Microbial Biochemistry

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Springer, Jul 21, 2014 - Science - 611 pages
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Microbial physiology, biochemistry and genetics allowed the formulation of concepts that turned out to be important in the study of higher organisms. In the first section, the principles of bacterial growth are given, as well as the description of the different layers that enclose the bacterial cytoplasm, and their role in obtaining nutrients from the outside media through different permeability mechanism described in detail. A chapter is devoted to allostery and is indispensable for the comprehension of many regulatory mechanisms described throughout the book. Another section analyses the mechanisms by which cells obtain the energy necessary for their growth, glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the tricarboxylic and the anaplerotic cycles. Two chapters are devoted to classes of microorganisms rarely dealt with in textbooks, namely the Archaea, mainly the methanogenic bacteria, and the methylotrophs. Eight chapters describe the principles of the regulations at the transcriptional level, with the necessary knowledge of the machineries of transcription and translation. The next fifteen chapters deal with the biosynthesis of the cell building blocks, amino acids, purine and pyrimidine nucleotides and deoxynucleotides, water-soluble vitamins and coenzymes, isoprene and tetrapyrrole derivatives and vitamin B12. The two last chapters are devoted to the study of protein-DNA interactions and to the evolution of biosynthetic pathways. The considerable advances made in the last thirty years in the field by the introduction of gene cloning and sequencing and by the exponential development of physical methods such as X-ray crystallography or nuclear magnetic resonance have helped presenting metabolism under a multidisciplinary attractive angle.
 

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Contents

Bacterial Growth
1
The Outer Membrane of GramNegative Bacteria and the Cytoplasmic Membrane
13
Peptidoglycan Synthesis and Cell Division
23
Cellular Permeability
31
Allosteric Enzymes
59
Glycolysis Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen and Cellulose Synthesis
73
The Pentose Phosphate and EntnerDoudoroff Pathways
85
The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle and the Glyoxylate Bypass
91
Regulation by RNAs and Riboswitches
269
The Biological Fixation of Nitrogen
275
How Biosynthetic Pathways Have Been Established
283
The Aspartic Acid Family of Amino Acids Biosynthesis
289
Regulation of the Biosynthesis of the Amino Acids of the Aspartic Acid Family in  Enterobacteriaceae
309
Other Patterns of Regulation of the Synthesis of Amino Acids of the Aspartate Family
343
Biosynthesis of the Amino Acids of the Glutamic Acid Family and Its Regulation
353
Biosynthesis of Amino Acids Derived from Phosphoglyceric Acid and Pyruvic Acid
387

ATPGenerating Processes Respiration and Fermentation
113
Biosynthesis of Lipids
127
IronSulfur Proteins
139
The Archaea
147
Methanogens and Methylotrophs
153
Enzyme Induction in Catabolic Systems
179
Transcription RNA Polymerase
195
Negative Regulation
205
Enzyme Repression in Anabolic Pathways
219
Positive Regulation
227
The Ribosomes Translation Chaperones and Chaperonins
235
The Genetic Code the Transfer RNAs and the AminoacyltRNASynthetases
247
Attenuation
261
Selenocysteine and Selenoproteins
405
Biosynthesis of Aromatic Amino Acids and Its Regulation
415
The Biosynthesis of Histidine and Its Regulation
443
The Biosynthesis of Nucleotides
453
The Biosynthesis of Deoxyribonucleotides
477
Biosynthesis of Some WaterSoluble Vitamins and of Their Coenzyme Forms
491
Biosynthesis of Carotene Vitamin A Sterols Ubiquinones and Menaquinones
523
Biosynthesis of the Tetrapyrrole Ring System
539
Biosynthesis of Cobalamins Including Vitamin B 12
555
Interactions Between Proteins and DNA
567
Evolution of Biosynthetic Pathways
579
Index
598
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