunissimorum hostium cupio quam acerbissimum dolorem inurere.'

quæ si vos cepit oblivio, 'and if such forgetfulness has come over you.'--si aliquid in me offendistis, 'if you are affronted at any thing in

my conduct.' Obs. me is in the ablative, not the accusative case.-luitur, 'visited.'

si quid mihi acciderit. See notes on S 58.

$ 100. amoris, ‘of affection: studii, 'of zeal:' pietatis, 'of attachment:' officium, 'service.'

Ego inimicitius...appetivi, 'it was I who courted the enmity of the great and powerful, on your behalf.'

bona...contuli, 'I have staked my own and my children's fortune with yours, to share alike in all that may befal you.'

dimicatio capitis, struggle for life and death.' Comp. pro Balbo, c. 9 : quæ sæpe se telis hostium, qui dimicationi capitis, qui morti objecerit.' The other reading diminutio capitis, adopted by Matthæi, does not accord well with the preceding words si qua vis est parata.

deposco, 'I put in a claim : comp. ad Alt. xin. 11: 'sed hanc mihi dispensationem pro paterna necessitudine et conjunctione deposco.'

non recuso, 'I make no objection : non abnuo, 'I am content.'

vosque obsecro... videatis, ' and I beg of you, judges, either to add to the sum of your favours already conferred on me, in case the defendant shall escape, or to perceive that, in case of his ruin, those favours will most likely fall to the ground.'

CHAPTER XXXVII. § 101. mortem...pænam, 'that death is the termination of our being, and no penalty.” That this was the opinion of Cæsar also appears from a speech ascribed to him by Sallust, Cat. c. 51: 'de pona possumus equidem dicere, id quod res habet, in luctu atque miseriis mortem ærumnarum requiem, non cruciatum esse; eam cuncta mortalium mala dissolvere; ultra neque curæ neque gaudio locum esse. Comp. Cic. in Cat. iv. 4, where Cicero intimates that the popular belief in future punishments was encouraged by the ancients as a convenient check to crime in the present life: 'vitam solam re

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linquit (Cæsar) nefariis hominibus, quam si eripuisset, multos uno dolore dolores animi atque corporis et omnes scelerum pænas ademisset ; itaque, ut aliqua in vita formido improbis esset posita, apud inferos ejusmodi quædam illi antiqui supplicia impiis constituta esse voluerunt, quod videlicet intelligebant, his remotis, non esse mortem ipsam pertimescendam.'

qua natus est, 'which is natural to him.' See 8 68.

qui hanc virtutem excipiat, 'to welcome merit such as this. See notes on § 89.

huic judicio præsidentibus, ' affording your protection to this court.' Comp. Liv. xxi. 11 : 'alii ut urbi presiderent relicti.'

hæc tanta...projicietur, 'shall such extraordinary merit as this be driven out from this city, expatriated, cast adrift ?' Comp. Demosth. (?) κατα 'Αριστογ. p. 798, Reiske: δεί δη...τούτο το θηρίον υμάς εξορίσαι, ρίψαι εκ της πόλεως, ανελεϊν.

§ 102. per hos, i. e. the senators, knights, &c., of whom the jury was composed.-parentem alterum, 'a second parent.'

qui nunc abes. Quintus Cicero was at this time acting as Cæsar's legate in Gaul.

a quibus non potuisse ? ' against whom was I unable' (to protect Milo)? For this sense of the preposition a after tueri, comp. notes on $ 91.

P. Clodii morte acquierunt, felt relieved by the death of P. Clodius.' Comp. ad Fam. iv. 6: 'literis lectis aliquantum acquievi.' In P. Clodii morte acquierunt would mean, 'felt satisfaction at his death.'

§ 103. quodnum... dolores, 'why, what great wickedness was I guilty of, what enormous offence did I commit, when I tracked, laid bare, dragged forth to light, and eradicated these evidences of an approaching general calamity? This is the well-spring of all the sorrows that have overwhelmed me and my friends. Comp. pro Sext. c. 69: 'quod tantum est in me scelus? quid tantopere deliqui illo die quum ad vos indicia, litteras, confessiones communis exitii detuli ?



pace tua...dicam pie, 'forgive the wish, my country; for I fear lest in using these expressions of devotion to the cause of Milo, I may, so far as thou art concerned, be uttering treason.'

§ 104. immo vero, 'no! rather than that :' Milo is here supposed to speak.-patriæ natus, 'born for his country's good.'

si forte, “it may be.' In Greek, ei túxou.

animi monumenta, 'the memorials of his genius :' i.e. the peace and tranquillity which he had procured.

§ 105. neque enim...jam loqui possum,' and indeed I can no longer speak for tears.' Comp. pro Planc. c. 41: 'nec loqui præ mærore potuit.'

vestram virtutem...delegit. This closing sentence is intended to remove the impression that Pompeius was unfriendly to the cause of Milo,

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