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lishwomen, and if it only serve to call attention to undertakings that deserve more support than seems to be given them, it will not have been written in vain. Whoever the author is, he has written a remarkable book, and one which young ladies who find time hang heavy on their hands will do well to ponder. We could only wish that, instead of the antithetical title, 'Facta Non Verba,' it had been called "What a Woman can do."


The Black Book of the Admiralty. With an Appendix. Edited by Sir Travers Twiss, Q.C. 2 vols. (Published under the direction of the Master of the Rolls.) COULD the secret history of libraries be made known, there is reason to suspect that a good many literary reputations of former times would be tarnished. The man of letters, in not a few cases, would, we fear, be found to deserve the designation of "a man of three letters," in respect of books and manuscripts which fell in his way. The Black Book of the Admiralty,' for instance, is missing, and the reproach of its disappearance seems to fall upon the end of the last or the beginning of the present century. So far as the public, or ordinary readers of such works, are concerned, Sir T. Twiss has made more than compensation for the loss of the original MS. by an edition which, under the title of The Black Book of the Admiralty,' contains a great deal more than that title might lead them to expect, and throws light on subjects of more general interest than the history of maritime law.

The Black Book of the Admiralty' is-or was, if the original no longer anywhere exists -a collection of early ordinances for the government of the Admiral and the fleet, rules of maritime law, and other documents, which appear to have been transcribed by successive registrars of the Court of Admiralty, mainly for the use of the judges of that Court. Its containing documents relating to subjects belonging to the province, not of the High Admiral, but of the High Constable and the Earl Marshal, is explained by Sir T. Twiss from the fact that Thomas Howard, eighth Duke of Norfolk, was at the same time High Admiral and Earl Marshal; and, moreover, that there was in those days an intimate connexion between the Court of the High Admiral and that of the Earl Marshal, the same advocates practising in both courts. Why the book was called The Black Book of the Admiralty' is, perhaps, to be explained by the suggestion of Mr. Luders, that it may have been so named from its holding a station among the Admiralty Records corresponding to that of the Plack Book of the Exchequer in the records of that court. Analogous names of medieval records will occur to the reader, e. g., the Red Book of the Exchequer, and the 'Liber Albus' which Mr. Riley has edited.



The Black Book of the Admiralty' appears to have been written in the fifteenth century; but the ordinances, rules, and documents transcribed in it were for the most part of much greater autiquity. It seems to have supplied no information as to the sources from which its first three and most important divi- | sions, lettered A, F, C respectively, were derived, or under what authority they were issued or compiled. There are, however, expressions to be found in the first two divisions

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which warrant the inference that they contain ordinances issued by the King and his Council, before whom competent persons from the seaports were from time to time summoned to give advice upon maritime affairs; and the earliest extant minutes of the proceedings of the King's Council relate to matters connected with the navy in 1337, being the year immediately preceding that in which Sir T. Twiss gives reason for believing that the ordinances in Parts A and B were issued.

The most important division of the Black Book is the one already referred to as lettered C. The great writer on maritime law, M. Pardessus, is of opinion that this part is of the year 1338, and contains the results of the consultation of the king's council with the judges in that year, of which a record is preserved in the famous Latin Roll of 12 Edw. III., De Superioritate Maris. Many of the rules in this division are of much higher antiquity than that year, but Sir T. Twiss urges arguments which, together with one which we will add, seem to establish the conclusion that Part C was not compiled in its present form so early as 1338:

"The thirty-ninth article implies an existing prohibition to export grain to any ports beyond Brest, and Calais; but there was no reasonable the sea, with the exception of Bayonne, Bordeaux, ground for granting to the two latter ports, at so early a period as 1338, equal privileges with those enjoyed by Bayonne and Bordeaux, for Brest could only be regarded as under the British Crown, after that John, Count of Mountfort, had come over to England and done homage for the Duchy of Calais did not become a possession of the British Britanny to Edward the Third in 1341, whilst Crown until its surrender in 1347."

An interesting piece of internal evidence on the point has escaped the notice of Sir T. Twiss. The ravages of the Black Death began in 1348, and in that and the following year more than a third of the population is generally supposed to have perished. The consequent enormous rise of wages led to the famous Ordinance of 1349, called "the Statute of Labourers," followed by the enactment, in 1350, of "a Statute of Labourers," which recites that "whereas late against the malice of servants, which were idle, and not willing to serve after the pestilence, without taking excessive wages (sanz trop outrageouses lowers prendre), it was ordained, &c." Cap. iii. of this statute orders "That carpenters, masons, &c., shall not take by the day for their work, but in manner as they were wont." Now Article 31 of Part C of 'The Black Book of the Admiralty 'orders-"Item, let inquiry be made about all manner of ship carpenters who take excessive wages (qui prennent oultrageux salaires, or, according to another reading, outrageouses saleries). On the word oultrageux Sir T. Twiss only observes-"Oultrageux is the form of this word in Froissart, but it is used by him in the sense of courageous." It is, however, obviously the same word, and used for the same reason, as the word outrageouses in the Statute of Labourers, and simply applies to ship carpenters the same regulation which the statute applies to house carpenters. This seems decisive that M. Pardessus was wrong in assigning Part C to the year 1338. On the other hand, the conclusion that Sir T. Twiss is right in suggesting the year 1360 derives some confirmation from

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another statute, respecting the wages of carpenters, &c., passed in that year.

As already said, Part C contains rules which claim a much higher antiquity than either of the dates just referred to. It recites ordinances of Henry I., Richard I., John, and Edward I.; and it contains also the famous "Rolls," or "Laws of Oleron," or "Judgments of the Sea," the compilation of which, on the authority of the Roll of 12 Edw. III, De Superioritate Maris, Selden and other celebrated writers have attributed to Richard I. The "Laws of Oleron" have, in fact, been accepted as a common maritime law by all the maritime states of Europe, and combining that

fact with the statements in the Roll of the 12 Edw. III., Selden argued that the Kings of England from early times had promulgated laws for the government of seafaring men in the Channel, which all nations had recognized. It is, however, now established that Richard I. could not have visited the Isle of Oleron on his return from the Holy Land; and M. Pardessus further maintains that the so-called Laws of Oleron were rules of maritime law in no wise peculiarly connected with, or collected from, the island of Oleron, but generally known and followed throughout Aquitaine (of which Oleron was a dependency) Britanny, Normandy, the west coast of France, England, and Spain. The two questions are, of course, distinct— Whether any such laws were, in fact, collected by order of Richard I. ? and Whether the laws in question had any peculiar connexion with Oleron, as rules of maritime law established there? The evidence, however, relating to the two questions is not unconnected. The memorandum on the Roll of 12 Edward III. surely counts for something in support of the view that the laws referred to were adopted by Richard the First. That Richard did issue ordinances respecting maritime affairs is certain from the regulations which he published at Chinon in 1190 for the government of his fleet, then about to sail from Oleron for the Holy Land, and from his ordinances at Messina of the same year; among these being rules respecting the property of shipwrecked persons and persons dying on board ship, which, although not contained in the laws of Oleron, are in unison with their equitable spirit. Then we learn that William de Fortz, of Oleron, was one of the four justiciaries to whom Richard at Chinon entrusted the government of his fleet, a circumstance which lends some probability to the tradition that the King subsequently promulgated maritime laws derived from Oleron. The laws which are the subject of the controversy are associated with the name of Oleron in every ancient version of them, and in every public document which alludes to them; while there is not a tittle of evidence connecting them with any other place. The Coutumier of the Commune of Oleron' (published in Vol. ii. of the present edition of the Black Book) shows that there was in the fourteenth century a court which not only administered the law maritime, but also was resorted to by the seafaring people of other countries; and this tribunal may well have been the successor of an earlier one, such as that of which the laws of Oleron appear to have originally been judgments. Documents of the twelfth century, it may be added, refer to the island of Oleron in a manner warranting the supposition that its port was

in that age much frequented by foreign shipping. A point, too, which may be noticed, though Sir T. Twiss does not mention it, is that the curious punishment of being thrice plunged in the sea, with which the Coutumier of the Commune of Oleron visits Jews who evade the payment of toll, is among the minor punishments in the ordinances issued by Richard the First both at Chinon and Messina for the government of the fleet, of which William de Fortz, of Oleron, was one of the justiciaries and commanders (see Hoveden's account). On the whole, there seems probable reason for connecting the laws or judgments in question with Oleron as rules of maritime law administered there; and the tradition that they were adopted and sanctioned by Richard the First seems also not devoid of probability, though it has been scouted by a great English historian as an idle story.

The remaining divisions of the Black Book deserve attention, but we must pass from them to glance at Volume ii. of the present edition, in form only an Appendix, but really containing matter of the highest interest, though its chief interest is not in connexion with the Black Book. The most important contents of Volume ii. are 'The Domesday of Ipswich' and The Coutumier of the Commune of Oleron.' The reader may be puzzled at first to understand the relation of the institutions of Ipswich, or even of the Commune of Oleron, to 'The Black Book of the Admiralty,' but Sir T. Twiss explains it as follows:



author of the Myrrour' entitled to any such
authority? We doubt it much.

THIS is the last instalment of Mr. Thomson's work. In the preceding volumes, we visited in his company places and people on the coast of China, from Hong-Kong to Shanghai, and from Shanghai up the Yang-tze-kiang to the western provinces of the Empire. And now, travelling northwards again, he carries us with him to Chefoo, Tientsin, Peking, and so onwards to the Nankow Pass in the Great Wall. The ground thus covered in the present volume contains many scenes which possess a The peculiar interest to European readers. magnificent marble bridge and ruined pavilions of Yuen-ming-yuen recall to our recollection the reception there given to Lord Macartney by the Emperor Keen-lung; the dismissal of Lord Amherst by that monarch's successor; the ignominious treatment accorded to Mr. Ward, the American Ambassador, in 1860; the inhuman tortures inflicted on the prisoners treacherously taken during the last war, and the destruction of the Palace buildings which followed, as an act of retribution for the gross outrages committed under a flag of truce. "The Domesdays of the English maritime Again the blackened walls of the Chapel of boroughs disclose to us the existence of borough the Sisters of Mercy at Tientsin are silent courts in England at a very early period, adminis- evidences of the fury of the storm which tering a customary Law of the Sea to passing broke out so fiercely against the Roman mariners, and 'The Domesday of Ipswich helps Catholic priesthood four years ago, and to carry back our knowledge of this practice to a which ended in the massacre of many whose period almost contemporaneous with the reign of only crime was that they had devoted themRichard I. There is unimpeachable evidence that before the Admiral's jurisdiction was estab-selves to the advancement of the welfare of

the natives.

lished in England, and the decision of questions of contract and tort on the high seas was assigned to the Admiral's Court, there were courts in England whose province it was to administer a common Law Marine to foreign equally as to British merchants and mariners. The 'Coutumier of the Commune of Oleron' enlarges our know ledge of the subject."

But the chief value of the two customaries referred to, lies not in their relation to the history of maritime law, but in the light they throw on the early institutions of English and French towns, and the legal rights of their inhabitants of both sexes. Many readers will feel indebted to Sir T. Twiss for Volume i., but many more, probably, will feel themselves his debtors for Volume ii. With two observations, we must conclude our notice of the two volumes. "Britanny" is sometimes so spelled in them, as, in fact, it ought always to be spelled; sometimes it is spelled "Brittany." In books of two hundred years ago, one meets in like manner with Brittain, and Brittish. We now write Bretagne, Breton, Britain, Briton, British, Britannia: why then Brittany? The other observation relates to Andrew Horn, the author of the Myrrour des Justices, or Speculum Justiciarorum,' to whom Sir T. Twiss refers in vol. i. p. lix., and vol. ii. p. ix. In the latter passage, speaking of the English boroughs during the Anglo-Saxon period, he says, "The author of the Myrrour des Justices,' the best authority for that period of our law, is silent as to boroughs." Is the




Illustrations of China and its People.
Series of Two Hundred Photographs, with
Letter-press descriptive of the Places and
People Represented. By J. Thomson.
Vol. IV. (Low & Co.)

The officials also, whose portraits appear on the first two pages, are all men whose names have become well known throughout the West, through their connexion with foreign affairs in China. There is Wen Siang (No. 2), who has held the post next to Prince Kung at the Tsung-le Yamun since 1861, and who was pronounced by the late Sir F. Bruce to be the possessor of one of the ablest minds he had ever encountered; and there is Li Hung-chang (No. 3), the Viceroy of the Metropolitan Province, who is beyond compare the most powerful mandarin in the Empire, and in whose hands more than any one else's is the future of China. Mr. Thomson describes him as standing six feet high, as having an erect and noble bearing, a complexion exceedingly fair, dark penetrating eyes, and a mouth shaded by a dark brown moustache. A protégé of Tseng Kwo-fan, Li Hung-chang first came into contact with Europeans during the Tai-ping rebellion, when he acted with Colonel Gordon against the rebels. There he won distinction and rapid promotion, and when, after the massacre at Tientsin, it was found necessary to appoint as Viceroy of the Province of Pei-chih-li a man well capable of dealing with an unruly and riotous population, he was at once chosen for the post. With a keen eye to the advancement of his own power, he has lately imported into his province numbers of rifle guns to protect the fortifications of the Peiho, and has adopted

steamers and other foreign appliances, regardless alike of "Feng-shui" and the criticisms of the anti-foreign party.

Peking, as represented by Mr. Thomson, bears out to the full the descriptions given by travellers of its generally dilapidated appearance, relieved only by a few occasional remaining monuments of a bygone age of splendour, and the Great Wall, no less true to its traditional character, is portrayed to us winding its tortuous course over the most inaccessible mountain peaks, and across the most impracticable valleys and ravines. Altogether, the present volume is fully equal in interest and in execution to any of the preceding ones, and it worthily closes Mr. Thomson's truly magnificent panorama of China and its People.


The Scottish War of Independence, its Ante-
cedents and Effects. By William Burns.
2 vols. (Glasgow, Maclehose.)
MR. BURNS is one of those writers who think
they can never give their public too much of
a thing. Their liberality does not excite a
grateful feeling at any time, and in the
present instance the virtue is carried to such
an excessive extent as to become a vice. The
Scottish War of Independence is a subject
worthy of any pen; but when Caractacus and
Boadicea, and other individuals of an early
age, are made characters in the drama, or
rather in the prologue, we think Mr. Burns

puts on the stage too many superfluous cha-
racters. In short, he gives us a history of
Britain rather than of a war which is an
episode in the history. Or he may be said
to date the beginning of the war from the
invasion of Agricola (after three introduc-
tory chapters), and to record its progress
down to the establishment of the Scottish
volunteers, at whom Mr. Burns, quite erro-
neously, supposes that there is a disposition
in the English press to
66 sneer. Mr.
Burns concludes with a warm eulogy on
Wallace, Bruce, and Knox; and he reminds
us all that Robert Bruce "founded a dynasty
which came to reign not only over Scotland,
but over England also, and eventually over the
British Empire." We are quite happy to live
and enjoy liberty and all other good things
as may be had under a dynasty so respect-
able; but, at the same time, we are amused
to find Mr. Burns constrained to say that,
"in a certain sense, Robert Bruce may
be said to have been a Norman." Mr.
Burns cannot assert that Bruce was not
born "at Westminster, in England"; it


seems very doubtful," is as much as he can venture on asserting. At the same time, he is reluctantly brought to confess that "it cannot be disputed, that during the period from 1296 to 1306, Bruce's conduct was extremely vacillating and equivocal, and not easily to be reconciled with the tenacity of purpose exhibited by him in his after career.' No doubt of it; but Englishmen no more dispute his bravery than they do that of any British hero, northern or southern. Mr. Burns is altogether mistaken in supposing that either jealousy or prejudice exists in south Britain against the memory of men who defeated our forefathers at Stirling or Bannockburn. Jeanne d'Arc is a thousand times more honoured in England than in

France. She has never been so disparaged as she has been by the Frenchman of whom France is most proud, Voltaire. We do not sneer at the Romans because Julius Cæsar successfully invaded Britain; we are rather proud that he had so much difficulty in setting his foot on our shores. And though some Frenchmen have striven to make us angry with William the Conqueror, and represent him as a Frenchman who subdued England, he is as glorious in our eyes, for his soldiership and his statesmanship, as Harold and his comrades, who bore themselves like true men on the field of Senlac. After Wallace and Bruce have worn their laurels so long, why should Mr. Burns wake anew the old rancour, and say that England and Edward reaped none? Mr. Burns seems to have been stirred to his work by Prof. Seeley's book, "The Greatest of the Plantagenets'; about the authorship of which there was as much mystification as about the Professor's other production, 'Ecce Homo.' After all, the industry, patriotism, honesty, and prejudice of Mr. Burns leave the question of Wallace and Bruce very much where it was before. How honesty and prejudice sometimes go hand in hand in the pages of this 'History of the War of Independence,' from (it might be added) the dawn of the Creation to a futurity looming in the remote distance, may be seen by one example of the way in which Mr. Burns meets difficulties. Referring to a passage in Blackwood, where, as a justification of Edward's attempted conquest, Scotland is described as "a neighbour so near, so turbulent, and ready to take advantage, prepared at any moment to ravage the English frontier, and thereby preventing the development of at least part of England," and as "neither wise enough nor cultivated enough to make wise provision for the development of her own resources,”—Mr. Burns gives the oracular answer, "We fancy we could find a solution, but it is scarcely worth the trouble"! He is too honest to put forth fancy for conviction, but too prejudiced not to hint that he could, if he thought it worth while, furnish a solution to satisfy all reasonable persons!

Again: English historians, modern writers, he tells us, 66 are accustomed to boast that their accounts of the War of Independence are taken from chronicles 'strictly contemporary,' while the Scottish chronicles were not composed until a generation or so afterwards." Mr. Burns's comment on this is thoroughly singular and amusing. He not only insists that experience has taught us "that the most dangerous and misleading of historical materials are often the writings of those who have, either themselves or by their friends, mingled in any national, political, or social struggle in which the passions and prejudices of the actors have been deeply engaged": but he is even bold enough to say that "this has become a canon of historical criticism". in short, if we understand him rightly, that the less a witness saw, the greater the value of his testimony! and that Mr. Burns is more trustworthy in dealing with Wallace and Bruce, Stirling and Bannockburn, inasmuch as he discards contemporary evidence.


But he is unable, even by this handy process, to demolish the facts that remain, after all testimony, early and late, is sifted. The nobles of Scotland were not with Wallace, except when

he could hang those who would not join him. The bloody raids of Wallace do lay him open to the charge of being something more than a "latro publicus." We cannot believe that "Europe was startled by this victory at Stirling bridge," nor can we, for a moment, agree with Mr. Burns that Edward had no more right to put Wallace to death "than William Wallace, guardian of Scotland, would have had to compass the death of Edward by the arrow or the dagger of hired assassins." Mr. Burns must have felt himself very hard pressed when he could stoop to pick up such an argument as this. It is not a solitary example of his difficulties. On coming to the story of Bruce, he gets into such straits as to be reduced to the extremity of urging that Bruce, "in every point of view, was more a Scotsman than Edward was an Englishman." But these are not the questions under discussion. The question, as regards Wallace, fairly examined, finds this answer, that during a very brief season he withstood the King of England, who would have practithe King of England, who would have practically united England and Scotland; that he was brave and merciless; that he was betrayed by a Scotsman; and that a part of his sentence "that his bowels be taken out and burnt, even as he himself had burnt a church full of men and women." As this deed was related and boasted of (as Prof. Seeley remarks) by Blind Harry a century and a half after Wallace's death, Mr. Burns, if he acts up to his own recognized canons of historical evidence, must accept it as duly proved. As for the other assertion, that "Bruce was much more of a Scotsman than Edward Plantagenet was an Englishman," Plantagenet was an Englishman," we need only reply that both were born in England. Of Edward, Mr. Burns rather flippantly says, that "Edward identified himself with his island subjects, and hence English writers are so fond of recognizing him as an Englishman." A King of England, born at Westminster, and with the blood of Queen Margaret in his veins, could hardly be recognized as anything but an Englishman.


We part from Mr. Burns with all respect and kindly feeling. If there was too much of the savage and too little of the true hero in Wallace, if Bruce had blood-guiltiness on his hands, and became a patriot rather to serve himself than the country of which he was not a native-born son, Scotland would, nevertheless, be ungrateful if she did not remember the virtues rather than the crimes of two men to whom she stands for ever indebted. Scotland has had many a son worthier than either of them, and Mr. Burns's elaborate work only confirms the truth of the assertion. His book is highly creditable to his warm-heartedness-it gives evidence of ability; but it is a failure; because the author is often too like the counsel who feels bound to save his clients though the whole world perish, and not sufficiently like the judge who knows no passion and is conscious of no bias.


Proposed Union of the British and South Kensington Museums.-Report, &c. SOME time ago we stated that it had been proposed to place both the British Museum and South Kensington Museum under the control of the Trustees of the former institution. A Committee of three gentlemen, whose

names we have already given, from each museum was appointed to report what arrangements could be made for carrying the project into effect. It was understood that the "policy" of the proposed transfer did not fall within the reference to the Committee; but the three representatives of the junior institution have appended to their signatures to the Report before us riders expressing, more or less strongly, their sense of the weight of the objections which have been urged against the scheme for the union of two Museums, not only distinct in their character, but founded with different intentions, under circumstances as different as they well could be, and conducted on different plans-institutions, in fact, which appeal to different classes, although, of course, there is much that is common to both. In short, this plan for the union was, we may say without hesitation, a crude proposition, the chief object of which was economy, or the saving of money, not the public advantage in any higher sense; and and we indorse the statement of Major Donnelly on this point, that the importance of the objections to this showy scheme grows on the mind the more closely we examine the evidence which is attached to the Report, and the more carefully we regard the subject from an outsider's standpoint.


Undoubtedly, there are matters of detail and arrangement which should be adjusted between the two sets of officials; but a union of the Museums would, we feel, as Mr. MacLeod states, "impede the working of the Science and Art Department, and diminish the usefulness of the South Kensington Museum." About the latter of these statements there can hardly be two opinions; and we think the public is not prepared to submit to the inevitable result, although the union might add to the prestige of the British Museum. British Museum. On the other hand, we feel that but half the case is before the public, for the reference to the Committee was on a conclusion which may be said to have been foregone, we say foregone advisedly, because it is most probable that the whole device has vanished with the late Government, at least with Mr. Robert Lowe, the ingenious parent of the project. As the matter stands, however, it is evident that the plan showed an entire misconception of the aims of the South Kensington Museum. Incidental advantages may arise, however, out of such a proposal having been made,—it may serve to compel the people at South Kensington to keep strictly, more strictly than has been the practice for many years, to their proper business as an educating body. We cannot fail to see that they not seldom go considerably beyond this, and aim at that narrower, if not loftier, province, that may be said to be occupied by the British Museum, which is intentionally and essentially less "popular." Major Donnelly suggests, neatly enough, that the distinct object of the Museum with which he is connected is primarily to educate the students in the schools of the Science and Art Department. Theoretically, of course, this has been always understood to be the proper limit of official action; but, in practice, the rule has been interpreted with considerable freedom.

Under the circumstances, it is hardly worth while to give in detail the memorandum of the proposals for the transfer to the

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Trustees of the British Museum on which the
Committee deliberated, but some idea of the
matter may be conveyed in a few words. 1. It
was proposed that the collections in the South
Kensington Museum and its offshoot at Bethnal
Green should be transferred to the Museum,
"so far as can be done consistently with the pro-
visions of Mr. Sheepshanks's Gift" and of
other donations, which limit the whereabouts
of the bequests to South Kensington.
The Education Department should be en-
tirely separate, under officers belonging to that
department; likewise (3) the Art Libraries
at Kensington and Bethnal Green. 4. The
Trustees should have complete authority over
the officers in charge of the transferred collec-
tions. 5. That a power should be reserved
to the Education Department of making requi-
sitions upon the Trustees for the loan of articles
in the transferred Museums, for the use of
students in the Schools of Science and Art.
We fancy this would be a very troublesome and
vexatious power,—indeed, its one-sided nature is
shown by the context; "but this is not to
involve any similar power on the part of the
Education Department with reference to articles
in the British Museum proper." Of course
not, in case the learned Education Depart-
ment should "require" the Theseus, or the
Durham Book, or some priceless original
drawings. So far then as this point goes, nothing
whatever would be gained by the transfer,
except a power which would certainly be diffi-
cult of use, probably be vexatious, and is not
now required. Clause 6 of the memorandum,
however, empowers the Trustees, to transfer
from the British Museum to the other Museums
such objects as they may consider fit for the
purpose. Clause 7 proposes to confer a power
which is the converse of the preceding. Clause
8 binds the Trustees to keep up the trans-
ferred Museums, to make new purchases, "with
due regard to the educational purposes for
which they were formed," &c. 11. That all
the other duties of the Science and Art De-
partment, except those to be transferred with
the museum,
"should remain with the Educa-
tion Department.” 12. "That the Education
Department would wish the Trustees to take
the officers attached to the collections to be
transferred; but that the Trustees should decide
what kind of officer should be at the head of
the Museums, and should decide also as to all
other details of management."

The Committee examined officers of the Science and Art Department, and especially attended to three branches of the inquiry:1. What collections should be transferred, and what retained. 2. To what extent, and in what manner, the existing buildings should be divided between the Education Department and the Trustees of the British Museum. 3. What arrangements for warming, ventilation, lighting, and protection against fire, would be most satisfactory in the buildings of the two younger museums. In the end the Committee recommended that the bequests to the South Kensington Museum, i. e., the Sheepshanks, Ellison, and Dyce Gifts, should remain the property of the Education Department; that all objects in jewellery, metal-work, &c., unless given with special restrictions, and reproductions, and all objects set apart in the Circulations Division, except oil and water-colour paintings, should be transferred to the Trustees; hat all collections deposited in the Bethnal

reprinted under the name of 'Johnny Ludlow' is not without merit. Johnny is an observant schoolboy, with a gift of reading characters by physiognomy, whose healthy country life down in Worcestershire affords him opportunities of exercising his faculty upon a number of oddities in different walks of life, and his descriptive powers upon not a few domestic tragedies. His stories are not of equal merit. In some instances, as in that of Lease the pointsman, who fairly dies of a broken heart in consequence of a fatal railway accident arising from a breach of his duty, which is really due to over-work and exhaustion, our author attains to genuine pathos; in others, as that of the Mop or Statute Fair and what came of it, a considerable sense of humour is displayed; while certain of the school stories, such as the death of a boy from a wilful kick at football, and the disagreeable narrative of the detection of a thief among the scholars, are unpleasantly sensational; and some of the episodes of rustic life are marred by a taint of claptrap. In this latter class we must place the melancholy tale of one George Reed, a virtuous working-man, who was sent to prison for a month by a wicked magistrate for hoeing a few turnips in his garden on a Sunday. A very impossible sort of lay figure is Major Parrifer, who typifies the village tyrant on this occasion. There are also other anecdotes embodying a moral directed against different social evils, the over-working of "financiers'" clerks, the dishonesty of would-be millionaires, the hardBessie Gordon's Story. By Maggie Sym- ships undergone by artisans on strike, &c., of ington. (James Clarke & Co.) all of which we may say that, though the Gentianella. By Mrs. Randolph. 3 vols. lights and shades are drawn a little coarsely, (Hurst & Blackett.) there is a great deal of honest purpose and a Alide. By Miss Lazarus. substratum of truth in fact underlying them. Lippincott; London, Trübner.) The stories, although essentially distinct, are Johnny Ludlow. 3 vols. (Bentley & Son.) threaded together by the presence in each of La Tentation de Saint Antoine. Par Gustave them of the narrator and his immediate Flaubert. (Paris, Charpentier & Co.; with good points in him of an old-fashioned connexions, a passionate, bull-headed squire, London, Dulau & Co.) sort, a tender-hearted lady, his wife and Johnny's mother, -and Tod, the half-brother of the latter, a gallant and impetuous youth, who is perpetually rushing into frightful though generous mistakes, and being relieved from the difficulties into which his head or heart has betrayed him by the superior astuteness of the modest Johnny. Both lads are pleasant portraits, and go far to relieve the sombreness which, from the choice of subjects, pervades many of the stories. On the whole, the author shows vigour in description, and a certain strong grasp of such traits of humanity as strike her, but fails somewhat in delicacy of handling, makes her dialogue too rough and vernacular to be altogether suitable to the supposed narrators, and occasionally lapses into verbal or grammatical mistakes. The book, however, is readable, and certainly contains an amount of matter which places it in most favourable contrast to the ordinary three-volume novel.




Green Museum be transferred to the Trustees,
and the loans be similarly transferred, subject
to the consent of the owners. This would
include Sir R. Wallace's pictures. The Patent
Museum to remain as now.

Into the minutiae connected with the dis-
position of the buildings at South Kensington,
their warming, lighting, &c., we need not enter;
they are cumbrous and intricate.


The entire scheme having now reached, to the best of it, a state of suspended vitality, we need not exhaust the subject. With the objections which exist to certain details, if not to the radical principles of the transfer, it is, for the above reason, not desirable to deal. They are not unfairly stated in Major Donnelly's appendix to his signature to the Report. Those objections refer also to the Jermyn Street Museum, the Edinburgh Museum, the Dublin Museum, and those parts of the South Kensington Museum which, like them, it is not proposed to transfer to the Trustees of the British Museum. That such is not the case would seem to show that the scheme of appropriation is, at best, an ill-digested one. A complete plan for the amalgamation of all the national collections of science, art, and literature, and for placing the whole under a single responsible head, would be a very different thing from that now in question, and might be worthy of serious consideration.


WE hope that we are not blind to merit in
any novel; we believe we can admire merit of
many kinds;-not only the merit of character
drawn as in Middlemarch,' but the merit of
the novel of passion such as 'L'Affaire Clé-
menceau'; of the novel of clever sensational
plot such as 'No Name' or 'La Tontine
Infernale'; or of novels such as Mr. Yates's
worst, the vulgarity of which does not blind
us to their dramatic power. Defend us, how-
ever, from novels with no merit of any
kind, of which 'Bessie Gordon's Story' is a
specimen. We cannot conceive its pleasing
any one, unless it be possibly some
Templar," who may be conciliated by the
death of an infant of one year from a dose of
raw brandy administered by its father.


'Gentianella' is a novel with a great deal of yachting in it, which, although written in leading-article-English instead of in the language which modern English ladies and gentlemen really talk, is up to the circulating library average, and will be read. 'Alide,' also, may be recommended. It is by Miss Lazarus, the American poetess, and is a pretty sketch of the Frederika episode of Goethe's life.

If the Argosy be not stored exactly with the gold and pearls of literature, it is evident that she is occasionally laden with stuffs of a marketable kind. The series of tales

M. Flaubert cannot forget that he was bred a surgeon. By turns painter, poet, dramatist, traveller, he remains true to his early pursuits, carries with him everywhere the scalpel, and will not quit a subject until he has investigated each detail and laid bare every fibre. In Madame Bovary,' his first work of importance, and, in respect to style, his masterpiece, his occupation was wholly analytical, and was

such as the surgeon only would undertake, animal, and human. "Isis and Orus, and since it consisted in tracing the progress and the dog Anubis," Baal and Buddha, Oannès symptoms of disease. In Salammbô,' subse- of the Chaldeans, Diana of the Ephesians, quently, and again in 'La Tentation de Saint Ariman and Ormuz, Thammuz mourned by Antoine,' the task of the anatomist is sub- "Syrian damsels," and other Gods of Antiordinated to that of the lecturer, and the quity, are seen with a crowd of worshippers revelations that the author affords come as celebrating their rites with all weird, obscene, illustrations to the information he supplies. or mystic ceremonies. Then defiles before Like 'Salammbo,' 'La Tentation de Saint the eyes of St. Antoine the entire hierarchy Antoine' is overladen with erudition. Much of Olympus, fading, according to prophecy, at of this is new and striking, and all is presented the appearance of Christ. Hercules yields, with remarkable power and breadth. It and is crushed under the weight of Olympus, fatigues, however, in the end, and leaves upon Neptune plunges from sight in the ocean, the mind a feeling of depression like that Jupiter falls powerless among the useless produced by continuous sight-seeing. For thunderbolts, Mars commits suicide, Venus the rest, the book is that of a surgeon in the and Apollo sink in the darkness, and Bacchus absolute realism of its details-it is that of is torn to pieces by the Mænades and Mimala Frenchman, in the hardihood and familiarity lonides. The minor gods follow, as in Milton's with which it treats all things men are sup-Ode on the Nativity,' which seems to have posed to reverence or honour. inspired a portion of the scene:—

The form is, to a certain extent, dramatic. St. Antoine and the principal personages introduced soliloquize constantly, and occasionally engage in dialogue. Descriptions and stage-directions fill up the pauses of the conversation, which never grows very animated. The temptations to which the Saint is subjected

are elaborated from those which the New

Testament described as set before our Saviour; and the book, indeed, seems a species of nightmare vision after a surfeit upon Milton. Physical weakness besets St. Antoine previously to the vision, as it beset his Divine predecessor, and the dreams he sees may possibly be assigned to distemper, produced by over-fasting. The scale is carefully graduated. Lusts of the body are first assailed. Tempting viands give forth inebriating perfumes; purple wines pour sparkling forth from chased goblets; and the Queen of Sheba presents, unasked, a hand that kings

-have lipp'd and trembled kissing. Another lust, that of blood even, is evokedthe picture of the monks of the Thebaid slaughtering the Arians being one of the most striking in the volume :

"Antoine retrouve tous ses ennemis l'un après l'autre. Il en reconnaît qu'il avait oubliés; avant de les tuer, il les outrage. Il éventre, égorge, assomme, traîne les vieillards par la barbe, écrase les enfants, frappe les blessés. Et on se venge du luxe; ceux qui ne savent pas lire déchirent les livres ; d'autres cassent, abiment les statues, les peintures, les meubles, les coffrets, mille délicatesses dont ils ignorent l'usage et qui, à cause de cela, les exaspèrent. De temps à autre, ils s'arrêtent tout hors d'haleine, puis recommencent. Les habitants, réfugiés dans les cours, gémissent. Les femmes lèvent au ciel leurs yeux en pleurs et leurs bras nus. Pour fléchir les Solitaires, elles embrassent leurs genoux; ils les renversent; et le sang jaillit jusqu'aux plafonds, retombe en nappes le long des murs, ruisselle du tronc des cadavres décapités, emplit les aqueducs, fait par terre de larges flaques rouges. Antoine en a jusqu'aux jarrets. Il marche dedans; il en hume les gouttelettes sur ses lèvres, et tressaille de joie à le sentir contre ses membres, sous sa tunique de poils, qui en est trempée."

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The Lars and Lemures moan with midnight plaint, and the Sphinx, the Chimæra, and other strange, shadowy, and terrible forms, pass on to oblivion. With a final picture of the development of matter from the mineral world through the vegetable to the animal, the night passes, and the Saint, happy and contented with his experiences, regards the face of Christ shining from the sun's disc, and betakes himself once more to his customary employment of prayer.

So ends the strangest book that France, fecund in novelty of all kinds, has given the world during recent years. Nothing can equal the crude realism of the descriptions. The mysteries of ancient worship are described as though Paris were Eden, and the world had not yet learned the use or beauty of drapery. There are some marvellous pictures of Eastern life and some prose idylls of great beauty. The whole is not free, however, from the suspicion of pedantry, nor from that sentimentality which disfigures much of modern French art. If, according to the dictum of Madame de Staël, we ask, concerning the book, what it teaches and what it inspires, the answer will scarcely be satisfactory. A lesson like that of the Ancient Mariner' might, perhaps, be obtained by much straining. The more obvious teaching is, that all religions are alike atrocious, and the feeling inspired is scarcely more than the old lesson of the preacher, "Vanitas vanitatum; omnia vanitas."


OUR LIBRARY TABLE. THE late Mr. Binney forms the subject of two volumes which we have received: A Memorial of the late Rev. Thomas Binney, edited by the Rev. John Stoughton, D.D., and published by Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton; and Thomas Binney: his Mind-Life and Opinions, by the Rev. E. Paxton Hood, published by Messrs. Clarke & Co. Mr. Binney, it seems, forbade the publication of any memoirs of his life, and the sketch of his career given in Dr. Stoughton's volume is a reprint of a somewhat meagre paper which originally appeared in the Sunday at Home, and had obtained Mr. Binney's sanction. Dr. Stoughton also gives some "Personal Reminiscences," by the Rev. J. Viney, of no great value. The rest of the volume is filled by the addresses and sermons delivered at Mr. Binney's funeral and on the succeeding Sunday. These are, on the whole, marked by good sense and good taste, and are superior to the average of such compositions. Indeed, the volume does Dr. Stoughton and his coadjutors credit, and will, no doubt, be prized by the ad

mirers of the deceased. We cannot speak so favourably of Mr. Paxton Hood's volume: it is a crude compilation, written in a pretentious and vulgar tone.

We have looked carefully through the Essays, collected from among his contributions to periodical Critical and Narrative, which Mr. Forsyth has literature, and Messrs. Longmans have published, and we fail to see that they were worth reprinting. They are, most of them, up to the average of the articles which are found in the Monthlies and

Quarterlies, but they are, none of them, above it. The third volume, on the other hand, of Mr. Herbert Spencer's Essays: Scientific, Political, and Speculative, which Messrs. Williams & Norgate send us, contains some papers of much value, to do justice to which would require at least several columns. But these articles, when they were first given to the world, excited much discussion, and

we do not feel inclined to re-commence the contro

versies to which they led. We content ourselves with calling the attention of all thoughtful readers to the fact that these Essays now appear in a collected form.

A THIRD republication from the magazines is Mr. Symonds's Sketches in Italy and Greece, the graceful papers of a man of much culture, many nightly Review. They are extremely pleasing. of which appeared in the Cornhill and the FortMessrs. Smith & Elder are the publishers.

THE Complete Croquet Player, by Mr. James Heath, champion, and the best player of a great croquet-playing family, published by Messrs. Routledge, is not, as we had expected it would be, a highly scientific treatise, but an excellent handbook, adapted for the use of the commonplace player who wishes to improve.

WE have received Debrett's Illustrated House Son. It is as good as usual. We notice an appaof Commonfor 1874, published by Messrs. Dean & rent misprint of "Lord Neave," for Lord Neaves, and the "explanation of some technical parliamentary expressions" is either too much or too little.

WE have on our table The Pure Benevolence of Creation, by J. Travers (Longmans),—Lessons in Laryngoscopy and Diseases of the Throat, by P. James (Baillière),-Sanitary Arrangements for Dwellings, by W. Eassie (Smith & Elder),-First Lessons in the Principles of Cooking, by Lady Barker (Macmillan), Barker (Macmillan), Philosophy of English Literature, by J. Bascom (New York, Putnam),Philosophy, Science, and Revelation, by the Rev. C. B. Gibson (Longmans),-The Pupil Teacher's Geography and History of the British Possessions, by J. S. Horn (Simpkin), The Scholar's WordBook and Spelling Guide, by W. Rice (Collins),— The Missionary History of Sierra Leone, by the Rev. H. Seddall, B.A. (Hatchards), Genealogical Tables, Illustrative of Modern History, by H. B. George, M.A. (Oxford, Clarendon Press),-Memorials of the Town and Parish of Alloa, by J. Crawford (Alloa, Lothian),-The Education of American Girls, edited by A. C. Brackett (New York, Putnam),—Rambles after Sport; or, Travels and Adventures in the Americas and at Home, by O. North ("Field" Office),-Tales of Adventure by Flood, Field, and Mountain, by R. M. Ballantyne (Nisbet),-Dàn an Deirg, agus Tiomna Ghuill, translated by C. S. Jerram, M.A. (Simpkin),—A String of Pearls, by W. W. Old (Bemrose),Versicles and Tales, by P. M'Daby (Burns & Oates), -Eleanor; Gone with the Storm; and other Poems, by C. M. Griffiths (Longley),—Sibylline Leaves, being One Hundred Acrostics, edited by Mrs. G. Ryder (Hatchards),-Napoleon the Third, a Biography in Verse, by J. Martin (Martin),The Scramble of New Lights (Simpkin),—A Popu lar Commentary on the New Testament, by D. D. Whedon, D.D., Vol. I., Matthew-Mark (Hodder & Stoughton),-Annus Domini: a Prayer for each Day of the Year, founded on a Text of Holy Scripture, by C. G. Rossetti (Parker),-A Manual of Instruction for Confirmation and First Communion, by the Rev. G. F. Maclear, D.D. (Macmillan),— Forget thine Own People: an Appeal to the Home Church for Foreign Missions, by C. J. Vaughan,

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