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new fires. Farmer Graystock said something to the touchy rustic that he did not relish, and he writes his distaste in flames. What a power to intoxicate his crude brains, just muddlingly awake, to perceive that something is wrong in the social

system! What a hellish faculty above gunpowder! "Now the rich and poor are fairly pitted, we shall see who can hang or burn fastest. It is not always revenge that stimulates these kindlings. There is a love of exerting mischief. Think of a disrespected clod that was trod into earth, that was nothing, on a sudden, by damned arts refined

into an exterminating angel, devouring the fruits of the earth and their growers in a mass of fire! What a new existence! What a temptation above Lucifer's! Would clod be anything but a clod if he could resist it? Why, here [at Enfield] was a spectacle last night for a whole country!-a bonfire visible to London, alarming her guilty towers, and shaking the Monument with an ague fit-all done by a little vial of phosphor in a clown's fob! How he must grin, and shake his empty noddle in clouds, the Vulcanian epicure! Can we ring the bells backward? Can we unlearn the arts

that pretend to civilize, and then burn the world? There is a march of science; but who shall beat the drums for its retreat? Who shall persuade the boor that phosphor will not ignite?"

Mr. Hazlitt's volume has for frontispiece a copy of Robert Hancock's chalk portrait of Lamb, and it contains a fac-simile of the first page of Elia's essay on 'Roast Pig.' The other illustrations are of no value. One, a reproduction of Gilray's caricature, representing Coleridge and Southey with asses' heads, Lamb as a frog, and Charles Lloyd as a toad, which would have been worth reviving, is stated in the book to "accompany these observations," but we do not find it.

Two Years in Peru, with Exploration of its Antiquities. By Thomas J. Hutchinson. With Map by Daniel Barrera, and numerous Illustrations. 2 vols. (Low & Co.) MR. HUTCHINSON has done good service in many parts of the world. He was senior surgeon in the Pleiad in the Niger Expedition of 1854, and, after being Consul and acting Governor at Fernando Po, he was transferred to Rosario in 1861. Next year he explored the Salado Valley for wild cotton, and in 1865 he received a gold medal for his services at Rosario during the visitation of cholera in that year. He was transferred to Callao in October 1870, and in March 1871 he was making his twentieth voyage from England to West Africa or South America. On the 8th of April he had rounded Cape Horn and had reached Valparaiso, a word which we take to be compounded of Val for Valle, "a vale," and Paraiso, "Paradise," and not, as our author would make it, from Va, "go," al, “to,” Paraiso, “Paradise." On the 19th of April Mr. Hutchinson reached Arica, the first port of Peru at which he touched, and here he found frightful tokens of the desolation wrought by the earthquake of 1868. The contrast of what it was before and what it became after that calamity is well exhibited in two plates in this bock. Though an old and twice-told story, the history of this earthquake can never grow stale or uninteresting. Consul Nugent's account of his escape from his falling house, when the walls seemed to be blown up after him," spat" after him is the term he uses,—and of his wandering with staggering steps through the mid-day gloom, while the sea ran backwards and then returned

in a wave fifty feet high, sweeping all before it, is too terrible ever to lose power over the imagination of the reader. The wonder only is that people consent to live where such things have happened, and may at any moment happen again. But the South Americans, like flies, are not to be driven away by any terrors; and at p. 211 of the second volume we find the author commenting on this strange callousness, where he speaks of the town of Lambayeque, in Northern Peru, being swept away by torrents in 1791, in 1828, and in 1870, and those who escaped on the last occasion being saved only by ascending a sand hill 300 feet high, and yet life goes on there now as carelessly as at the first.

From Arica, along the whole length of coast of 1,100 miles to Paita, in the far North, Mr. Hutchinson made repeated landings, and in some cases proceeded into the interior to see all that was curious. Thus, from Mollendo he went to Arequipa, a city overshadowed by three gigantic mountains, one of which, the Misti, is 20,300 feet above the level of the

sea.

From Arequipa the railway has, since Mr. Hutchinson's visit, been extended to Puno, a total distance of 547 miles. South of Arica lies Iquique, from which prodigious supplies of nitrate of soda and borate of lime are obtained. Mr. Markham calculated that at the present rate of consumption (he was speaking of 1862) the supply will last for 1,393 years; but "it will be seen," says Mr. Hutchinson, "how erroneous must have been deductions based on the present rate of consumption as it existed twelve years ago, when we contrast the 1,370,348 quintals of the whole year 1860 with 3,983,798 quintals for eleven months of 1872." After a short visit to Islay, Mr. Hutchinson, proceeding north, landed at Pisco, opposite the Chincha Islands. He gives plates of idols and waterpots found at the depth of from thirty-three to sixty-two feet, and infers that thousands of years must have passed since these things were covered up. But, as he himself says, these articles were hidden when their proprietors were about to be expelled from their fire-sides by an invader; and no argument, therefore, can be based on the depth at which they were discovered. Guano was first landed at Liverpool on the 23rd of July, 1836, to the amount of thirty bags, which were given away for experiments. In 1866, the enormous quantity of 351,674 tons was brought from the Chinchas, and in 1871 the supply from those islands was exhausted.

Leaving Pisco, our author next visited the province of Cañete, where Mr. Henry Swayne, of Lima, has valuable sugar estates, cultivated by Chinese. Here, at all events, they are well treated, as will appear from the following lines :

saloons, without both of which it would

"At the Quebrada I first saw Chinese labourers on the coast of Peru. Their treatment is exceptionally good, and on Mr. Swayne's different properties they number beyond fifteen hundred. They have their joss-houses, and their opiumbe as difficult to make them work as the proverbial impossibilities to wash the blackamoor white, or make the leopard change his spots.' There is a hospital for them, which is daily attended by the Doctor from Cañete town, and they seem to be as hy as the day is long."

Were this kind of treatment universal in Peru, and were the immigrations of these

people well managed, one might be well satisfied to see the Serica vestes extending over Peru. But Mr. Hutchinson has himself given, in his Consular reports, and in this book also, a sad picture of the mortality among these immigrants; and particulars are mentioned which stamp a most unfavourable character on their importation. It has lately been forbidden by the Chinese Government. As no security was given for the return of the labourer to his native country at the end of his service, his liberation rarely proved more than a delusion.

Of Callao and Lima, Mr. Hutchinson gives interesting descriptions, more particularly with regard to the vast huacas, or burial-grounds, and gigantic fortresses found in the vicinity of those places. One of those, the central huaca of Pando, contains a mass of 14,641,820 cubic feet of material. But the whole valley of Huatica, the space between the sea and a line drawn from Callao to Lima, and from Lima to Chorillos, is full of such mounds. On a road which branches off by Ascona, a farm near Lima, there are four masses of ruins, the cubic contents of one being 14,536,989 feet of materials; but the big walls enclose a quadrilateral of 237,440 square yards, or 49 acres of ruins. Northward equally astonishing memorials of the past are found. It would take too much space even to refer to the localities in which they occur, and we must content ourselves with mentioning the general conclusion which Mr. Hutchinson draws from an examination of them. He says, at p. 255 of Volume II.:—

"I believe the mounds, huacas, cemeteries, and fortresses already mentioned by me are of an age, hundreds if not thousands of years anterior to the period of the Incas, of whose connexion with the valley of the Rimac we have no reliable historical faith that, when proper investigations are made, proof whatever. I am, moreover, disposed to the it will be ascertained that the builders of those things, of which we have now only the relics, will be proved, by the treasures of art found entombed with their people, to have been very far removed all the Inca worshippers." from the barbarism which is attributed to them by

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Miscellanies: Stories and Essays.

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By John Hollingshead. 3 vols. (Tinsley Brothers.) WHEN Ben Jonson issued an edition of his "Works," his contemporaries smiled or sneered at the presumption of the man who thought that 'Volpone,' and 'Every Man in his Humour, Sylva Sylvarum,' and all the rest of his writings, in verse and prose, were worth bringing together in convenient shape for readers of his own day and later times. Custom has now so far changed that no one thinks it strange of Mr. Robert Buchanan to follow the example of Mr. Browning in republishing all his "Poetical Works," or blames Mr. Sala for doing

on his own behalf what the publishers have done for De Quincey. So much ephemeral literature is being furbished up for posterity that posterity is likely to reject it altogether; and minor authors who desire their reputations to live would, we imagine, do more wisely in judiciously selecting from their compositions those which are most likely to stand the test of criticism, than in gathering together every scrap and trifle that they have scribbled off. The fashion being what it is, however, we have no reason to complain of Mr. Hollingshead for falling in with it, and re-issuing, in three large volumes, a hundred and twenty-five short "stories and essays" and two long ones, on the plea that they "have met with the approval of editors like the late Charles Dickens, W. M. Thackeray, Dr. Norman Macleod, &c.," that " some of them have been dedicated, by permission, to the Right Hon. John Bright, M.P.," and that "the public have accepted them in a variety of magazine and book forms, and Messrs. Tinsley Brothers are willing to risk publishing another and uniform edition." The second reason is amusing, but the third is weighty, and Mr. Hollingshead's 'Miscellanies' are, to say the least, quite as well worth preserving as most of the kindred literature that is now-a-days so plentiful. They are a great deal better than most. Mr. Hollingshead went to school in Household Words and All the Year Round, and he was one of Dickens's best pupils. If he is less flashy than Mr. Sala, who takes precedence of all other Dickensese essayists, he is more accurate and more instructive. A "Special Correspondent" who passes a night at the top of the monument, and who makes a tour of the London sewers, is likely to endure as much discomfort, and to collect as much useful and curious material for a gossiping article, as one who explores a Paris ball-room or dogs the steps of an English Prince and a Russian Princess before and after their wedding-day. It is one of Mr. Hollingshead's merits that he has a happy knack of finding out-of-the-way yet homely topics for his pen; another that he can write about them in a lively style, and at the same time without exaggeration or invention. We confess that, when we took up these three great volumes, we were appalled at the prospect of having to wade through so much old magazine literature, and that, having achieved the task, we are astonished to find how easy, entertaining, and instructive it has been.

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With Mr. Hollingshead, as with other writers of the same school, "stories" and essays" are almost synonymous terms; or, at any rate, they merge into one another. Nearly all the stories are meant to convey some moral, and may properly be inartistic as scraps of fiction, if they serve their purpose in illustrating some folly or vice of society. Nearly all the "essays essays" are made up chiefly of anecdotes, real or invented, and teach their more or less serious lessons as playfully as possible. Such compositions take the place in drawing-rooms or railway-carriages of farces on the stage, and, inasmuch as they can be read more easily than farces can be seen, they are more tolerable or more commendable. Some two or three of Mr. Hollingshead's lighter sketches have indeed, we believe, been adapted to the stage, and others might be so treated. A good specimen of Mr. Hollingshead's

"stories," and one especially appropriate just now, is 'The Humiliation of Fogmoor,' which sets forth the exploits of an eccentric patriot, Mr. Snarlington, in getting himself returned as a Parliamentary representative of the free and independent electors of a Hampshire borough at a cost of 9,000l., and then, at a cost of 20,000l., of securing a ticket-of-leave man for a colleague. The second feat he achieved in fulfilment of a pledge to bring the question of Parliamentary Reform before the House and before the country in a practical shape. The description of the way in which this was done is a capital skit on the election procedure that, we would fain hope, was more common when the tale was written than in the present year. Some others of Mr. Hollingshead's papers touch on politics, but most of them are on more strictly social and domestic topics. A fair specimen of his "essays" appears in the article on "Peacockism." This term is used for the extravagance of fine ladies as regards dress, which Mr. Hollingshead sets himself to ridicule. "Cleanliness," he says, "may be so stretched as to become a vice; dress may exhibit as much personal recklessness on the part of the wearer as rags; and there may be as much intemperance in indulging in certain bonnets and shawls as in beer-bibbing and gin-drinking." And this vice he reasonably lays to the account of the ladies. "There is no such creature in England as the human male peacock." The modern peacock is a female. "She lives, apparently, only for her plumage. Take that away from her, and life seems no longer to have any attraction. This plumage may be gaudy or not, according to her taste, but it must always be costly and luxurious, and made with little regard to her position in the world. In proportion as her means to pay for these feathers diminish, her desire to obtain them seems to increase. The same may also be said of her power to obtain them, for credit is seldom given more freely than when it is recklessly demanded." The ways of fashionable milliners and of the silly women on whose vanity they trade are boldly exposed by Mr. Hollingshead, and good ought to come from the reading of his article. Another article that may be read in connexion with it is on "Needlewomen," which reveals some facts concerning the slaves who work to enrich the fashionable milliners and to adorn the fine ladies. More facts might have been brought out, however, and some of Mr. Hollingshead's statements are thrown out of date by the alterations in the factory and workshop legislation that has occurred since the paper was written. That is an almost unavoidable fault of such ephemeral literature as this.

With the by-ways, and especially the unclean by-ways of commerce and finance, Mr. Hollingshead is familiar, and they furnish material for many of the sketches contained in these volumes. All sorts of other material, from Whitstable oysters to convicts, and from monster cheeses to menagerie wild beasts, are worked up by him in turn, and nearly all the articles furnish pleasant reading, if nothing more. What else need be said in their praise? A good deal might be said about the longest item in the collection, 124 pages, on "Underground London," treating of sewers, railway tunnels, and other excavations, but that these chapters were sufficiently reviewed and suffi- |

ciently commended when they first appeared in a separate volume a few years ago.

The Treasury of Languages: a Rudimentary Dictionary of Universal Philology. (Hall & Co.)

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THIS is a useful compilation, principally (as the Preface states) from Bagster's 'Bible in Every Land' and Dr. R. G. Latham's Elements of Comparative Philology.' Without, therefore, having much claim to scientific exactness, it presents a large number of facts on the whole with fair accuracy. Among the contributors who sign their names to a considerable proportion of the notices (whose value is thereby guaranteed) are Profs. F. Newman and G. Rawlinson, the Dean of Canterbury, and Mr. Skeat: much the larger proportion are unsigned, and are, therefore, to be attributed to the anonymous compiler. The book aims at describing all dialects, important or not, which are spoken in the world, arranged in alphabetical order; but other terms are admitted, rather it would seem on the chance that they may be useful to somebody, than on any very obvious principle. Thus we have "mestizo," "creole," &c.; "gasconade," "cant" (oddly derived from canto), "slang," &c.; the "Poenulus" of Plautus, and (as might be expected) "Grimm's Law": which is explained as regulating the changes of any cognate language, not merely the Teutonic subdivisions. We do not at all understand why we should find "Hanover" and "Gottingen " each described as a dialect of Platt-Deutsch. It is true that Göttingen is called "Low-Dutch," but we may assume that it is not intended by this to mark any difference in the speech of the two towns. Some articles are very good, e. g., Greek," where an account is given of the different phases of the language, with the authorities for each. If this plan be consistently carried out in a second edition, and the account of the most important terms expanded so as to give a succinct history of them, a very valuable book of reference will be produced. Such a volume ought, before all things, to mention the outof-the-way articles of special value contained in periodicals: this could be easily done by the help of such works as the 'Bibliotheca Philologica,' a catalogue of the utmost use to students of language. The articles on the Indian languages ought to be rewritten. We ought not to find "Divanagari" for Devanagari (repeated), which, again we are told mysteriously, is quite distinct from old Sanskrit, a name for Bactrian or Zend," which is puzzling. The following is not a lucid derivation of Sanskrit: "sam, together,' krita, made perfect,' samskrita, 'made euphonic.' Then we are told that Bengali is derived from Sanskrit,—a statement as inaccurate as would be that which the writer just avoids, that the Romance languages are derived from classical Latin. The definitions of the philological terms bear the impress of Dr. Latham's school: roots are called, first of all, "ultimate forms of words," which we quite agree with; but when we are also told that they are "frequently transferred from one family of speech to another," we have an uncomfortable feeling that the writer really means the lists of "root words" for man, woman, eye, ear, &c., which are no more roots than

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any other words. If we may grumble once more, we wish that Mr. Skeat had told us more, e. g. of "Cumbrian" than that it is a "dialect of England." Surely there is no reason why the main affinities of all the English dialects should not have been concisely given? But there is quite enough good work in this book to make it what we hope it will become-the basis of a much better second edition.

ALBANY FONBLANQUE.

The Life and Labours of Albany Fonblanque. Edited by his Nephew, Edward Barrington de Fonblanque. (Bentley & Son.) ALBANY FONBLANQUE fully deserves the tribute to his ability, accomplishments, and worth which this portly and handsome volume forms. The greater part of it consists of extracts from his brilliant writings in the Examiner from 1837 to 1860. He went on writing for a few years after 1860, until Mr. M'Cullagh Torrens, M.P., became proprietor and editor of the Examiner. Fonblanque had himself published the cream of his writings from 1830, when he began his editorship, to 1837, in three well-known volumes, entitled 'England under Seven Administrations.' Fonblanque's nephew, Mr. E. B. de Fonblanque, who is the editor of this volume, has prefixed a memoir, of which the chief fault is that it is a good deal shorter than need be, and which is well and genially written, and without exaggeration of tone. It contains, however, some errors which we must point out. The chief of them refer to John Stuart Mill, and these may be, in the most material points, corrected by the light of his recently-published 'Autobiography.'

Fonblanque was appointed editor of the Examiner in September, 1830, by the Rev. Dr. Fellowes, the proprietor. "About the same time that Fonblanque assumed the direction of the Examiner," says the editor of this volume, "John Stuart Mill became editor of the London Review, a journal professing to be the organ of the philosophical Radicals, and in 1831 he writes to Fonblanque." It was in 1835 that the London Review, not a journal, but a quarterly, was started with John Stuart Mill as editor. Sir William Molesworth was the proprietor of the Review, and found the funds. Mr. E. B. de Fonblanque, with strange confusion, refers to letters of Mill as showing that "he and his followers had already, as early as 1829, begun to secede from the more Radical section represented by Grote and Molesworth." This is indeed a congeries of mistakes. In 1829 Molesworth was a minor, unknown in politics. He was born in 1810; he was elected member for his county, West Cornwall, to the first reformed Parliament in 1832. There was no secession from Molesworth, who, however, tired of pecuniary loss, gave up the London Review in the beginning of 1837, and made it over to Mill. "He had done his part," says Mill in his 'Autobiography,' "honourably, and at no small pecuniary cost." Mill's feeling towards Molesworth is shown by a letter of his to Fonblanque of 1838, quoted in Mr. It is surE. B. de Fonblanque's Memoir. prising to find that there was at that time a separation from Grote's household, which, however, it may be suspected, was owing rather to personal than to political reasons.

I am.

Fonblanque had written to Mill, dissatisfied with the lethargic conduct at that time of Grote and his Radical friends in Parliament, and reproaching him for sympathy with the Grote conclave. Mill replies, speaking of Grote and his parliamentary friends as— "Persons whom I have nothing to do with, and to whose opinions you are far more nearly allied than There may be such a conclave, but I know nothing of it, for I have never been within the door of Grote's house in Eccleston Street, and have been for the last few years completely estranged from that household.. Immediately them, and went to a meeting of most of the leading parliamentary Radicals at Molesworth's, from which I came away, they thinking me, I fancy, almost mad, and I thinking them craven. not except Grote, or Warburton, or Hume, all of whom were there. I except none but Molesworth and Leader, two raw boys; and I assure you, when I told them what I thought should be done by men of spirit and real practicalness of character, I had perfect ground for feeling well assured that they would not do it."

after Lord J. Russell's declaration I tried to rouse

Again, Mill wrote to Fonblanque in the same year, 1838:

identifying me with Grote and Roebuck and the "What is the meaning of your insisting upon rest? Do you in your conscience think that my opinions are at all like theirs? Have you forgotten what I am? how you once knew that my opinion of their philosophy is, and has for years been, more unfavourable by far than your own, and that my Radicalism is of a school the most remote from theirs at all points which exists? They knew this as long ago as 1829, since which time the variance has been growing wider and wider. . . . In the face of this it is rather hard to be accused of ascribing all wisdom and infallibility to a set from whose opinions I differ more than from the Tories."

It is difficult quite to understand, or to be sure of quite understanding, these extracts of letters of Mill, without having before us the correlative letters of Fonblanque, which are not given. But there was at this time clearly a feeling of alienation from Grote, probably to be attributed to a domestic question which may have separated him from "Grote's household."

In 1838, the parliamentary party of philosophical Radicals, with whom Mill was joined when he undertook the editorship of the London Review, had become disheartened and inactive; the numbers present in the House of Commons for action had dwindled to a very small total; and it is related in Mrs. Grote's Life of her husband, that one evening, at their house, Charles Buller and Sir William Molesworth remained late for a chat, in the course of which the amusing Buller said, "I see what we are coming to, Grote; and in no very long time from this you and I shall be left to tell'-Molesworth!" Grote got tired of politics and the House of Commons, and pined for his books. Shortly after Lord J. Russell's famous "finality" declaration at the meeting of a new Parliament, in March, 1837, Grote wrote a letter to John Austin, then at Malta, which is published in Mrs. Grote's book, and in which he expressed his dissatisfaction with the Whig Government, and "the degeneracy of the Liberal party, and their passive acquiescence in everything, good or bad, which emanates from the present Ministry." These were exactly Mill's sentiments. In the same letter, Grote grumbles at "sustaining Whig Conservatism against Tory Conservatives." Here Mr. E. B. de Fon

blanque remarks that "men like Fonblanque and Mill must have been surprised at finding themselves accused of Conservative, or even Whig, proclivities." But there is nothing to show that Fonblanque and Mill were here referred to. They were entirely agreed with Grote in denouncing Lord John Russell's "finality." They agreed with him in lamenting the Tory colour of the Whig Government. We are treating history. An article, written. by Mill in the beginning of 1839, in the London and Westminster Review, 'On the Reorganization of the Reform Party,' shows the strength at this period of his political Liberalism, and his desire to strengthen the party and widen its basis, and place it under the leadership of Lord Durham, a friend of Grote.

Mill's divergence from the "philosophy" of Grote and Roebuck and the rest spoken of in his above-quoted letter of 1838, and said to have begun as early as 1829, refers to that revolution in his general ways of thought fully detailed in the 'Autobiography,' when he threw off many of his old beliefs, and took up new gods, and fell into admiration of Wordsworth, and found himself separating from Roebuck, and taking Maurice and Sterling into his heart. (Autobiography,' pp. 149-156.)

It is to be remarked that, when Mill describes in his 'Autobiography' the beginning of the London Review, he takes care to avoid giving to his parliamentary coadjutors, as from himself, the name of philosophical Radicals. "Those who thought themselves, and were called by their friends, the philosophic Radicals," is his description of them. "Instructed Radicals" is his own well-chosen phrase. He disclaims concurrence in their "philosophy."

"In the years between 1834 and 1840, the conduct of this Review occupied the greater part of my spare time. In the beginning, it did not, as a whole, by any means represent my opinions. I was under the necessity of conceding much to my inevitable associates. The Review was established to be the representative of the 'philosophic Radicals' [the marks of quotation are Mill's, to show whom I was now at issue on many essential that it was not his own phrase], with most of points, and among whom I could not even claim to be the most important individual.” ('Autobiography,' p. 199.)

In practical politics, the difference between Mill and Grote was simply that Mill comand was more disposed, with Fonblanque, to plained of Grote's want of zeal in action, make the best of the Whigs, give cordial support to their good measures, and endeavour to strengthen their Liberalism. This shows no difference in substance. In his 'Autobio

graphy,' calmly reviewing the period, Mill confesses expected too from his parliamentary friends, Grote and others :

―――

"And now, on a calm retrospect, I can perceive that the men were less in fault than we supposed, They were in unfavourable circumstances. Their and that we had expected too much from them. lot was cast in the ten years of inevitable reaction, when, the Reform excitement being over, and the few legislative improvements which the public really called for having been rapidly effected, power gravitated back in its natural direction to those who were for keeping things as

they were; when the public mind desired rest, and was less disposed than at any other period since the peace to let itself be moved by attempts to work up the Reform feeling into fresh activity in favour of new things." ('Autobiograpy,' p. 195.)

It is probably more than a misprint when, in a letter of Mill to Fonblanque, asking him to contribute an article to the first number of the London Review, we find "Burley of Sheffield" in a list of contributors who have already promised. This is meant, of course, for Bailey of Sheffield, the distinguished metaphysical and political thinker, author of the Essays on the Formation of Opinions,' and of the Rationale of Representation.' There was a plan in 1834, among Fonblanque's friends and admirers, which was successful, of aiding him in his management of the Examiner, by subscribing for ten years in advance. Edward Lytton Bulwer was one of the foremost to support the scheme, and wrote this charming letter:

"My dear Friend,-Ten years of the Examiner ensured and safe is a delight few people can resist -even the bats and owls themselves, I should think! The highest compliment to your honesty is that it is uphill work to sell. If you would only pander to the mob, whether gentle or simple, you would be read by all the world. As it is, you must be contented for a short time longer with the fame more universally acknowledged than that of any political writer in England except Swift, and him you beat in wisdom, consistency, and principle. Affectionately yours, E. L. B."

Fonblanque must have been astonished by

the receipt of a letter from Mr. B. Disraeli, expressing a desire to join. The future Prime Minister was not unaware of incongruity:"I believe," he awkwardly wrote, "that I am the last person who ought to bear witness to the candour or the justice of your strictures; but I am very willing also to believe that my case is the exception that proves the rule of your impartiality." A delicate way of telling Fonblanque that he was neither candid nor just! Disraeli further conveyed a wish to subscribe for "my friend Mr. Clay, at present on a visit to us here."

This was Mr. James Clay, long Member for Hull, not, as Mr. E. B. de Fonblanque seems to think, Mr. William, afterwards Sir William, Clay, Member for the Tower Hamlets, and an instructed Liberal, who was for a short time Secretary of the Board of Control, in Lord Melbourne's Administration. But Mr. de Fonblanque makes an extraordinary mistake in speaking of Mr. Clay, whether James or William, as one who subsequently became a prominent member of Mr. Disraeli's Cabinet (p. 37). We shall not attempt to make extracts from "the wit and wisdom" of Fonblanque, embodied in the Examiner selections, which take up about 470 pages of this valuable volume. The Examiner lives in the memory of its readers and Fonblanque's admirers; and want of space renders it impossible to give extracts sufficient for inoculating others with appreciation of his merits. This book is dedicated to the "Members of the English Liberal Press." It might have been more properly dedicated to the English press without limitation of politics. Fonblanque was an honour and an ornament to the English press generally. He had carefully educated himself for the press as a profession, and he pursued it proudly, not ostentatiously putting himself forward, but not concealing his connexion with it, and holding himself responsible for his writings. And he introduced into his political calling, which he pursued with conscientiousness, the wit and learning of an accomplished scholar and

the tone and principles of a gentleman. He was firm in the advocacy of opinions not lightly taken up, and he was no adulator of personages. As an accomplished and independent member of the press, he took his place in distinguished society, and honour done to him was done to the press.

We again express our regret at the shortness of the Memoir, though allowance and even credit are to be given to the nephew, who has decided on brevity. The specimens we have of Fonblanque's letters would make us desire more; and his correspondence was with very distinguished men. We may presume from what transpires that there would be more letters of Lord Melbourne, with whom he was on terms of personal friendship. There must surely be many more from Lord Lytton; we have extracted a charming one. Lord Dalling also, Henry Lytton Bulwer, was on terms of affectionate intimacy with him, and a delightful letter of his, which must be one of many, is published in the Memoir :

"105, Piccadilly, Jan. 1838. "My dear Fonblanque,-I received your letter, and feel deeply sensible of the kindness and friendship with which you express yourself. It will be a source of infinite pleasure to me to have acquired

any claim, however small, to your friendship. Do not be worried by anything. I should recommend, as you want to be comfortable where you are, taking a small and nice house without loss of time. Can I be of any service to you in any way? Only let me know, and believe me ever your affectionate Friend,

H. L. BULWER." This is a letter eminently characteristic of the writer who, through life, had his troubles and anxieties, whose prudence was not equal to his brilliant ability, and who, acting doubt less on the advice he gave Fonblanque of "not being worried by anything," was always to appearance calm and light-hearted, as he was always sympathetic for friends, and matchless in conversation.

The Heart of Africa. Three Years' Travels and Adventures in the Unexplored Regions of Central Africa, from 1868 to 1871. By Dr. Georg Schweinfurth. Translated by Ellen Frewer. 2 vols. (Low & Co.)

(Second Notice.)

AFTER a compulsory stay at the Meshera of a month, Schweinfurth and his party marched ninety miles through the pastoral Dinka country, passing by the way an isolated community called the Al-Waj, who inhabit a forest district, and reached the chief seriba of Ghattas, which was henceforth the head-quarters of the expedition. From this point a series of excursions were made to the different seribas of Ghattas in the neighbourhood; and the Dyoor tribe, who were here met with, furnished fresh material for the observation and pencil of the accomplished German. These Dyoors inhabit a ferruginous region, and, consequently, are quite at home in all iron-work. Petherick has described their primitive method of smelting with the use of bellows, but Schweinfurth gives a slightly different account. He was informed that bellows were never used. The territory of the Bongo, between lat. 6° and 8° N., was next visited; and many interesting details of their life and habits are related. These people also are skilled in iron-work; and a drawing is given of a "tibbah," or elongated oval knife with handles

at either end, which our author says is peculiar to the Congo women; but similar knives of identical pattern were exhibited in London in 1862, by Mr. Petherick, as belonging to the Dyoor tribes. The Bongo, according to Schweinfurth, most nearly resemble the inhabitants of the countries about Lake Tsad. Leaving Sabby in November, Dr. Schweinfurth explored during the two following months the Mittoo country to the south-east, and here Petherick's route-track was nearly approached on the Bahr-el-Rohl. These Mittoo tribes are decidedly inferior to the Bongo in the scale of humanity, and, although living in a fertile country, are ill thriven. Their women have a revolting habit of distorting their features by inserting circular plates nearly as large as a crown piece in their upper lips, and quartz cones, such as belemnites, in the lower lips; a fashion also sometimes adopted by the men. Similar decorations have been observed among the inhabitants of Maganya, on the River Shiré, far to the south of the Equator, by Livingstone; but in the latter case the ornament used is a ring. In January, 1870, the traveller returned to Sabby, and, after traversing eighty-seven miles in twelve days, arrived at a seriba be

longing to Mohammed Aboo Sammat, in the Niam-Niam country. In March Schweinfurth made further progress to the south, and here, in lat. 4o 20', N., in the wood at Dyagbe, the full glory of what he terms a gallery was unfolded to the delighted gaze of the ardent botanist.

"In a way that answers precisely to the description which Dr. Livingstone, in his last accounts, has given of the country to the west of Lake Tanganyika, and which is not adequately accounted for either by the geological aspect of the region, or by any presumed excess of rain, there is somewhich is beyond precedent. These springs result times found a numerical aggregate of springs in a perpetual waterflow, which, in the North, would all be swallowed up by the thirsty soil of low and open plains, but which here, in the NiamNiam country, is all restrained within deep-cut channels, that form, as it were, walls to confine the rippling streams. Trees with immense stems, and of a height surpassing all that we had elseEgypt), here stood in masses which seemed unwhere seen (not even excepting the palms of bounded, except where at intervals some less towering forms rose gradually higher and higher beneath their shade. In the innermost recesses of these woods one would come upon an avenue, like the colonnade of an Egyptian temple, veiled in the Seen from leafy shade of a triple roof above. without, they had all the appearance of impenetrable forests; but traversed within, they opened into aisles and corridors, which were musical with many a murmuring fount. Hardly anywhere was the height of these woods less than seventy feet, and, on an average, it was much nearer one hundred; yet viewed from without, they very often failed to present anything of that imposing sight which was always so captivating when taken from the brinks of the brooks within. In some places the sinking of the ground along which the gallery-tunnels ran would be so great that not half the wood revealed itself at all to the contiguous steppes, while in that wood (out of sight as it was) many a gallery might still exist."

A woodcut in the second volume, representing one of these gallery-forests, is disappointing. The water-shed of this portion of the Nile basin was now traversed for the first time by a European explorer; the frontier of the Monbuttoo was passed, and on the 19th of March the banks of the Welle River were attained.

"For me it was a thrilling moment that can

never fade from my memory. My sensations must have been like Mungo Park's on the 20th of July, 1796, when for the first time he planted his foot upon the shore of the mysterious Niger, and answered once for all the great geographical question of his day—as to whether its waters rolled

to the east or to the west."

This noble river rolled its deep dark flood majestically to the west, and its independence of the Nile system was established to the discoverer's satisfaction; had it rolled eastward, it would have solved the problem of the fullness of the water in Lake Mwootan (the Albert Nyanza of Baker). The Welle has here a breadth of 800 feet; and it is a matter of interest that Barth had already indicated the existence of this river under the name of the Kubanda. It is still an open question, however, whether this Welle River may not, after all, flow into the Gazelle affluent of the Nile. Dr. Schweinfurth is inclined to believe that it either flows into the Shary, which empties its waters into Lake Tsad, or that it may be a tributary to the ample waters of the Benue River, which Barth found at Yola in 1851. From this point to Lake Tsad would be about 1,000 miles. The caravan was transported across the Welle in large solid, well-shaped canoes, and after a march of twelve miles, enlivened by beautiful scenery such as might be | worthy of Paradise, an encampment was formed close by the imposing edifice which was King Munza's dwelling. The fantastic figure of this strange, weird-looking sovereign, wielding his quaint scimitar, his head surmounted with a chignon a foot and a half long, with a queer copper device in front, forms the frontispiece to the second volume. A graphic account is given of this tawny Cæsar's barbarous court. The palatial hall in which he received his European visitor was at least a hundred feet in length, forty feet high, and fifty broad, the bold arch of its vaulted roof being supported on triple rows of pillars formed from perfectly straight tree-stems, the other parts of the building being entirely composed of palm-leaf stalks. His display of wealth in copper was truly regal, and astonished Schweinfurth. The account of how he entertained his visitor, danced before his wives, of the richness of his wardrobe and armoury, of his cannibal propensities, &c., will be read with interest. The Monbuttoo, whose cannibalism is most pronounced, appear to have attained to no contemptible degree of external culture. It was noticed that their complexion is of a lighter tint than that of almost all the known nations of Central Africa, and that they differ from the ordinary run of negroes in the greater length and curve of the nose. It was at the Court of Munza that Schweinfurth first came in contact with the so-called Pigmies, a small colony of which was located about half a league from the royal residence. According to the statements made by individuals of this colony, their nation is called Akka, and inhabits large districts to the south of Monbuttoo, between lat. 2° and 1° N. Two or three of this pigmy race were drawn and measured, their average height being about four feet ten inches. The German explorer also had a rencontre with several hundred Akka warriors, whom he mistook for a crowd of impudent boys. They were encamped one night in the neighbourhood, but they disappeared before he could inspect them closely. |

One little dwarf, however, was carried off by the enterprising Doctor, and remained with him for several months. This pigmy died at Berber, on the return journey. It is curious, to say the least of it, that such a zealous anthropologist as Dr. Schweinfurth should not have visited the several families of the Akkas pigmies, who were compelled to dwell in the vicinity of the Monbuttoo king. These Akkas are remarkably similar to the Bushmen of South Africa in many respects. Dr. Schweinfurth gives a list of the dwarf races known in Africa, and regards them as the scattered remains of an aboriginal population now becoming extinct, an hypothesis borne out by their isolated and sporadic settlements. Our travellers appear to have made no attempt to penetrate further south in the direction of the enigmatical Lualaba of Livingstone, although only five degrees of latitude intervened. After a stay of three weeks among the Monbuttoo, the Doctor retraced his steps with great unwillingness towards the north. On the return journey, the Niam-Niam tribes gave some trouble. These Niam - Niams have evidently a strong affinity with the Fans of the West Coast, a thousand miles away; they use a peculiar iron missile with several limbs, pointed prongs, and sharp edges, called by the Arabs trumbash.

"With his lance in one hand, his woven shield

and trumbash in the other-with his scimitar in his girdle and his loins encircled by a skin, to which are attached the tails of several animals adorned on his breast and on his forehead by strings of teeth, the trophies of war or of the chase -his long hair floating freely over his neck and shoulders-his large eyes gleaming from beneath his heavy brow-his white and pointed teeth shining from between his parted lips-he advances with a firm and defiant bearing, so that the stranger as he gazes upon him may well behold in this true son of the African wilderness every attribute of the wildest savagery that may be conjured up by the boldest flight of fancy."

In December a great disaster befell Schweinfurth. The seriba of Ghattas, where he was, was consumed by a great conflagration, was consumed by a great conflagration, in which perished the accumulation of his labours, his journals, observations, natural history collections, his clothes, guns, instruments, tea, and quinine, &c., all his vocabularies and measurements, everything almost, in a single hour were gone, "the plunder of the flames." Could anything be more disheartening? The disgusted voyager retreated to Kurshook Ali's seriba, beyond the Djour, and employed the last six months which remained before the trading-boats would start on their return journey in exploring the country about the River Pongo, visited by Heuglin in 1863. On hearing of the disaster at Ghattas' seriba, Dyafer Pasha despatched a munificent supply of provisions to Dr. Schweinfurth, which, had they arrived in time, would have enabled him to defer his return to Europe; but he was already on his way back, and on the 21st of July was enabled to telegraph his arrival at Khartoom to his Consul at Alexandria.

In the latter portion of the work are many interesting details of the slave-trade, with practical suggestions for its suppression, which we recommend to the notice of Sir Samuel Baker and his successor, Col. Gordon, of Chinese renown, in whose operations our English interest in Central Africa chiefly

centres. We can only conclude by echoing Sir Bartle Frere's remark in his address at the opening of the present session of the Royal Geographical Society, to which these volumes of Dr. Schweinfurth give additional weight; viz., that Central Africa can no longer be regarded as a sealed country; and that every year will diminish the wide space which still continues a blank on our maps, and add to our knowledge, now so fragmentary, of the real limits and resources of the vast Nile basin.

NOVELS OF THE WEEK.

No Alternative. By Annie Thomas (Mrs. Pender Cudlip). 2 vols. (Chapman & Hall.) Sweet, not Lasting. By Annie B. Lefurt. Mrs. Greville. By Ursula. 3 vols. (Chapman (Low & Co.) & Hall.)

Par Émile Gaboriau. L'Argent des Autres. (Paris, Dentu; London, Dulau & Co..) Le Mariage de Juliette. Par Hector Malot. (Paris, Michel Lévy, Frères.) Une Belle-Mère. Une Belle-Mère. Same author and publisher. 'NO ALTERNATIVE' strikes us as a bad name for a novel. It suggests that the reader is shut up in a dull country-house on a wet winter's day with Mrs. Cudlip's book and no other, and cannot help himself, but must read it whether he will or no. We thought that Mrs. Cudlip had reached the climax of vulgarity in her last book, when she made a mother address her children as "cubs," and bid them "surge up stairs "; but, in her present work, she calls all her characters with whom she is not satisfied "bad eggs." "No Alternative' is a "bad egg." At the same time we must not be understood to imply that Mrs. Cudlip has not talent. It is because she is clever in her way, and able to do better work, that we feel bound to state that she is both vulgar and inartistic in her books.

'Sweet, not Lasting,' is the not inappropriate title of the slightest of novelettes. We are amused, harrowed, and dismissed in one volume with largely printed pages. The story deals for the most part with cheerful people in a picturesque part of Ireland, and though the plot is tragic, it is sufficiently commonplace not seriously to interfere with our enjoyment of the scenery and the people. Nellie is a simple maiden, heart-broken by the conduct of a dashing young doctor, who is also an unprincipled flirt. She dies of hard work as a Sister of Mercy, and the doctor, of course, turns up in time for final forgiveness. A certain Irish abandon is to be traced in the style. We have a quotation from Mr. Kingsley, misrendered and fathered on Wordsworth; the swallow's haunt is on the eaves, not under them, as in England; and finally, by a charming clerical error, "beautiful married men " are warned against falling in love with " women who are not their husbands."

'Mrs. Greville,' we are told, is the work of a "somewhile" Sister of Mercy, and in that point of view is curious. It is a most elaborate and detailed account of the moral ruin of a woman, and her rehabilitation by means of what, in the phraseology of a certain school, is called the "religious" life. Her inability to govern her passions, and her subsequent lapse into superstition, are obviously to be traced to the same cause. Given a weak, sensuous

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