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Among the papers in the last part of Cartailhac's 'Matériaux pour l'Histoire Primitive et Naturelle de l'Homme,-which are principally those read at the Lyons Meeting of the French Association for the Advancement of Science,-there are several interesting articles relating to the prehistoric station at Solutré, in the valley of the Saône. This station was discovered some years ago by MM. Arcelin and De Ferry, and has since been explored with great diligence by M. l'Abbé Ducrost. The interments at this locality belong to several distinct epochs; some being referable to the Neolithic period, whilst others are of doubtful age. The skeletons are always orientated, the feet pointing towards the east, and are commonly associated with stone implements. Masses of cinders, chiefly those of burnt bones, attest the former presence of man; and in and around the hearths are found the remains of a number of animals representing the Fauna of the period. This Fauna includes the reindeer, the mammoth, the cave-bear, the cave-hyæna, &c. Among the débris are found flint lances and arrow-heads, a great variety of objects in bone, and some rude works of Art. But, perhaps, the most curious circumstance connected with the Solutré station is the discovery of vast heaps of the bones of the horse. The remains of at least forty thousand horses have already been discovered; indeed, the bones are so abundant that they are used in the preparation of superphosphate of lime for manure. It has been suggested that the horses may have been immolated at funeral ceremonies; but it seems more probable that they served as food, and that the heaps of bones are true kitchen-middens. From M. Touissant's studies, it appears that the quaternary horse of Solutré was a small animal, with short neck and large head. It is interesting to learn that in some of its anatomical peculiarities it presents a distant resemblance to the extinct genus-Hipparion.

A description of several prehistoric cemeteries and paraderos in Patagonia has been contributed to the Revue d'Anthropologie by Mr. F. P. Moreno, jun., of Buenos Ayres. During a recent expedition to the valley of the Rio Negro, in quest of objects of ethnological interest, the writer discovered several of these relics of the Indian tribes

who inhabited the country prior to the Spanish conquest. More than thirty of these cemeteries were visited. The interments are accompanied by flint arrow-heads and other stone weapons and implements, fragments of pottery, shells, bones, &c. The paraderos seem to have been ancient dwellingplaces, for without containing any human bones they offer abundant relics of occupation by man. Mr. Moreno publishes measurements of forty-five Tehuelche skulls.

In a paper recently published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Col. E. T. Dalton describes the rude stone monuments erected by Kolarian tribes in Chutiá Nágpúr. It is of great interest to find people at the present day keeping up the practice of erecting huge sepulchral and monumental stones, similar to the prehistoric megalithic structures in Western Europe. At the great Munda burial-ground of Chokahatu, Col. Dalton counted 7,360 tombs, mostly of the dolmen and cromlech forms. The horizontal slabs of the tombs are generally huge masses of gneiss, often exceeding fifteen feet in length It is well known that the tribes inhabiting the Khasia Hills erect stone monuments of a similar character to those described by Col. Dalton.

A recent number of the Records of the Geological Survey of India contains a paper, by Mr. H. B. Medlicott, descriptive of a quartzite celt found embedded in stiff clay near the village of Bhutrá, on the left bank of the river Narbadá. It would hardly be necessary to call attention to this implement, were it not for the disputed age of the deposit in which it was found. The late Dr. Falconer referred the ossiferous deposits of the Narbadá valley to the Pliocene period. Could this determination be substantiated, the implement in question would probably be the oldest known specimen of human workmanship. But the writer

shows that Dr. Falconer, relying solely on mammalian remains and ignoring the molluscan fauna, used the term Pliocene in a special sense, different from its generally-accepted meaning. Indeed, Mr. Medlicott maintains that there is no presumption, either palæontological or mechanical, that the deposits are older than the late Pleistocene period. Hence the Narbadá specimen cannot claim a higher antiquity than that of the ordinary palæolithic implements so widely distributed through the river-gravels of Western Europe.

As the comparative anatomy of the various races of man is a subject which has been much ignored, we may call attention to Dr. T. Chudzinski's recent observations on the muscular system of the Negro. These observations were made on the bodies of three young negroes who died last year in Paris. The paper, illustrated by a chromo-lithograph, is published in Broca's Revue d'Anthropologie.

Experiments on the effect which the passage of a galvanic current exerts on the elasticity of the wire through which it is conducted have been made at different times by Wertheim and by Edlund; but the results obtained by these two physicists were not in harmony with each other. The subject has, therefore, been investigated afresh by Dr. H. Streintz, whose observations have been submitted to the Vienna Academy of Sciences. He finds that the current does produce an alteration in the elasticity of the conducting metal, but only such an alteration as would be due to the heat developed in the wire. The expansion of the conducting wire, however, is greater than would be produced by heating it to the same temperature; but an exception to this law appears to be furnished in the case of hard steel. When the current is transmitted, the wire expands, not suddenly, but graduVonally, just as would be the case under the influence of heat alone.

Much information has been lately accumulating with respect to the remarkable people of Yesso called the Ainos, who are supposed to represent the aboriginal inhabitants of Japan. An Aino skull has been exhibited by Herr Virchow before the Anthropological Society of Berlin, and is described and figured in the last number of the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie. Virchow's observations are not altogether in harmony with those of Dr. Barnard Davis on other Aino skulls. It should be mentioned, however, that the Berlin skull comes not from Yesso, but from the south part of the Island of Sachalin, whence it was brought by a Russian naval surgeon, Herr Mitzull.

From time to time one hears strange stories about the curious habits of wolf-reared children, but such accounts are generally received by men of science with a good deal of scepticism. Mr. V. Ball, of the Geological Survey of India, has laid before the Asiatic Society of Bengal some 'Notes on Children found living with Wolves in the North-West Provinces and Oudh.' An abstract of these notes appears in a recent number of the Proceedings of the Society. In all these stories the wolves are alleged to have communicated much of their natural ferocity and their untamable disposition to their foster-children. Thus, in two cases cited by Mr. Ball the children are described as wild animals in every point of view. These children were taken to the Orphanage at Secundra, and their habits are described by the Superintendent, the Rev. Mr. Erhardt. Of one of the boys he says, "He drank like a dog, and liked a bone and raw meat better than anything else; he would never remain with the other boys, but hide away in any dark corner. Clothes he never would wear, but tore them up into fine shreds." This poor fellow soon died, but the other boy has lived in the Orphanage for six years. Although thirteen or fourteen years of age, he has not learnt to speak, but he has become so far civilized as to relish raw flesh less than he formerly did. It is much to be desired that the subject should be thoroughly investigated, for the statements, if well founded, are of great interest to the anthropologist.

of oxygen, and such as were caused by poisoning with carbonic acid. The condition of the blood, especially of the gases of the blood, under different pressures being examined, it appears that "when the pressure diminishes the quantity of gas contained in the blood diminishes equally, but the proportion is a little less than that which is indicated by the law of Dalton. The blood loses thus relatively more oxygen than carbonic acid." The phenomena presented by the animals submitted to the influence of various barometric pressures are well described; but for this and other divisions of this most interesting inquiry we must refer to the memoir itself.


DR. PAUL BERT, Professor of Physiology to the Faculty of Sciences of Paris, communicates to M. Milne-Edwards's Annales des Sciences Naturelles, 1st Part for 1874 of 'Recherches Expérimentales sur l'Influence que les Modifications dans la Pression Barométrique exercent sur les Phénomènes de la Vie.' Extensive as this communication is, it appears to be but an abridgment of a work in the course of publication. The inquiry has evidently been of an exhaustive character. Dr. Bert first examines all the known facts as connected with the influences of augmentation and diminution of pressure upon the vital functions. He then details his experiments on the deaths of animals kept in closed vessels under diverse barometric pressures. In these experiments he has used every precaution to eliminate the effects due to chemical change in the air; he shows what deaths were owing to asphyxia, due to the privation


Dr. Helmholtz has recently brought an important memoir before the Académie des Sciences de Berlin, Sur la Polarisation Galvanique dans les Liquides dépouillés de Gaz.' A careful analysis of this memoir has appeared in L'Institut, by M. Henri Sagnier, the last paper appearing in the number of that journal for March 25th. To all who are interested in the electrical investigations of Faraday and the discoveries of Graham, these researches of Dr. Helmholtz possess considerable


An important inquiry has been made by MM. L. Troost and P. Hautefeuille on the peculiarities of red phosphorus, and the results have been communicated by them in a note, entitled 'Sur les Chaleurs de Combustion des Diverses Variétés de Phosphore Rouge.' They show that the aspect of the red phosphorus depends upon the elevation of the temperature to which it has been exposed. This body prepared at 265° is of a magnificent red colour; that obtained at a temperature of 440° is orange; and when produced at above 500° it is a very lively grey violet. The properties of the phosporus also vary considerably with the temperature at which the colour is produced. As the red phosphorus is largely used, these facts are of great practical importance.

An important communication connected with the physics of the earth has been recently made by M. Boussingault to the Academy of Sciences of Paris, 'Sur les Eaux Acides qui prennent Naissance dans les Volcans des Cordillères.' An abridgment of the memoir, made by the author, appears in the Comptes Rendus for February 23rd. One of the waters from the Andes, celebrated at Antioquia for the cure of goitre, has the following remarkable composition in 100 grammes:


........ 13.6124
10 5860 Sodium ...... 7:8544
40735 Potassium .. 3:3816
1.1930 Magnesium.. 07160

Sulphuric Acid



This paper is continued and concluded in the Comptes Rendus for March 2nd.


MR. W. HAYES WARD, of New York, sends us a long reply to Dr. Hyde Clarke's letter of January

the 24th. We cannot find room for it, but we give the most important passages:


"Mr. Clarke asserts that the only portion of my paper not under quotation from Mr. Dunbar Heath is derived without quotation from my [his] own papers in the Athenæum, &c.' If I gave credit to Mr. Heath and none to him, the reason was that I found in Mr. Heath's papers what deserved consideration and discussion, although my better material, in the way of squeezes' and plaster casts, enabled me to correct some serious errors into which Mr. Heath had naturally fallen. Mr. Heath's conclusions were based on a careful study of such material as he had, and he skilfully determined the direction of the writing and the parallelism of three of the four parallel inscriptions. From Mr. Clarke's papers I could get no service, and did not feel inclined to trouble myself to controvert them. Mr. Clarke brings specifications against me in but two particulars. He says, 'In vol. i. [of Burton's 'Unexplored Syria '], pp. 350, 351, 352, 354, 355, 356, 358, and 359, will be found the references to Himyaritic, brought together by Dr. Ward on his p. 25. Here, likewise, will be found my observations on the resemblance to Cypriote (vol. i. pp. 355, 359).' Not remembering distinctly what was contained in that volume, which I had consulted in a public library, and to which I had given scarce fifteen minutes of an editor's precious daylight, I took the trouble to-day to visit it again. He charges me first with appropriating his statements about the Himyaritic. I made no statement which could be compared with his, unless as a contradiction. He identifies, without doubt, the Hamath with the Himyaritic, at least to the extent of sixteen characters. Eight of these he specifies, pretending to give the corresponding Hebrew letters. I stated that there were 'three or four' coincident forms, and added that only on the improbable theory of an independent hieroglyphical origin of the Himyaritic alphabet was it barely possible' to regard the coincidence otherwise than accidental. I also added a mention of two specified inscriptions which illustrate epigraphical peculiarities, and which had not been referred to by Mr. Clarke, unless a nameless inscription of his which 'winds to and fro' may mean the altar inscription of the British Museum. Whether I ought to have given him

credit in reference to Cypriote may be gathered

from what I said, which was in these words ::—' I may add that the Cypriote inscriptions give characters 2 and 3; but these coincidences, like those with the Egyptian hieroglyphics, may be quite

accidental.' I did not care to attack his considerably more numerous imaginary identifications with Cypriote; and my knowledge that there were two coincidences was derived not from him.

These are the only specifications of plagiarism which he makes, and have reference to but twenty lines of my article, thrown in to show that a very few coincidences with Himyaritic or Cypriote are probably of no importance.

"Mr. Clarke says that 'he (I) has added nothing to our knowledge on the subject.' I will not dispute this; but the statement indicates the difference between us in treating it. I believe that in studying inscriptions in a new character, the first thing to be done is to get trustworthy copies. This was all I pretended to do. There had been no such copies printed. The Palestine Exploration Society put into my hands absolutely perfect squeezes and plaster casts, far better than any others that have been taken. From these, with great labour, I prepared my plates and restorations, and my list of characters. I added no information and suggested the identification or vocalization of not one single character, simply because there are no data whatever to guess from. But my copies are now a trustworthy basis for competent scholars. Mr. Clarke, on the other hand, forgetting the caution of the learned Dr. Deutsch in the case of the Moabite Stone, accepted without question the worthless copies of an ignorant Arab given by Captain Burton, discovered in them over five hundred separate characters (there are less than sixty), and a system of 'double

letters and possibly ligatures and abbreviations' (all imaginary) and then proceeded, before he knew the shape of the Hamath characters, to identify his Arab's nondescript drawings, and tell us which was Aleph, which Vau, which S and D, and so on, and even to tell us that one had the numeral value of 100, and another '1,000 perhaps'! He then goes on to tell us that they all read from the bottom, and from right to left, when in fact not one reads from the bottom (unless turned upside down) and all read boustrophedon."

NEW SHAKSPERE SOCIETY.-March 27.-F. J. Furnivall, Esq., Director, in the chair.-The Hon. Sec., Mr. Snelgrove, announced that since the last meeting 50 new members had joined the Society, making its number 298; and that fresh branches had been established in Bedford, Birkenhead, Dublin, and Illinois. The Chairman announced that the Society would hold an extra meeting on July 10, and that the paper on that evening would probably be 'On the Historical Allusions in Richard II.,' by Mr. R. Simpson.-The paper (read by Dr. E. A. Abbott) was 'On the Application of Metrical Tests to determine the Authorship and Chronological Succession of Dramatic Writings, Part II., Fletcher, Beaumont, Massinger,' by the Organi-Rev. F. G. Fleay. Fletcher's plays are distinguished 1. By number of double or female endings; these are more numerous in Fletcher than in any other writer in the language, and are sufficient of themselves to distinguish his works. 2. By frequent pauses at the end of the lines; this union of "the stopped line" with the double ending is peculiar to Fletcher: Massinger has many double endings, but few stopped lines. 3. By moderate use of rhymes; this distinguishes him from Beaumont, who has more rhymes than Fletcher or Massinger, and who in serious passages has few double endings. 4. By moderate use of lines of less than five measures: he has more than Mas


ROYAL-March 26.-The President in the chair. The following papers were read: 'On the zation of the Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures, Part VI., Ferns,' by Prof. W. C. Williamson,'On the Motions of some of the Nebula towards or from the Earth,' by Mr. W. Huggins,-and' On the Annual Variation of the Magnetic Declinations,' by Mr. J. A. Broun.

ROYAL SOCIETY OF LITERATURE.-March 25.J. W. Bone, Esq., in the chair.-Dr. G. W. Leitner gave an account of the tribes inhabiting Dardistan, between Kashmir and Badakhshan, with specimens of the fables, songs, proverbs, &c., still current among a race but little known to European travellers. He also called attention to a collection of antiquities and objects of industry made by him chiefly in the north of the Panjab, and which he considered to exhibit many traces of the influences of Greek Art on the treatment of the human physiognomy.

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.-March 31. -T. E. Harrison, Esq., President, in the chair.The President stated that Capt. Tyler had asked to be allowed to withdraw his paper On the been complied with. The paper read was ' On the Working of Railways,' and that that request had Fixed Signals of Railways,' by Mr. R. C. Rapier.

ANTHROPOLOGICAL INSTITUTE.-March 24.Prof. G. Busk, President, in the chair.-The President exhibited and described an Ashantee skull. The specimen, with other bones of the body, was taken by Surgeon-Major Gore from an outlying camp which had been deserted on the approach of the British troops. It presented the character

istics rather of a female than a male skull, but Surgeon-Major Gore affirmed that he had never heard of the Ashantees carrying about the bones of

a woman. If the skull exhibited belonged to a man, he could not have been a military leader, but he might have had such a rank in his tribe as entitled him to the honours that were evidently bestowed and detailed measurements.-A paper was read on his remains. The paper gave full description by the Rev. Dunbar I. Heath, 'On the Origin and Development of the Mental Function in Man.' Mr. W. L. Distant read a paper 'On the Mental Differences between the Sexes.' The question discussed in the paper was, Is there clearly proved to be a mental difference between the sexes, and is that difference one of kind or only of degree? Authorities were quoted to show the undoubted physical differences, such as weight of brain, form of skull, &c.; also the now moderately well-established fact that in primitive races the hair of women approximates more closely to that of man than obtains in a higher state of civilization. But, it having been clearly proved that the advance of man is shown by a higher form of skull and increase of the cranial capacity, an attempt was made to show some of the conditions that had retarded women in the mental struggle. The result seemed to prove that the mental divergences might be greatly accounted for, 1, by sexual selection, difference of education, and force of custom; 2, by physiological conditions, and that, as the race progresses, the cranial capacity of the sexes, though not becoming identical, which is a physiological impossibility, will yet become much less distinct and divergent, which is a moral certainty if based on moral conclusions.

singer, however. 5. By using no prose whatever. Massinger also admits none: there are two little bits in his works; both, Mr. Fleay thought, intercalated. 6. By admitting abundance of tri-syllabic feet, so that his (Fletcher's) lines have to be felt rather than scanned; it is almost impossible to tell when Alexandrines are intended. By these characteristics Mr. Fleay separated Fletcher's work from Beaumont's, from Massinger's, Rowley's, &c., and gave tables of his results.-Dr. Abbott and Mr. Hales added other characteristics of Fletcher's lines. Dr. B. Nicholson contested Mr. Fleay's date for 'The Love's Cure,' and his assigning_the 'Faithful Shepherdess' to Fletcher only. The discussion on Mr. Fleay's first paper, On the Order of Shakspeare's Plays,' was re-opened by the reading of his comments on his new Tables of Proportions between the rhymed and blank-verse against The Two Gentlemen of Verona' being lines in each play.-Mr. Hales argued strongly put after 'Romeo and Juliet.'



Royal Institution, 2.-General Monthly.
London Anthropological, 8.-Prehistoric Antiquities of the
Caucasus,' Dr. Kopernicki; Roumanian Gypsies,' and⚫ The
Gypsy Dialect called Sam,' by the President
Biblical Archæology. 8).-Identification of the Name of Nim-
rod with the Deity Merodach,' Mr. J. Grival; Three Amatory
Songs, and the Solemn Festal Hymn of the Egyptians, from
the Harris Papyri,' Mr. C. W. Goodwin.

WED. London Institution, 7.- English Poets of the Nineteenth Century, I.,' Prof. H. Morley.

British Archæological Association, 8.-'Shire Oak, Worksop,'
Rev. J. Stayce; "Canettes,' Mr. H. S. Cuming.

Society of Arts, 8.- Importance of a Special Organization for the Diffusion of Sanitary Knowledge,' Major-General Synge. THURS. Mathematical, 8.- Probable Error in Statistics,' Mr. G. H. Darwin; Geometrical Method of Inversion, with special reference to the Inversion of an Anchor-Ring,' Mr. H. M. Taylor; Determination of the Form of the Dome of Uniform Stress,' Mr. C. W. Merrifield.

Astronomical, 8.

Botanic, 3.- Election of Fellows.




Science Gossip.

GLASGOW is making active preparation for the reception of the Social Science Congress, which is to meet there in the autumn. Principal Caird, in the name of the University, has offered the use of the Class Rooms to the Association. Lord Moncrieff prudence, and Dr. Lyon Playfair over the Health has agreed to preside over the Department of JurisDepartment. A difficulty is felt in fixing the day of meeting. The beginning of October would suit Glasgow people best, as they would then be mostly returned to town, but it is feared that it is too late probable the meeting will be about the end of to expect English people to go so far north. It is September.

"H." WRITES to us:-"May I ask through the publisher of the new edition of Sowerby's columns whether we may not hope that English Botany' will soon give us a General Index to that work? It is a very costly book, and at present, for want of such an index, it is almost


useless. If I wish to refer to any particular plant, I may have to look over eleven large octavo volumes before finding it. I for one would gladly pay any reasonable almost any unreasonable-price for a proper and complete index."

'THE BIRDS OF IONA AND MULL' is the title of a work by the late Mr. H. D. Graham, that will shortly make its appearance in Glasgow. It is proposed to include in it all the ornithological papers written by Mr. Graham during the last twenty years. Several of these have been already published in the Naturalist, but the larger portion will consist of notes drawn up by the author during the last few years of his life, and completed in 1870. The materials have been edited by Mr. Robert Gray, author of 'The Birds of the West of Scotland, to whom Mr. Graham's ornithological correspondence was originally addressed.

THE sinking for coal in Sandwell Park promises to be crowned with success. At the depth of 373 yards the "brooch" coal of South Staffordshire has been reached, and the corresponding iron-stone beds pierced. The ten-yard coal is known to be about forty yards below the "brooch" coal; and, as the sinking progresses at the rate of about five yards a week, the problem will soon be solved. If this coal is found, it will be a great scientific triumph, and all important as proving the extension of the South Staffordshire coal-field eastward.

MR. W. L. WATTS, of the Middle Temple, is forming an expedition to attempt an exploration of Vatna Jökli in Iceland a district hitherto unexplored, and to which a mysterious interest is attached.

THE usual "Monthly Record" from the Melbourne Observatory for September and October, 1873 is on our table. Beside the ordinary "Results" of observations and "Abstracts," a shock of

an earthquake on the 16th of September is reported as having been felt at Berwick, Australia.

A CONTEMPORARY stated last week that "Prince Sviatopolsk Slirski" was going to succeed General Kaufman in the rule of Russian Central Asia. Our contemporary, doubtless, meant Prince Sviatopolsk Mirski; but, unfortunately, he declined the post some weeks ago, and it has been arranged that General Kaufman shall return for one year.

FATHER SECCHI writes from Rome, the 24th of February, to the Perpetual Secretary of the Académie des Sciences, Paris, communicating a series of "Observations des Protubérances Solaires

pendant le Dernier Trimestre de l'Année 1874, Résultats fournis par l'Emplois des Réseaux au lieu de Prismes dans les Observations Spectrales des Protubérances." This communication, printed in the Comptes Rendus for the 2nd of March, contains some important facts.

OUR Washington Correspondent writes:"Lectures upon Natural Science, History, and Art have recently been given in New York to a class of ladies, preparatory to their travelling in Europe during the summer months. Under the auspices of what is called an International Academy, they will, during the spring, attend a finishing course of lectures in Berlin. This is only one out of many original ideas that have sprung from an extensive educational institution founded in New York by Peter Cooper, a self-made man, of great wealth, who is now ninety-two years of age, and whose friends lately complimented him with a friendly banquet.”

Ir is amusing to read in the Wallaroo Times, of January 21, a description of an instrument, called the "Telemicromiscope," which virtually, it is said, brings the moon to within a distance of thirty miles from the earth; and we are assured that the inventor "has several times seen distinctly living animals along the acclivities of the lunar mountains, appearing nearly as large as fleas in a blanket." IN the Annuaire du Bureau des Longitudes de 1874, M. Faye inserts a notice on the 'Conditions Astronomiques de la Vie,' in which the question of the plurality of worlds is fully dealt with. The concluding portion of this notice is reprinted in Les Mondes of the 12th of March.


The TENTH ANNUAL EXHIBITION of CABINET PICTURES, by Artists of the British and Foreign Schools, is NOW OPEN, at T. M'Lean's New Gallery, 7, Haymarket, next the Theatre.-Admission, 18., including Catalogue.

The SHADOW of DEATH.' Painted by Mr. HOLMAN HUNT. -NOW on VIEW. From 10 till 5.-A spacious Platform has been erected, so that Visitors now have an unimpeded View of the Picture. -398, Old Bond Street.-Admission, 18.

DORE'S GREAT PICTURE of CHRIST LEAVING the PRETORIUM,' with Night of the Crucifixion,' Christian Martyrs,' Francesca de Rimini,'' Neophyte,'' Andromeda,' &c., at the DORÉ GALLERY, 35, New Bond Street. Ten to Six.-Admission, 18.

ROUND the WORLD with W. SIMPSON, being Pictures from the Four Quarters of the Globe by “A Special Artist."-Burlington Gallery, 191, Piccadilly. Open from Ten to Six.-Admission, including Catalogue, 18.


A COLLECTION of rather more than two hundred pictures, of various degrees of merit, and mostly of cabinet size, has been placed in these rooms. As a whole, it is interesting, although by no means equal to others which we have seen in the same place. A taste which tolerates inferior art, and less excellent workmanship than used to be found in this gallery, now rules here; but, on the other hand, it is right to say that the present Exhibition is, in these respects, rather above the average. We may dismiss at once a considerable proportion of the pictures, as we encountered them at the last Salon, and criticized them when noticing that gathering. Thus, Beating to Arms (No. 17), by M. Leloir, is already known to our readers under another name. M. Cermak's Episode of the War in Montenegro (18) bore the same name in Paris last year. M. BerneBellecour's Rent Day (50) we described at length as Le Jour des Fermages. M. J. Bertrand's An Idyll (110), M. P. Billet's Grass Cutters (111), M. Vibert's The Spanish Wedding (164), and M. Jules Ereton's Going to Mass-Brittany Woman (139), are all from the Salon. M. J. Millet's fine Flax Crusher (208) we have seen before. M. Breton's picture is insufficiently named. It is the companion to the picture by the same artist which was here last year, and represents the female culprit of a pair of lovers doing penance with an extinguished taper on account of an amorous We confess this picture disappoints peccadillo. us so much that we find it hard to believe it is the same that we saw in Paris, and felt to be one of the finest in the Salon. Another important picture we shall but briefly notice, because it will, in a more complete form, appear at the approaching Salon, we mean The Madonna (8), by M. Hébert, a study for a much more important work, of which the French critics write warmly, as one of the most remarkable pictures this master has produced. Let it suffice, therefore, for the present, if we say that the painting before us represents the Virgin and Child, with a background of a brocade pattern on gold. The expressions of the faces will charm most thoughtful observers. We may, how- | ever, challenge the gaunt Frenchwoman depicted here as a typical Madonna, especially as the whole painting shows an affectation of elements of treatment which are quasi-Byzantine, although there is so much realism in the handling of the flesh that it contrasts with the conventionalized draperies as strongly as the painted face of a Russian devotional picture contrasts with its accompaniments in perforated and painted metal.

M. A. Stevens is a master of colour, chiaroscuro, and triumphant in the subtlest use of tone. An Idle Hour (12), rough and free as its handling is, is astonishingly solid, sound, and brilliant: a lady reading while reclining on a couch; a study in green and grey.-M. de Jonghe borrowed a leaf from the study-book of M. Stevens when he produced so ably and effectively the capital Pretty Reflections (2), a young lady looking at her face in a hand-mirror.—In Church (23), by M. J. Wagner, seems familiar to us, although we cannot say whereabouts we saw it before; at any rate, it is a very good example of its kind: a party of Alsacian peasants at prayer; much character is shown, and the painting vigorous but, rather crude.-A Lady of the Fourteenth Century (24) shows such a personage as the painter, M. P. C. Comte, supposes would

pass for a lady of the fourteenth century, sitting in an amber-coloured satin dress, &c., occupying a mediævalized chair, and whimsically vowing "by the feather" which she holds.-Hide and Seek (27), by M. Pascutti, charms by its vivacious design and sparkling colour: children at play in fantastic dresses.-Chez le Cordonnier (36), by M. V. Capobianchi, ladies buying slippers, is a tolerable specimen of the mode of painting which, in its happiest development, we are accustomed to associate with the name of M. Fortuny. Several similar works are to be seen here, and present nothing that calls for more exact criticism. They sparkle, charm, and please, almost as much as they startle us; but novelty is their great attraction, and we have already had almost enough of them.M. De Gegerfeldt's Winter Forest Scene (35) is vigorous, bold, and rich in its way, but that is a conventional, rather showy, way.-Another tolerable example of the skill of a facile and brilliant artist, one who paints better than the work in question would lead people to imagine, is The Chess-Players (41), by M. E. Fichel.

One of the pictures which will attract most attention here is that which, in a single seated figure, represents Botzaris (44),—a cabinet work by M. Gérôme, which, in spite of all its intensity of expression, its solidity, so characteristic of the painter, and its minute rendering and multifarious details,-in this respect being comparable with what Mr. Lewis so often produces,-will not, we think, greatly enhance the reputation of a highly distinguished artist. The chief, clad in red velvet, which is too new for artistic purposes, and abundantly hung about with weapons, embroidered to the eyes withal, sits deeply meditating, with his hand to his face, and in a chair which is within

an alcove lined with tiles of beautiful colour.

M. C. F. Daubigny's A Quiet Pool (52) has charms, still it is comparatively trite.

We have here two important pictures by M. Meissonier, neither of which moves us so much, or appeals so powerfully to our admiration, as many others of this accomplished master, we might say, magical painter. One of them shows a coatless artist displaying to a crony his picture of Bacchus striding a barrel. Although exhibiting most of the excellencies of M. Meissonier,-the solidity, brilliancy, clearness, intense vivacity of design, and fine expression,-this work, an unusually large one by the way, has these distinctive qualities in inferior degrees. What is ungraceful, or rather ungenial in the style of design, and the mode of M. Meissonier's painting, appears here in its least admirable form. The Guard Room (63) is sufficiently described by its title and the name of the painter, M. Meissonier.-Halt on the Banks of the Nile (68), by M. E. Fromentin, is rather slighter than the works this painter used to produce, and, on the whole, it is not worthy of him.

A considerable number of pictures, with the names of artists of eminence attached to them, and nearly all of them displaying admirable qualities, often, as is the case here, present great difficulties to the critic, who fails to find in them specialities of treatment or subject, design or charms peculiar to them individually. Such a writer is not called on, nor is it desirable he should be, to apply set terms of description, admiration, or comment, when there is little that can be noticed as salient. Therefore, we are content to call the reader's attention to the under-mentioned specimens, as more or less desirable, but in no respect distinguished, and generally small specimens. M. J. Breton's Brittany Fish Girl (3); M. de Nittis's Avenue de l'Impératrice (5); M. Fromentin's African Camp Followers (19); M. Mesdag's Unloading Herring-Boats (29), and Early Morning (1); M. Berne-Bellecour's Hot Work (37), The Soldier's Washing Day (38), and The Cavalry Billet (85); M. J. Dupre's Moorland Pool (40), and others by the same; M. Saintin's Yes or No (45), and In the Garden (180); M. T. Weber's Dismasted Fish Boat off Blankenberg (71); T. Rousseau's Fontainebleau (73); M. L. Knaus's

Brother and Sister (75); M. Duverger's The Girls' School (84); M. Roybet's An Official Messenger (97); Troyon's The Shrimper (135); M. Corot's Quiet Pool (153); M. J. Israels' Fishermen's Family (159); M. Vibert's Le Schisme (178); and Mr. Alma Tadema's The Sisters (206), two women in a chamber, one with a book on her knee, the other with a baby in her arms.

Fine-Art Gossip.

AMONG the remarkable works contributed to the Royal Academy Exhibition, to open next month, are the elaborate and beautifully finished models by Mr. W. Burges, showing his proposals for the decoration of the interior of St. Paul's.

The following English pictures were sold, for

francs, in Paris, on the 20th ultimo: Constable, La Tamise, 27,000,-Cotman, Le Bateau du Marché, 3,600,-Old Crome, Le Vieux Chêne, 9,000; Environs de Norwich, 3,750,-J. B. Crome, Clair de Lune, 11,700; Village sur la Yare, 5,750, -Mr. J. P. Frith, Bon Soir, Baby, 3,400,-Ladbroke, Les Bruyères de Mousehold, 19,000, Naysmith, Paysage, 15,000,-Stark, Les Côtes de Norfolk, 6,200,-Turner, Esquisse, 6,600,-Vincent, Pleines près de Norfolk (?), 2,620,-Wilson, Solitude, 2,000. At another sale, on the 23rd ultimo, Troyon's Chevaux à l'Abreuvoir, 35,000. At another sale, on the 24th ultimo, the following, by old masters: Dou, Jeune Fille à la Lanterne, 5,200,-Greuze, Tête de Petit Garçon, 6,000,Jan Steen, Salus Patriæ, 8,100,--Terburg, La Dépêche, 13,000.

At the sale of M. Dutilleux's pictures and drawings, the following works realized the undernamed sums, in pounds: Sketches by Delacroix, Portrait de l'Artiste, 110; Education d'Achille, 140; Les Bords du Fleuve Sebou, Maroc, 270; Lion et Caïman, 412; Tobie et l'Ange, 156. Pictures by M. Corot: Vue du Port de La Rochelle, 400; Les Saules de Mariselles, près de Beauvais, 100; La Liseuse, 124; La Rivière de Saint-Nicolas, près d'Arras, 120; L'Etang de Ville d'Avray, 200. MM. Durand-Ruel and C. Pillet, who had charge of the sale, published a richly illustrated catalogue of the works in question.

THE annual Report of the Directors of the National Gallery has been published, and states, besides other facts which we have already announced, that the "Colonna Raphael" still remains at the Gallery, but is not exhibited, the Trustees being absolved from all responsibility with regard to the work. The bequests of Hoppner's portrait of the Countess of Oxford, painted in 1797, now at South Kensington, and of a Dutch picture, by Jan Looten, 'A River Scene' (901), also at Kensington, are recorded. The visitors to the galleries in Trafalgar Square and at South Kensington during the year were 1,695,231 on public days, being 836,194 at the former place, and 859,037 at the latter. The death of Mr. T. Baring created a vacancy at the Board of Trustees.


MESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS sold, for pounds, on the 27th, 28th, and 30th ultimo, the following pictures, the property of the late Mr. Joseph Craven. Pastel, Mr. H. Merle, Winter, 61,-Mr. H. Gill, A Storm on the Coast, 158; Fall of the Clyde, 231,-Mr. B. W. Leader, On the Welsh Border, 157; On the Welsh Border, 168; The Sunset, 168; A Welsh Birchwood, 262; A Wooded Welsh River, 257,-T. Creswick and Mr. T. S. Cooper, A Landscape, with a Flock of Sheep, 420,-Mr. E. W. Cooke, A Coast Scene, with Boats, 52,-Mr. J. Webb, Oberwesel, 102; Ehrenbreitstein, 105; Heidelberg, 107,-Mr. T. S. Cooper, Milking Time, 189; "Out of the Sun," 211; The Coming Storm, 420, Mr. F. W. Hulme, A Lane in Surrey, with Sheep, 199,-Mr. Linnell, Wood-Cutters, 106; Over the Hill, 871, -Mr. F. Goodall, A Fête Champêtre, 194,-Mr. E. M. Ward, Amy Robsart and Leicester, 189,Stanfield, French Troops Fording the Magra, 189, -Sir J. Gilbert, Interior of Rembrandt's Studio, 525,-P. F. Peters, 1871, A River Scene in Wales, 102,-M. Escoscura, A Card Party, 115; An Interior, with Ladies, &c., 147; The Tavern, 128, -M. L. Perrault, The Refugees, 210; Virtue, Innocence, and Purity, 231; The Sisters, 210; The Maiden's Prayer, 267; The Boudoir, 215; Forgiveness, 241; Bo-Peep, 315; A la Bretagne, 168; Happy Days, 199; Mamma's Pet, 106; The Widow's Hope, 115,-M. Madrazo, The Naturalist, 192; Coming Out of Church, 157,-E. Verboekhoeven, Going to Market, 199,-Mr. C. Landell, Bute, 126,-H. Schlessinger, Sunny Thoughts, 115,-H. Merle, The Vintage, 157; The Mendicant, 577; Watching the Crab, 201,-Mr. C. F. Phillipeau, The Improvisatore, 189,-M. C. De Cock, A Landscape, with figures and cows, 113,-Mr. J. Webb, The City of Cologne, 102; Ehrenbreitstein, Sunset, 100, - W. Duffield, Still Life, 110,-Mr. J. B. Burgess, The First Fan, 273,-Mr. J. Kieulin, Mary Stuart Leaving France, 115,-Mr. H. J. Scholton, The Last Moments of Lady Jane Grey, 141,-M. L. Perrault, The Baby Brother, 315, M. J. Coomans, A Pompeian Interior, 178,-M. C. Weber, A Shipwreck.

SIR J. LUBBOCK's "Ancient Monuments Bill," for the preservation, &c., of early remains, has been printed for distribution, and, we trust, for careful consideration, in order that some such provisions as it contains may become law. It does not differ materially from the Bill which was previously issued.

THE Gallery of Fine Arts, Brussels, has been enriched with two magnificent portraits by Rubens, being those of Jean Charles de Cordes, and Dame Jacqueline Van Caestre, his wife. These are the gifts of the heirs of "Madame la Comtesse de Beaufort." They were painted in 1610, nearly the best period of Rubens's art.

Two pictures of still life, by Chardin, have been placed in the gallery of French paintings in the Louvre.

WE have received from Messrs. Pilgeram & Lefèvre an artist's proof of an engraving, by Mr. Simmons, from M. Tissot's picture called 'News of Our Marriage,' and representing two lovers seated in the bow-window of an old-fashioned house, or tavern, on the bank of the Thames, about Blackwall or Greenwich, having a view of the river, with shipping, in the background. The picture, which our readers will remember, shows the happy pair in costumes of the beginning of George the Third's reign, side by side. The gentleman has opened a newspaper, supposed to contain one of those announcements which seem so odd now-a

days, to the effect that "Captain So-and So is to be married to Miss Such-and-Such, a young lady of great beauty," and any number of pounds "to her fortune." sterling M. Tissot's mode of painting lends itself happily to the service of the engraver, and this reproduction is a successful one styled 'Les Adieux,' also by M. Tissot, which we in most respects, but inferior to that by M. Ballin, noticed not long ago, and to which the print now Simmons has given, with felicity, the pleased looks before us is obviously intended as a pendant. Mr. of the lovers, the jesting congratulation of the gentleman, the coy pleasure of the lady, who wears a peculiarly hideous and huge white cap. Those who possess 'Les Adieux' will hardly fail to buy its fellow-print.

La Chronique Illustrée, writing about the high price just now obtained for Troyon's 'Plaine de la Toucques, Normandie,' mentioned in our last week's account of sales, enumerates some of great sums for which famous French landscapes have been sold within late years. In March, 1870, at the sale of M. Edwards's pictures, M. J. Dupré's Passage d'Animaux sur un Pont dans le Berry, produced 30,600f.; Une Route des Landes, by the same, 9,100f.; Une Allée de la Forêt de Compiègne, same, 9,800f.; Rousseau, Après la Pluie, 39,000f.; Une Lisière de Clair-bois, same, 13,500f.; La Vallée aux Vaches, 9,200f.

MR. MITCHELL has sent us an engraving in stipple, by Mr. C. Holl, after a portrait by Mr. Richmond, of Dr. Bence Jones, a capital and agreeable likeness, which will be acceptable.

WE have received from Messrs. Edwards &

Jones, Regent Street, a very neat cipher, which they tell us is "a perfect masterpiece of monography," being a combination of IHS in full. The thing has its merits, but our correspondents are slightly mistaken about its nature,-it is not a monogram at all.


By SPECIAL DESIRE. The BRITISH ORCHESTRAL SOCIETY -Patron, His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh. Conductor, Mr. George Mount.-SIXTH and LAST CONCERT, WEDNESDAY EVENING, April 8, St. James's Hall, Eight o'clock.

By SPECIAL DESIRE.-The BRITISH ORCHESTRAL SOCIETY. -Patron, His Royal Highness the Duke of Edinburgh. Conductor, Mr. George Mount.-SIXTH and LAST CONCERT, WEDNESDAY EVENING, April 8, St. James's Hall, Eight o'clock. - Symphony, Pastoral, Beethoven; Notturno, A. S. Sullivan (composed expressly for this Society): Concerto (Pianoforte), A minor, Schumann-Pianoforte. Mr. Walter Bache; Scherzo, Sir Julius Benedict (first time of performance); Overture, Anacreon,' Cherubini. Vocalists, Madame Lemmens-Sherrington and Mr. Santley. Grand Orchestra of 75 Performers-Stalls, 108. 6d; Reserved Area, 58; 38, 28., and 18.; Stanley Lucas, Weber & Co., 84, New Bond Street; Cramer; Lamborn Cock; Mitchell's Library; Chappell; Ollivier; Keith, Prowse; A. Hays; and at Austin's Ticket-Office.


THE twenty-seventh season of the Royal The conductors are Signori Vianesi and BevigItalian Opera was commenced on Tuesday night. nani. The former held a similar appointment at the Théâtre Italien, in Paris, under MM. Strakosch and Merelli, and Signor Bevignani was the conductor at Moscow of the season 1873-4, Signor Arditi having the post in St. Petersburg. The National Anthem was, of course, sung on the opening night, but the selection of the prima donna seems strange, as her name was not included in this season's Prospectus; and, although the lady has sung some four or five times at the Théâtre Italien, in Paris, in Verdi's 'Traviata,' and as Zerlina in Mozart's 'Don Giovanni,' her artistic powers and her success in the French capital scarcely justified her appearance here. The antecedents of Mdlle. Heilbron, who is Dutch by birth, are those of a singing actress in opera-buffa; she was the heroine, at the Variétés, of M. Offenbach's 'Braconniers,' and of M. Hervé's 'Veuve du Malabar.' M. Duprez, the once-famous great tenor of the Grand Opéra in Paris, took Mdlle. Heilbron by the hand, and the result of the instruction of such an able teacher was her début at the Salle Ventadour; but neither voice nor style was deemed good enough to enable her to be the successor to Madame Adelina Patti. Inasmuch as Mdlle. Marimon was announced to appear on Thursday, in Ricci's Crispino e la Comare,' it has been regarded as singular that Mr. Gye did not allow the Belgian artist, who created such a sensation in her first season at Drury Lane Theatre, as Amina, in the Sonnambula,' to sing first before the subscribers in the same character, instead of introducing a far inferior vocalist as the Violetta in Verdi's work, about the execution of which there is nothing special to remark. Signor Cotogni and Signor Nicolini resumed the parts of Germont, sen. and jun., the heavy father and the greenhorn son-both bores from the dramatic point of view. The relief from the platitudes of these characters is the sickly sentimentality of the consumptive and coughing heroine. The interior of the theatre has been newly furnished with curtains, &c., and the decorations have been retouched. The general effect is bright.

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OPERA-GOERS who saw the great days of Malibran and Sontag, Pasta and Grisi, Ungher and Schroeder-Devrient still dwell on the Leonora-Fidelio of the Spanish and German prime donne. Schroeder first sang the part in German at Her Majesty's Theatre, and, subsequently, in English at Drury Lane Theatre, where Malibran also electrified her hearers in the British adapta

tion. There has been one artist since the abovenamed Queens of Song who has identified herself with the part of the devoted wife, and that is another German, Fräulein Tietjens. Schroeder has been called the Siddons of the German drama;



equally enthusiastic admirers of Malibran designated her as the Garrick; and there can be no undue stretch of the imagination in saying of Tietjens that she is the Kean of the 'Fidelio' of Beethoven. As Byron said of the great English actor, she is terribly in earnest; so intense and impassioned in the prison scene as to secure for herself a compliment similar to that which Kean was so proud of, for, if there be no pit at Drury Lane, the stalls, at all events, rose "at her, and, indeed, the whole house last Saturday night. Now all" creators" of great parts, and Leonora is the acting one in Beethoven's masterpiece, have their specialities. Of Schroeder we remember most distinctly the unlocking of the prison doors, and her hasty and curious glance at each prisoner to identify her lost husband, and the ecstatic smile with which she took off Florestan's chains. Of Malibran our more pronounced reminiscence is her terrific energy when she faced Pizarro, the persecutor, with the pistol. Now, in case of Mdlle. Tietjens, whilst we concede to her the possession of fervour and vigour in the delineation of the devoted saviour of Leonora's life's love, in future times the magnificence of her voice and its sympathetic and overwhelming influence will probably be cited as the remarkable feature in her performance; but, after all, what matters how the singer can touch the feelings of a vast auditory, if the effect is produced, if the pulse beats more quickly, the heart throbs more sensibly, and the eyes glisten more palpably at one of the most dramatic and touching scenes to be found within the range of the lyric drama. Well might Mendelssohn cry out in searching for a libretto, "Give me another Fidelio." The composer of St. Paul' and 'Elijah' knew how to estimate the force of public opinion when conjugal affection was the basis of a stage story; and yet there are persons who have sneered at the tale of Fidelio,' and have affected surprise that Beethoven should have attached music of such grandeur to the libretto, that he should have taken the trouble to write four overtures (all more or less masterly) to a subject of domestic interest, as if the composer, with all his roughness and rudeness, did not know the human heart. Who has approached him in the intensity of the passion in the emotional symphonies produced by his pathos ? 'Fidelio' will therefore live, for although it is true that it may be called an orchestral opera, that its vocal insufficiency is often shown, and that it taxes the human voice terribly, still it is a noble and exciting work, lofty and elevating, profoundly pathetic, massive in its harmonic grandeur, and irresistibly touching in its melodious imagery. Who cares if his vocal style is pitched in register inconvenient to the executants? That is their affair; their duty is to override the difficulties. The more efficiently they do so the more will musicians appreciate their skill, and if they do not conquer the intricacies, the general auditory will fall back on the accompaniments, so brilliant, so dazzling, so varied, so overwhelming in power and picturesqueness. No doubt it will be always difficult to find a thoroughly effective cast for 'Fidelio.' The title-part excepted, we have heard better ones in very small theatres in Germany, for the Florestan of Signor Urio, the Ministro of Signor Campobello, the Marcellina of Mdlle. Bauermeister, were not in any way remarkable. For the Don Pizarro, there was Signor Catalani, who it seems undertook it at a couple of days' notice, on account of the illness of Signor Agnesi, and for this tour de force the deputy deserves praise, unequal as his voice is to the requirements of the music. The new german bassc, Herr Conrad Behrens, who played Rocco, had the disadvantage of singing in a new language, almost for the first time; his acting was admirable, his stage presence is commanding, his style is unexceptionable, but his voice seemed muffled, as if the Italian vowels were rolling in his mouth, and he could not get them out. He will, however, if we are not mistaken, prove a valuable acquisition.

one, for the artists were note perfect, if some of them fell short of what the Beethovenites longed for. But the excellence of its ensemble arose from the perfection with which the orchestral parts were played, and in hearing such a performance as that of Fidelio' we are impressed with the injustice with which instrumentalists are too often treated. Whilst lavish eulogium is exhausted on the leading vocal soloists, a summary word is devoted to the band. It may fill space to refer in detail individually to sixty-six artists, now forming the Drury Lane orchestra, certainly the most skilful and efficient ever assembled within the walls of any London Opera-house or concert hall; but their responsibility in such an opera as 'Fidelio' is so great, as to merit more than ordinary recognition and conventional praise. So the delighted hearers at Her Majesty's Opera last Saturday thought, for the two overtures excited immense enthusiasm, the one in c, No. 3, known as the 'Leonora,' played between the acts, being encored, we may safely state, by the whole house, whilst the No. 4, in E, the final one of the four preludes which Beethoven wrote for his only opera, was equally appreciated. In the band there are thirteen professors who were formerly in the Covent Garden one; amongst the stringed instruments are Messrs. Sainton (chef d'attaque), Amor, Hill, Wiener, Ralph, Nicholson, Willy, Newsham, Simmons, Wilkins, Clementi, Diehl, Waefelghem, Bernhardt, Zerbini, jun., Schreurs, Lasserre, Biene, H. Chipp, Vieuxtemps, White, Edgar, Waud, Cheshire, &c.; the wood, brass, and percussion include Brossa, Barrett, Dubucq, Engel, Lazarus, Wootton, Paquis, Reynolds, Brindley, Sanders, Smith, &c. The tone of the various players was manifested to the utmost extent in the fullness and richness of the score of Beethoven's 'Fidelio,' and it need scarcely be added that the skill of each executant is equally taxed. The orchestral opera had, therefore, full justice done to it. It is a rare treat indeed to be able to listen to such symphonic music-so varied in its imagery, so subtle in its spirit, so suggestive in its subjects, so rich and so brilliant.

Signor Costa, the new Oroveso in Norma,' has a fine face and figure, but his voice is scarcely deep enough for the part. He made, however, a favourable impression on Tuesday night, and, with Mdlle. Tietjens and Mdlle. Bauermeister, and Signor Naudin, in the other parts, the Drury Lane auditory had reason to be gratified with the cast.

Apart from all contrarieties and drawbacks, the representation last Saturday was a remarkable


THE sixteenth season ended on the 30th ult., with the 486th concert. The undertaking seems yearly to gain in strength. The Director, Mr. S. Arthur Chappell, recognizes the importance of adding fresh works to what is now a long and interesting catalogue, and he is fully sensible of the advantages accruing from the introduction of new interpreters. No close borough system can eventually answer, and a selection of executants that is free from partisanship is, in the long run, the best policy. There is an independent body of amateurs in our musical circles, who resent any attempt at dictatorship in the choice of artists, and in the mode in which the compositions of the master-minds are to be interpreted. In no previous season has this spirit of independence and impartiality been more strongly manifested. The signal success of Dr. Von Bülow will be of infinite value,-indeed, it has already produced gratifying results, and will lead to still greater advantages; for the musical atmosphere has been cleared, and it has been shown that no interested clique, however powerful it may deem itself, can put down a great artist, in order to serve the interests of an inferior one. It has been equally demonstrated that a combination,-conspiracy is, perhaps, the right term, - strong in journalistic influence, will fail miserably if truth be not on its side. The world is wide enough to find room for all artists of real ability, and there is no justification for any attempt to drive from this country any professor of genius who may honour us with his presence. Last Monday, the Director for his benefit was supported by representatives of the

German school in Herr Joachim, Herr Ries, Herr Straus, Herr Halle, and Madame Norman-Néruda. and Italy had Signor Piatti as the champion violoncellist. England was worthily represented by Miss Agnes Zimmermann, Mr. Franklin Taylor, and Mr. Zerbini, and what country can boast of a finer baritone basso than our own Mr. Santley? To complete the mixed nationality of the evening, there were the débuts of the four Swedish singers who have been delighting Paris for some time past. This vocal quartet is composed of four ladies, Mdlles. Hilda Wideberg, Amy Aberg, Madame Maria Petterssohn, and Mdlle. Wilhelmina Söderlund. To recollect these names will be difficult; but fortunately the voices blend so beautifully, and the ladies sing so well, that the mention of the Swedish Quartet will suffice to show that we have four artists with us who are as one in their harmonious combinations. They gave part-songs by Lindblad of their own country, and by Eisenhofer.

BRITISH ORCHESTRAL SOCIETY. RESPECTING the second and third movements of Mr. Macfarren's new Symphony in E minor, there will probably be but one opinion. The slow movement (No. 2) is a Serenade Andante in c, in nine-eight time, a charming song throughout, for the harp skilfully blended with the stringed and wood band, and an undercurrent of the violins is specially interesting. In place of the Minuet, and its successor the Scherzo, the composer reverts to the old masters who were wont to revel in stately dance tunes, so he has supplied the ancient Gavotte, and the ordinary Trio of the Minuet and Scherzo is displaced for a second Gavotte with a Musette, or drone bass effect. This so pleased the auditory that it was re-demanded. As regards the first and fourth movements, a fresh hearing is requisite before we pronounce a decided opinion, for they are long, the last one particularly, and the execution was not sufficiently clear to disentangle the varied subjects and their development. There were two instrumental solos in the programme of the 26th ult., one for the violin (Mr. Carrodus) and the other for the violoncello (Mr. E. Howell); but the works were too trashy to show off the capabilities of the executants. There were three overtures: Mendelssohn's 'Ruy Blas,' Sir W. S. Bennett's 'Paradise and the Peri,' and Nicolai's 'Merry Wives of Windsor.' The singers were Miss Rose Hersee, Miss Franklein, and Mr. Maybrick. There was great irregularity in the observance of the programme.


THE Athenæum has referred at various times to the works of M. Massenet, a young French composer, who studied at the Conservatoire in Paris, having as his master the present Principal, M. Ambroise Thomas. The pupil has met with success in orchestral pieces. His two operas, 'Don Cæsar de Bazan' and 'La Grande Tante,' achieved no signal success, it is true; but his incidental music to the classic play, 'Les Erinnyes,' at the Odéon, in the winter of 1872, placed his name before the musical public as one of the most promising musicians in Paris. In April, 1873, he produced a sacred drama, called 'Marie-Magdeleine,' which was again performed at the Odéon in February last. It has now been transferred to the Opéra Comique (Salle Favart), an odd place certainly for such a composition; still it must be remembered that Méhul's Joseph' is one of the stock-pieces in the répertoire. The composer disavows the designation of oratorio for 'MarieMagdeleine.' He claims for it the title of a sacred drama, conceived in the modern spirit, and not intended to express evangelical sentiments,—it is, in fact, a picture of a country and of an epoch with dramatic development. M. Thomas, with the natural predilection for his pupil, calls 'MarieMagdeleine" "adorable poetry of a sublime drama," in which the composer has steered clear of heaviness and dryness, and has shown himself a colourist with charm and brilliancy. The execution of this work at the Opéra Comique is not like that

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