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noon by Clodius, just beyond Bovillæ 13, near the spot on which the chapel of Bona Dea11 stands. The latter was returning from Aricia 15, after an interview with the councillors 16 of that town, on horseback, and accompanied by nearly thirty slaves wearing swords, and in other respects equipped for fighting, according to the practice of travellers at that period 17. Clodius had also three friends with him, one of whom was a Roman knight named C. Cassinius Schola 18, and the other two, whose names were P. Pomponius and C. Clodius, were plebeians of obscure family. Milo was riding in a travelling carriage with his wife Fausta, daughter of L. Sulla the dictator, and his friend M. Fufius. They were followed by a large body of slaves, some of whom were gladiators, two notorious ones named Eudamus and Birria being of the number. The latter, who were in the rear and going rather slowly, picked a quarrel with the slaves of Clodius, who, on looking round at the affray with an air of defiance, was run through the shoulder by Birria with a rapier 19. A fight ensued; and some more of Milo's party ran up to the spot. Clodius was carried, wounded, into a tavern 20 in the district of Bovillæ. Hearing this, and feeling that, if he lived, the occurrence would be even then attended with some danger to himself, but that

from Rome disgusted at the delays which had taken place, and the treachery of Pompeius: βαρυθυμῶν ὁ Μίλων, ὡς καὶ περὶ αὐτὸν ἀπίστου γιγνομένου τοῦ Πομπηΐου, ἐς τὴν πατρίδα Λανούβιον ἐξήει. Bell. Civ. II.20.

13 About twelve miles from Rome. Cicero in a letter to Atticus, written B. C. 51, facetiously speaks of this rencontre as 'the battle of Bovilla' (post pugnam Bovillanam); ad Att. v. 14. §1.

14 See Notes on chap. 31. § 86. 15 See Notes on chap. 19. § 51. 16 decuriones. The decuriones of a municipal town in the provinces corresponded to the Roman senate.

17 As Niebuhr has observed, 'just as our nobles used to travel in the 16th and 17th centuries.' Lectures, Vol. II. p. 44.

18 See chap. 17. § 46.

19 humerum rhomphea trajecit : ἐπάταξεν ἐς τὸ μετάφρενον ξιφιδίῳ. Appian, B. C. 11. 21. The precise nature of the weapon called 'rhomphæa' is not known, but it was probably a short sword with a double edge, that could be used for thrusting as well as cutting.

20 Καὶ τὸν μὲν αἵματι ῥεόμενον ἐς τὸ πλήσιον πανδοκεῖον ὁ ἱππόκομος ἐσέφερεν. Appian.

it would be a great relief to him if Clodius were killed, even though he himself had to suffer for it, Milo ordered him to be hunted out of the tavern 21. M. Fustenus led on the slaves of Milo; and by this means Clodius was dragged forth from his hiding-place, and despatched with several wounds 22. His corpse was left in the road, as the slaves of Clodius were either killed, or in concealment and severely wounded. A senator named Sextus Tedius, who happened to be returning to the city from the country, picked it up, and ordered it to be conveyed to Rome in his own palanquin, while he himself returned to the place from which he had come. The body of Clodius arrived at Rome before seven o'clock in the evening, and after it had been placed in the hall of his house, was surrounded by crowds of slaves and the lowest rabble, who loudly expressed their sorrow for his fate. His wife Fulvia 23 also inflamed the bad passions excited on the occasion by profuse demonstrations of grief, while displaying his wounds to the populace. At daybreak on the following day a still larger crowd of people of the same class poured in, and several persons of distinction were crushed to death, amongst others a senator named C. Vibienus 24. I may mention that the house of Clodius

21 Or, perhaps, 'ordered the tavern to be cleared,' if we retain the common reading, 'exturbari tabernam, which Madvig has altered on conjecture into 'exturbari taberna,' with the remark,' quasi taberna latitans ejicienda fuerit.'

22 Comp. App. 11. 21: ò dè Miλcov μετὰ τῶν θεραπόντων ἐπιστὰς ἔτι ἔμπνουν ἢ καὶ νεκρὸν ἐπανεῖλεν, ὑποκρινόμενος μὲν οὐ βουλεῦσαι τὸν φόνον οὐδὲ προστάξαι· ὡς δὲ κινδυνεύσων ἐξάπαντος, ἠξίου τὸ ἔργον οὐκ ἀτελὲς καταλιπεῖν. See also Dion Cass. XL. 48. Cicero himself admits in a letter to Atticus (written B. C. 57), that Milo would not then have hesitated to kill Clodius with his

own hands, if he had come in his way: 'si se inter viam obtulerit, occisum iri ab ipso Milone video: non dubitat facere; præ se fert; casum illum nostrum (i. e. banishment) non extimescit;' ad Att. IV. 3. The brevity and vagueness of Cicero's own account of the matter in his speech (chap. 10) leaves the impression that he could not venture to be more particular without injury to his cause.

23 The same unamiable lady who afterwards, as the wife of M. Antonius the triumvir, is said to have pierced the tongue of Cicero with a needle, when his head was exposed to public view.

24 See chap. 14. § 37.

was on the Palatine Hill, and had been purchased by him from M. Scaurus a few months before. Two tribunes of the plebs, Munatius Plancus, brother of the orator L. Plancus 25, and Q. Pompeius Rufus 26, Sulla's grandson by his daughter, hastened thither, and at their instigation the mob conveyed the body to the Forum (with nothing on but shoes 27, just as it had been laid on the bed naked, in order that the wounds might be seen), and exposed it on the Rostra. A meeting took place, at which Plancus and Pompeius, who took the part of Scipio and Hypsæus, heaped odium on Milo. The people, headed by a clerk 28 named Sextus Clodius, then carried the corpse into the Senate-house 29, and burnt it with the benches, tables, desks, and manuscripts which they found there; by which means the Senate-house itself was set on fire, together with the Porcian Basilica 30 next door to it. The same mob proceeded to attack the house of the Interrex M. Lepidus 31, (who had been appointed a superior magistrate), and also that of

25 L. Munatius Plancus took an active part in the civil war on the side of Cæsar; he was one of Cicero's correspondents (see ad Fam. x. 1—24); and Horace addressed to him the ode (1.7.) commencing 'Laudabunt alii, &c.' Nothing is known of him as an

orator.

26 Q. Pompeius Rufus, son of Cornelia, the daughter of Sulla, was afterwards impeached de vi by Cælius, and condemned.

27 calceatum. The reading here is uncertain. Orelli marks caldatum as corrupt, and proposes calcatum= oblitum cruore et luto in the speech, § 86. Calceatum is adopted by Manutius.

28 scriba. He was probably descended from a freedman of the Claudian house. Clodius had employed him when tribune in drawing up the laws which he proposed. Comp.

speech, § 33. He was afterwards brought to trial and condemned.

29 Comp. App. B.C. 11. 21: άржάσαντες δ ̓ αὐτὸ (τὸ σῶμα τῶν τε δημάρχων ἔνιοι καὶ οἱ φίλοι τοῦ Κλω δίου καὶ πλῆθος ἄλλο σὺν ἐκείνοις ἐς τὸ βουλευτήριον ἐκόμισαν, εἴτε ἐπὶ τιμῇ, βουλευτικοῦ γένους ὄντα, εἴτε εἰς ὄνειδος τῆς βουλῆς τοιάδε περιοpoons. See Notes on chap. 33. § 90.

30 So called from the censor M. Porcius Cato. Liv. XXXIX. 44.

31 M. Æmilius Lepidus, who afterwards became a triumvir. He had refused to hold the comitia for the election of consuls, on the ground that it was not usual for the first Interrex to do so; which gave offence to the Clodian mob. Domum ejus per omnes interregni dies... obsederunt. Deinde, omni vi janua expugnata, et imagines majorum dejecerunt, et lectulum adversum uxoris ejus Cornelia

Milo 32, in his absence; they were, however, repulsed with arrows from them both. Thereupon they carried off the fasces from the couch of Libitina, and took them to the house of Scipio and Hypsæus first, and then to the gardens of Cn. Pompeius, shouting out his name as they went along, sometimes as consul, sometimes as dictator.

4 The burning of the Senate-house excited public indignation still more strongly than the fate of Clodius. Reassured by the odium thus cast upon his adversaries, Milo, who, though generally thought to have gone into voluntary exile, had returned to Rome the very night on which the Senate-house was set on fire, was now proceeding with his canvass as actively as ever33, openly distributing amongst the tribes 1000 ases (more than £2. of English money) to each voter34 A few days afterwards the tribune Cælius 35 gave Milo an opportunity of addressing the people, and spoke himself in vindication of his conduct, both of them asserting that Milo was waylaid by Clodius 36.

...fregerunt, itemque telas quæ ex vetere more in atrio texebantur diruerunt; postque supervenit Milonis manus et ipsa postulans comitia; cujus adventus fuit saluti Lepido; in se enim conversæ sunt factiones inimica.' Asconius, Notes on chap. v. § 13.

32 ὥστε προσέτι καὶ τὴν οἰκίαν τὴν τοῦ Μίλωνος καταφλέξαι ἐπίχειρῆσαι· ἐκείνη μενοῦν, πολλῶν αὐτῇ ἀμυνομένων, οὐκ ἐκαύθη. Dion Cass. XL. 49.

33 According to Dion Cassius, Milo had at first concealed himself, but was afterwards emboldened to proceed with his canvass: ὁ δὲ δὴ Μίλων, τέως μὲν περίφοβος ἐπὶ τῷ φόνῳ ὤν, ἐκρύπτετο, οὐχ ὑπὸ ἰδιωτῶν μόνον ἀλλὰ καὶ ἱππέων βουλευτῶν τε τινῶν φρουρούμενον· ἐπεὶ δε τοῦτό τε (the burning of the Senate-house) ἐγένετο καὶ τὴν ὀργὴν τῆς γερουσίας ἐς τὸ τῶν ἀντιστασιωτῶν μίασμα περι

χωρήσειν ἤλπισε...προήει τε ἐς μέσ σον, καὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς ὁμοίως ἢ καὶ μᾶλλον ἀντεποίειτο. (XL. 49).

94 θεραπόντων οὖν καὶ ἀνδρῶν ἀγροίκων πλῆθος ἀθροίσας καὶ ἐς τὸν δῆμον περιπέμψας χρήματα...ἐς τὴν πόλιν κατήει θρασύτατα. Appian.

35 See speech, § 91. Appian says that Cælius had himself been bribed by Milo: τῶν δημάρχων Μάρκον Καίλιον πριάμενος.

36 Comp. App. II. 22: καὶ αὐτὸν (Milo) ὁ Καίλιος εὐθὺς ἐσιόντα εἷλκεν ἐς τὴν ἀγορὰν ἐπὶ τοὺς παρ ̓ αὐτοῦ δεδωροδοκηκότας, ὥσπερ ἐπ ̓ ἐκκλησίαν, ὑποκρινόμενος μὲν ἀγανακτεῖν καὶ οὐ διδόναι τῆς δίκης ἀναβολὴν, ἐλπίζων δὲ, εἰ αὐτὸν οἱ πάροντες μεθεῖεν, ἐκλύσειν τὴν δίκην τὴν ἀληθεστέραν. Καὶ Μίλων μὲν οὐ βουλεῦ σαι τὸ ἔργον εἰπὼν (οὐ γὰρ ἂν μετὰ σκευῆς καὶ γυναικὸς ἐπὶ ταῦτα ὁρμῆς σαι) τὸν λοιπὸν λόγον κατὰ τοῦ

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Meanwhile fresh Interreges were succeeding one another, all of whom were unable to proceed to the election of consuls, on account of the disturbances excited by the candidates and the bodies of armed men that were still kept on foot. The Senate therefore passed a resolution that the Interrex for the time being and the tribunes of the plebs, together with Pompeius, then acting as proconsul near the city 37, should take such steps as might be necessary for the safety of the commonwealth 38; it was further ordered that Pompeius should be empowered to raise new levies throughout the whole of Italy 39. He in a very short time collected a sufficient force for the protection of the city. Soon afterwards, two youths, both of them named Appius Claudius, the sons of Caius Claudius brother of Publius 40, being desirous that their uncle's death should be investigated, and acting as it were in their father's name, applied to Pompeius for a summons requiring the proΚλωδίου διετίθετο, ὡς θρασυτάτου δὴ καὶ φίλου θρασυτάτων, οἱ καὶ τὸ βουλευτήριον ἐπικατέπρησαν αὐτῷ. Ἔτι δ ̓ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος, οἵ τε λοιποὶ δήμαρχοι καὶ τοῦ δήμου τὸ ἀδιάφθο ρον ἐνέβαλλον ἐς τὴν ἀγοράν. Καίλιος μὲν δὴ καὶ Μίλων δούλων ἐσθῆ τας ὑποδύντες ἀπέδρασαν πολὺς δὲ τῶν ἄλλων ἐγίγνετο φόνος, οὐ τοὺς Μίλωνος ἔτι φίλους ἐρευνώντων, ἀλλὰ τὸν ἐντυχόντα ἀναιρούντων ἀστὸν ὁμοῦ καὶ ξένον, καὶ μάλιστα ὅσοι ταῖς ἐσθῆσιν ἢ σφραγῖσιν ἀπὸ χρυσοῦ διέφερον... ἔργον τε οὐδὲν αὐτ τοῖς ἀπῆν, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐπ ̓ οἰκίας ἐφέροντο, καὶ περιϊόντες ἠρεύνων, ἔργῳ μὲν τὰ εὐληπτὰ σφίσιν ἅπαντα, λόγῳ δὲ τοὺς φίλους τοῦ Μίλωνος πρόφα σίς τε ἦν αὐτοῖς ἐπὶ πολλὰς ἡμέρας καὶ πυρὸς καὶ λίθων καὶ παντὸς ἔργου Μίλων.

37 A Proconsul could not exercise his military power (imperium) within the boundaries of the city. No comitia were required for his appointment, but he was nominated by a des

cree of the Senate and people. See Livy ix. 42 ; Χ. 22.

38 ut viderent ne quid detrimenti res publica caperet. This was equivalent to proclaiming martial law, and investing them with dictatorial authority. See speech, § 70, and comp. Dionys. Hal. v. 73.

39 Comp. Dion Cass. XL. 49: μάτ χαι τε οὖν ἐκ τούτου πολλαὶ καὶ σφαγαὶ αὖθις ἐγίγνοντο· ὥστε τὴν βουλὴν τὸν Πομπήϊον μεταπέμψασθαι, καταλόγους τε αὐτῷ καινοὺς ποιήσασθαι ἐπιτρέψαι, καὶ τὰ ἐσθήματα ἀλλάξασθαι. ̓Ελθόντος τε αὐτοῦ οὐ πολλῷ ὕστερον, ἔξω τε τοῦ Πωμηρίου πρὸς τῷ θεάτρῳ αὐτῷ σὺν φρουρᾷ ἤθροισαν, καὶ τὰ τοῦ Κλωδίου ὀστᾶ ἀνελέσθαι ἔγνωσαν τό τε βουλευτήριον τῷ Φαύστῳ τῷ τοῦ Σύλλου υἱῷ ἀνοικοδομῆσαι προσέταξαν.

40 Caius Clodius was older than Publius; for the latter is called minimus frater in the speech pro Cælio, c. 15. He appears to have been dead at the time of Milo's trial,

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