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to the left side of the body of the butterfly.-Mr. W. C. Boyd exhibited specimens_of__Solenobia inconspicuella, taken in St. Leonard's Forest, and amongst them a specimen of a remarkably pale colour, which might possibly be an albino variety, but it had a very different appearance from the ordinary form.-Mr. Boyd also exhibited some leaves of the common Comfrey (Symphytum officinale), gathered at Cheshunt, the under-sides of which were found to be completely covered with specimens of Brachycentrus subnubilus. There appeared to be some hundreds of specimens closely packed together, and they were all dead, or in a moribund state, when found. All were said to be males, but on close examination a single female -specimen was discovered amongst them. No explanation could be given as to the object of their congregating together.- Mr. Stainton remarked that there were many such instances of a habit of congregating amongst insects which were equally unaccountable, and as an instance he mentioned a fact known to all breeders of Microlepidoptera respecting the pupation of the greater number of the Nepticulæ, the larvæ of which live solitary as leaf-miners; but if a number of leaves, containing larvæ, are collected and put together in a box, it is found that the cocoons are constructed gregariously between certain leaves, without any apparent reason for the preference. Mr. C. O. Waterhouse read a note, by Dr. Lamprey, on the habits of a boring beetle, one of the Bostrichidæ, found in British Burma. It belonged to the genus Sinoxylon. Dr. Lamprey did not know the name of the tree on which it was found, but he described the insect as making a small hole in a stem that was about half-an-inch in diameter; and, by devouring the wood completely round, severed it with a clean cut, so that it was only kept together by the thin outer layer of bark; the first gust of wind snapping off the weakened branch. The beetle turned on its side while boring, its back being towards the bark, and in this way its form appeared to adapt itself to the circumference of the stem. Two small portions of the severed stem were exhibited along with a specimen of the beetle.

CHEMICAL-May 7.-Prof. Odling, President, in the chair.-The following papers were read: 'On the Action of Ammonia on Phenyl and Cresyl Chloracetamide,' by Dr. Tommasi,-'Researches on the Action of the Copper-Zinc Couple on Organic Bodies, Part VII., On the Chlorides of Ethylene and Ethylidene,' by Messrs. J. H. Gladstone and A. Tribe. The authors find that these two isomerides behave differently when heated with the couple, the former splitting up into ethylene and chlorine, whilst the latter gives zinc chlorethylate.-Mr. C. E. Groves read a Note on the Preparation of Ethyl Chloride and its Homologues,' which he illustrated experimentally. He finds that when hydrochloric acid is passed into a boiling solution of zinc chloride in alcohol, the latter is completely converted into ethyl chloride; the other alcohols, such as the methyl and amyl, under similar treatment yielding the corresponding chlorides.-'Note on a new Mineral from New Caledonia,' by A. Liversidge.

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MICROSCOPICAL.-May 6.-C. Brooke, Esq., President, in the chair.-Dr. G. P. Bate was elected a Fellow, and Mr. H. G. Hanks, of San Francisco, was elected a Corresponding Fellow.A paper, by Dr. Anthony, On the Suctorial Organs of the Blowfly,' was read and illustrated by drawings. The paper described the general appearance of the parts in their natural condition, and suggested that the pseudo-trachea were really sucking or pumping organs.-Mr. Lowne described at some length his own observations on the subject, and showed the general structure of the parts by drawings upon the black-board, but showed that his own conclusions differed considerably from those of Dr. Anthony. Further remarks on the subject were also made by the President and Mr. C. Stewart.-A paper was read, by Mr. H. J. Slack, 'On certain Silica Films artificially pro

duced,' in which the results of a number of interesting experiments and observations were detailed, and Mr. W. T. Read communicated the results of similar researches in which he had recently been employed. Mr. Slack's paper was illustrated by drawings, and by specimens exhibited under the microscope in the room.-A paper, by Dr. Pigott, was taken as read, 'On the use of Black-Shadow Markings, and on a BlackShadow Illuminator.'

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS.-May 12.Mr. Harrison, President, in the chair.-Five gentlemen were elected as Members, Messrs. R. Bocquet, G. Bush, W. F. Gooch, W. N. Swettenham, and Sir W. Thomson; and twelve as Associates: Messrs. J. Ashworth, W. Climie, T. H. Crampton, S. Cutler, W. B. Fitzgerald, J. Newman, C. Ower, J. W. Smith, G. Spencer, G. E. Thoms, W. Topley, and R. G. Underdown.The Council have admitted Messrs. G. V. Brown, J. B. Cree, and G. Wood, as Students of the Institution. The paper read was 'On Peat Fuel Machinery,' by Mr. J. M'Carthy Meadows.—This was the last meeting of the session.

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NEW SHAKSPERE.-May 8.-F. J. Furnivall, Esq., Director, in the chair.-The Hon. Secretary announced that new branches had been started, at Owens College, Manchester, and in Montreal; and that since the last meeting twenty new members had joined the Society. - The first paper (read by Dr. E. A. Abbott) was by Mr. Fleay, "On the Authorship of "Timon of Athens." In opposition to the theory of Charles Knight and others, Mr. Fleay contended that 'Timon' was an unfinished play by Shakspeare, completed by another writer, who was Cyril Tourneur. Mr. Fleay pointed out Tourneur's work in the play: I. i. 186-248, 266-283; I. ii.; II. ii. 46-131, 195–204; III. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. (except Timon's speech); IV. ii. 29-50; iii. 292-362, 398-413, 453-543; V. i. 1–57; V. iii. Shakspeare's part was written about 1608, with 'Pericles,' as Delius puts it. Tourneur's part was added, Mr. Fleay thinks, after Shakspeare's death, to pad out the play and make it take up more room in the First Folio.-Mr. Furnivall confirmed Mr. Fleay's division of the play, except as to II. ii. 195-204, which (less “you to Sempronius") he claimed for Shakspeare. He said that Lucullus's talk was imitated from

Shallow's.-Dr. B. Nicholson supported Charles Knight's view, and argued that the theory that Shakspeare completed another man's play presented less difficulties than that another man completed Shakspeare's. Of. Mr. Fleay's second paper, 'On the Authorship of "Pericles," Mr. Furnivall stated the main results, that Shakspeare wrote only Acts III., IV., and V., less the Gower-choruses and the brothel-scenes (which were by Rowley), while Acts I. and II. were, as Delius said, by Wilkins. Shakspeare's part of 'Pericles' formed nearly an independent whole, copies of which, edited by Mr. Fleay, as 'The Birth and Life of Marina, Daughter of Pericles, Prince of Tyre,' were put into the hands of members, as well as a like edition of the genuine parts of 'Timon.'-Mr. Furnivall said that last autumn Mr. Tennyson read him the parts of 'Pericles' which he had for forty years held to be genuine Shakspeare; and that when Mr. Fleay's proof of Marina' came out it contained (to the best of his recollection) exactly the same parts of 'Pericles,' though Mr. Fleay had never heard of Mr. Tennyson's division. Mr. Furnival considered the question as to the genuine parts settled. -Mr. Daniel, Dr. Nicholson, and Dr. Abbott took part in the discussion.

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MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.

Victoria Institute, 8.- Principle of Design in Nature,' Prof. G.
Morris.
Institute of British Architects, 8.
Society of Arts, 8.-Carbon and certain Compounds of Carbon
treated principally in reference to Heating and Illuminating
Purposes,' Lecture VI., Prof. F. Barff (Cantor Lecture).
Social Science Association, 8.-'Amelioration of the Present
Position of Midwives,' Dr. J. H. Aveling.

United Service Institution, 84.

TUES. Royal Institution, 3.- The Nervous System,' Prof. Rutherford. Statistical, 73.- Statistics of Deaths by Suicide among British Troops,' Mr. W. H. Millar; The Elections of 1863 and 1874,' Mr. J. B. Martin.

MON. Asiatic, 3-Anniversary.

TUES. London Anthropological, 8.-' Phoenician Inscription alleged to exist in Brazil,' Mr. E. R. Hodges and the President; Keltic Element in the Lycian Inscriptions,' Mr. E. Croggan; 'Physical and Intellectual Capacities of Woman equal to those of Man,' Miss E. Wallington; Cannibalism,' Mr. C. S. Wake.

Civil Engineers, 8.-President's Conversazione. Zoological. 8).-Respiration of some Species of Indian Fresh Water Fishes,' Mr. G. E. Dobson: Habits of the Burrowing Owl (Pholeoptynx cunicularia), Mr. W. H. Hudson; 'Contributions to British Annelida,' Part I., Mr. W. C. M'Intosh. WED. Meteorological, 7.- Remarks on the Estimation of Wind Force, and on the Relation between Pressure and Velocity," Mr. C. O. F. Cator: Weather of Thirteen Winters, Mr. R. Strachan: New Deep-Sea and Recording Thermometer,' Messrs. Negretti & Zambra: 'New Mercurial Minimum and Maximum Thermometer, Mr. S. G. Denton.

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Science Gossip.

DR. RICHARDSON, F.R.S., whose researches on the influence of overwork, of alcohol, of tobacco, and of occupation on the physical and mental life are well known, has in the press a volume entitled Diseases of Modern Life,' which will be published shortly by Messrs. Macmillan.

THE Royal Medals in the gift of the Geographical Society for the promotion of Geographical Science and Discovery have this year been awarded to Dr. Schweinfurth (Founder's Medal), for his explorations in Central Africa, and to Col. P. E. Warburton (Victoria, or Patron's Medal) for his remarkable journey across the Western Interior of Australia. The Anniversary Meeting of the Society, at which these medals will be presented, is unavoidably postponed from the 1st to the 22nd of June. Evening meetings, for the reading of papers, will be held on the 1st and 15th of June.

THE Albert Gold Medal of the Society of Arts has been awarded to Dr. C. W. Siemens.

WE may mention in passing that some experiments have been made by M. S. A. Kosloff at Messrs. Warner's, Diana Place, Euston Road, in the presence of Sir C. Wheatstone, Mr. Sabine, and other scientific men, on the subdividing an electric current and producing from it, at the same time, a number of lights. The experiments were so successful that nine lamps were kept in a state of illumination. vented a new M. Kosloff professes to have in"metal"-which he still calls a "carbon"-for his poles, and these poles become ignited on the passage of the current in glass cessity for this mystery respecting the "carbon"Surely there can be no nepoles of the arrangement.

vacuum chambers.

THE Statistics of New Zealand for 1872printed under the authority of the New Zealand Government, and now issued, 1874-is a document of considerable scientific value as recording the progress of one of our most important colonies. The population in 1860 was 76,390, in 1872 it was 273,273. There was a considerable falling off in the value of the gold exported in 1872. In 1871 it amounted to 2,787,520l., whereas in 1872 the exportation was valued at 1,731,2611. only. The meteorological tables have been prepared under the direction of Dr. Hector, Inspector of the Meteorological Stations. The meteorological returns are from thirteen stations, and the results of the observations are given in much detail, the highest pressure being 30 572, on the 13th of October, at Mongonui; the highest recorded temperature of the air, in the shade, being 95'7 Fahr., on the 24th of January, at Christchurch; and the lowest 17·0, on the 14th and 19th of June, at Southland.

'EXPERIMENTAL Researches leading to a Determination of the Temperature of the Sun' is the title of a communication to the Academy of Sciences, on the 16th of March, by Padre Secchi, and published in the Comptes Rendus. The estimate-made from numerous comparative ex

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Horsley is an Academician, and being so, his
works are conspicuously placed on the coveted
"line," while scores of pictures round about them
are badly displayed. For instance, M. Legros is a
painter of European reputation, a prophet in art
whose teachings fall on the ears of Academicians who
are deaf; and 'Un Chaudronnier' is on high. Or,
if that is too good a picture, there is Mr. G. D. Wat-
son's clever design, "Only been with a few Friends,"
which deserves a better place. What business
has Mr. G. E. Hicks's 'Shylock' on a parity with
M. Legros's noble work, or with the brilliant and
solid landscape by Mr. C. P. Knight, called 'A
Spring-Tide in Ramsey Race'? Or, to come to still
worse cases, why is 'Our Northern Walls' Mr. P.
Graham's pretentious, flimsy, and ineffective pro-
duction, placed where it is forced into comparison
with Mr. Brett's resplendent 'Summer Noon in the
Scilly Islands'? or why is Mr. H. Moore's 'Rough
Weather in the Open' hoisted out of sight in
Room X. We have referred to this subject before,
and shall do so again. It is incredible that those
who are responsible for this injustice can believe
the public does not condemn it; nor, as the hangers'
names are known, and their committee is not a
numerous one, is it possible for them individually
to escape a considerable share of censure. One is
prepared for a moderate development of nepotism
in such matters,-most of us have temper enough
to tolerate a good deal of favouritism, and differ-
ences of opinion lead to widely different judgments;
but there can be no real difference of opinion
about the instances which we have selected as
examples of what occurs season after season at
the Royal Academy.

THE ROYAL ACADEMY.
(Third Notice.)

Ir is unfortunate that on entering this Exhi-
bition one's eye lights upon a huge picture at the
end of Gallery II., called The Healing Mercies of
Christ (No. 128), and comprising many large figures
within a lunette. This is one of the productions
of Mr. J. C. Horsley, a Royal Academician whom
the late Sir W. Tite was rash enough to employ in
order that he might present a picture to the chapel
of St. Thomas's Hospital. Its effect on the unfor-
tunate patients must, to say the least, be depressing.
The motto in the Catalogue states the artist's
intention is to express the resurrection; but if we
looked to the picture only, we should have imagined
that an interment was Mr. Horsley's subject. We
are bound to say that the artist has done better
than there was reason to expect, and that the error
was the donor's, who ought to have known how
much it would tax powers of the highest kind to
fulfil worthily a commission of this kind. What-
ever may have been the direction of Mr.
Horsley's education, and began with high aims,
there can be no doubt that he finds his proper
field in art in such pictures as Sunny Effects
(52), and that the solemnities of the chapel of a
great hospital are not in keeping with his genius,
His art is not worthy of the occasion. The paint-
ing is thin, the colouring raw and rather weak, the
figures, in spite of their high pretensions, lack
grandeur of execution; they are not well pro-
portioned, and the design itself, or rather the
motive of the picture, is flabby. The compo-
sition is carefully adapted to the space to be filled,
which is a considerable merit in such a work
as this.
Yet although the subject of 'Sunny
Effects' may suit Mr. Horsley better than so
exalted a theme as 'The Healing Mercies of
Christ,' it cannot be concealed from any human
creature not a member of an "Establishment
for Young Ladies," that the motive of 'Sunny
Effects' is a mistaken one. It is but too patent
also that the execution is almost as prepos-
terous as the design. The subject is a girl sleep-
ing in a bay-window of a room of the Cavalier
period, and two gentlemen enter, goodness knows
for what purpose, unless it be to re-adjust the dis-
located torso and limbs of the dummy in the chair.
The rest of the picture is unworthy of description,
and the work itself would be best left to those
whose ideas and education in art enable them to

One of the most spirited pictures here is Miss E. Thompson's Calling the Roll after an Engagement, Crimea (142). Every year's Salon contains some half-a-dozen such pictures, but Miss Thompson's work is not the less meritorious on that account. It represents a muster of foot-guards, while the call is read by a sergeant, himself wounded, and passing slowly along before the thinned ranks. One soldier stands still and full of thought; another weeps for, it may be, a lost brother; one offers rough consolation to his neighbour; and one, next the last, binds up his own badly-wounded wrist, and has a face full of rude sympathy for those who suffer more. One, in agonies, leans on his rifle; while another supports himself on his companion's arm. At this instant a man has fallen, fainting or dead, and his next man stoops to see which it is. The design is intensely dramatic, the execution capital, and the whole highly creditable to the lady who has produced it.-Mr. J. D. Watson's "Only been with a few Friends" (15), a jovial fellow returning to his shrewish and rather oldish wife, and making this apology with his tipsy lips, is humorous, and tells its story well. He is a Dutchman, of the seventeenth century; she one of Rembrandt's frows, and holds a warming-pan in her hand, which she may not be loth to use as a weapon of offence. Fine technical qualities appear in the good paint ing of a rug on the floor, and the good general keeping of the accessories. The Old Clock (28) has similar merits. An old fellow, standing on a chair, patiently tends an ancient one-handed brass time-piece; a Dutch housewife, with a significant pair of bellows in her hands, attends the man.— M. Perugini sends A Cup of Tea (13), a soubrette, in a stone-coloured dress, seated, and tasting tea from a cup with a spoon. This is extremely "clever" in its execution, but as unsolid and pretentious as it is effective.-The Obstinate Man (29), by Mr. E. C. Barnes, is by far the best picture by him we have seen it is tolerably well painted, and tells its story with vivacity. A club, as in Hogarth's time, or a little earlier, are in a coffee-house. Four members are set on one, who, pale but resolute, has made up his mind on some point in dispute, and means to keep to it. The endeavours of his antagonists to change his views, from the fiery little man who blusters to the gently satirical friend who taps him on the shoulder with a pipe, and the blandly reasoning man behind, are all elements of a design enjoy it. There are such, we believe; but Mr. which, in its way, is amusing. The picture is well

put together.-Mr. Prinsep's A Safe Confidant (27) is a capital study of tone, with quiet colour, and mostly in black and white. A love-sick looking damsel whispers to a white Persian cat which has mounted on her shoulder: the flesh is capitally painted and well modelled, with a delicate roseate tint, but it is not free from chalkiness, and a little opaque, as Mr. Prinsep's carnations frequently are, although they are usually perfect in tone. Neither the lady's hair as such, nor its adaptation to the head, is satisfactory. The same artist has a charming picture in Miss L'Estrange (274), and a larger work, of considerable merit, in Newmarket Heath, the Morning of the Race (943), a long landscape, with figures of gipsies trudging along, some with the peculiar grace of their tribe. Notice a buxom girl, walking freely, with her dress moving like Oriental robes about her limbs; notice the furtive looks of the young man who slouches past. Both these are points of character chosen from among many, but sufficient to show the tact of the designer. In technical merits this picture approaches those which we have named above, although it is distinctly inferior to them.

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Mr. T. Faed has, as we have already said, done much to redeem his reputation, for it is several years since he has given us anything so good as Forgiven (227). The work now before us shows that Mr. Faed has departed from the subjects he so long affected, which were almost invariably leave-takings, in death or life, as the case might be. Now we have a "prodigal daughter's return, with, of course, a baby, and her parents' varying receptions. The mother, not without wrath in her large black eyes, is moved to tenderness at sight of the child, and immediately "takes to it"; the father, too proud to yield at once, departs from the room, leaving his meal unfinished, but he will surely relent in a little while. The young woman hides her face in a passion of shame and repentance: her action is capitally given. The design of the old man's action is also very good, and characteristic of a fussy nature breaking down quickly; but the best portion of the picture is the figure of the old woman, which is admirable in invention, with complete pathos of expression in the face. The colour is a little sooty and dirty, owing to the blackness and somewhat slovenly execution of the half tints. Mr. Faed sends also The Sailor's Wife (67), an interior, a young woman sitting by a blooming baby that lies in a cot; her hands join on her knee, and her expression supports the pathos suggested by the motto of the picture, that she is thinking of, if not praying for, one who is absent as well as for the other who is present. There is finely felt, homely pathos here, of that obvious kind which has ensured so many admirers for Mr. Faed's art. The work is also painted much better than his pictures have been for some years past, although it would certainly admit of improvement. It is not so firm, nor so precise as the artist's earlier productions. There is nice execution in the chair on which the woman sits, and in the shawl that hangs over it. On the other hand, the background of the entire work is discreditably slight. This artist exhibits Violets and Primroses (389). The Country DancingMaster, West of Ireland (59), by Mr. Helmick, is another picture of genre which possesses considerable merit. A gawky Scotch - Irish lad, with a prodigious stare, leads out a sharper and better-looking girl before the little teacher, who holds a fiddle. There is a great deal of humour and character here, but the execution is flimsy. The work, in some respects, may be classed with that of Mr. Nicol.-The BeefSteak Pudding (60), by Mr. Barnard, represents a coquettish housewife flirting with a bald, elderly clerk while she makes a pudding. We believe this description is correct, although one cannot say much for such a subject. If so, the artist relies on the execution of his picture, and this is, in the background, capital: an escritoire with books, and old pictures, are commendable, but the figures are inferior, although

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N° 2429, MAY 16, '74

there is spirit in the attitude of the woman.-Mr. Storey's Blue Girls of Canterbury (66) is meritorious, both in subject and technique. A body of little damsels of a school are trooping along by twos, in the performance of that public penance which suits their condition in this country. They are attended by their genial, spectacled governess. The scene is the Close of Canterbury. There is abundance of character and some gentle humour here. The girls' expressions and faces are diversified and natural, with much simplicity and a little beauty, which is right. Mr. Storey often exhibits a nice sense of colour, and has zealously cultivated his natural feeling for tone, and both are clearly shown in this picture. He is deficient in the dignity of the picturesque elements of his accessories, e. g., he gives nothing of the true character and grandeur of the old gate of the Close, but in homelier matters, as in the old red houses beyond, he is at once happy and pictorially fortunate. This artist contributes other not less excellent pictures, which we may notice by-andby.

There is something of the tragic mood in Miss J. Macgregor's Orpheus and Eurydice (64). Eurydice follows the singer on the lonely shore, as, clad in red and lyre in hand, he goes on his journey. The idea is, however, common-place, and the composition naught. The picture would not demand notice but for the sentiment of the background, which is apt to the subject and well expressed. Whether or not the landscape of cliffs and a small still lake-looking very like Llyn Idwal-are well painted, we cannot say, for the picture is on high. Miss Macgregor has a great deal to learn about figure-painting.-Another tragedy occurs in Mr. Lidderdale's 1793, Proscribed (81). An old curé has taken refuge with Breton peasants, fishermen, who have put him in a loft with their nets and other sea-going gear; where he sits meditating, watch in hand, as if he expected some one, or reckoned the time for the tide which may facilitate his flight. Mr. Lidderdale has often been happy in dealing with subjects which suggest little histories, and this is one of the best of the kind, for the figure is well designed, and the face well conceived and executed, although otherwise the execution of the picture is slighter than it ought to be.-It is a great thing to have a story well told. Mr. E. S. Kennedy's "For Those at Sea" (82), French fisherwomen at prayer, is decidedly a piece of clap-trap.-With so much chic and tact in putting a picture together as has fallen to his lot, Mr. M. Stone is sure of a large share of popular attention and considerable admiration from those who regard the production of pretty sentimental pictures as the main function of art. This artist's My Lady is a Widow, and Childless, (106) has not the merit of novelty in its subject, nor can it be said that the execution of the picture, apart from the "cleverness" proper to Mr. Stone, is so solid, so brilliant, or so artistic, in any high sense of the term, as to entitle it to be on the line here, in one of the best places of Gallery II. We have the precincts of a stately house, a wall separating a garden from a park; in the front, a gardener or farm labourer pauses in his labour, before taking the meal his children have brought to the spot, in order to caress them. Their mother is near, a not ungraceful figure, but the whole work is of the merely dexterous order. Behind, looking at the group, and divided from them by the wall, is the lady of the title, gazing sadly on the happiness in which she has no share.-Going to the Well (83) is by Mr. H. Cameron, a young woman and two children, one of whom she carries, while she holds a basket, crossing a field, is rather pretty, and thoroughly in keeping. Asa trifle it is acceptable. Miss E. Clacy's Vesper Song (90) shows a fair organist in the family pew of a well-known old church, engaged with a book of ancient psalmody; she is surrounded by tapestries on the walls, pictures of devotional subjects, books and furniture. The figure is graceful, the peculiar effect of light well studied, and successfully rendered; and there is pathos throughout. The work is thus, in its way, a capital example of rather elegant art.

THE ATHENEUM

in

It is time to look at a group of the landscapes in this Exhibition. A certain number of works of this sort and of high merit are on the walls of Galleries I., II., and III. We have already noticed the larger works of Mr. Millais, and may take those which now come to view in their order on the walls. By no other rule should we notice before others the "clever," but fallacious picture, by Mr. G. Smart, The Pass of the Cateran (2), a motive so commonly dealt in by painters of the artist's calibre, e. g., Messrs. Mac Taggart, Mac Whirter, P. Graham, and others, that we wonder they are not as weary of painting it as we are of seeing what year after year they are content to give us. There must be a receipt for the manufacture of pictures of mountains, with heathery sides, and with clouds rushing over and between them, and casting dark shadows in the sunlit view. A pool here and there a rock, are added, here a cow and there a sheep, sometimes a rushing stream, sometimes a fall of rain, sometimes a shepherd or two; while, if the "artist" is in a pathetic mood, he touches our hearts with the wreck of what, in Scotch novels, is called "a shieling"; or, if cruel enough, he throws in his foreground the ragged and scurfy enclosure where,—

The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep;

care

and, if a genius of superior power, he brings down a gleam of light between the dark clouds of his painted sky, to show what he would be at. The humbler, it may be the duller, producers of this kind of "art-manufacture," do not aspire beyond the cows, as Mr J. Smart has done in the picture before us. It may be all very well that the hackneyed elements of the picturesque which supply materials for the inferior specimens of what are called "Scotch" landscape paintings, i. e., rocks, heather, sun-gleams, and the like, of which the artists we have named are the most industrious producers, should continue to be employed to manifest trivial and worn-out ideas; but, on the other hand, we should, in that case, have good, sound, and solid execution, but that we never find in this class of works.—Mr. H. Woods's Haymakers (96), though unpretending, is an honest picture, with many pretty elements, and some has been bestowed upon the execution; it shows a group of women and children in a hayfield: an old woman, while knitting, gossips with a young mother.-There is masterly, though overelaborate, work in Mr. J. Brett's Summer Moon in the Scilly Isles (130), but there is even less imagination than his pictures usually display. But once or twice has this artist imparted that essential to fine art in landscape. His 'Granite Boulders' of last year exhibited imagination, or rather it suggested pathetic insight, yet in this not less striking coast piece there is nothing but what extraordinary skill, keen vision, and indomitable patience could secure. It shows the flat shore of one of the islands, with detached rocks in the sea, and other rocks rising out of the sand. The whole is in powerful sunlight, which, however, is not very successful in suggesting heat, although a figure, not very happily introduced, "sleeping in the shadow of a rock, tells us how hot Mr. Brett means us to be. With half the appearance of labour, M. Kaemmerer's 'La Plage de Scheveningue,' now in the Salon, which we noticed last week, makes us wish to take off our collars and waistcoats, which no one would think of doing before Mr. Brett's picture. It is, nevertheless, a superb piece of brilliant and earnest workmanship, with wonderfully skilful draughtsmanship, and that includes drawing, modelling, and the just representation of light and shade; it shows vivid colour, both local and atmospheric, and it owes everything to careful studies in Nature's school.-Another picture of a similar class, but more solid and masculine in style than that of Mr. Brett, hangs near it. This is Mr. C. P. Knight's A Spring-Tide in Ramsay Race (114), a view of the tempest-like current of the sea rushing in a narrow way, between Ramsay and the main land, breaking in its furious haste over the rocks in the channel, the water being otherwise of intense blue and green, as it reflects the sky more or less thoroughly.

671

Orange light lies on the ruddy barren headlands, and deep blue shadow fills the little rocky inlets where the caverns are; the land rises above in verdurous slopes. The keeping of this picture is complete; its vigour and solidity are unquestionable. Close to the pictures of Messrs. Brett and Knight hangs a third coast-piece-painted on principles common to all three. The last is styled Homeward Bound, the Chops of the Bristol Channel, inside Lundy Island, by Mr. Naish, a view of the sea, including the cliffs near Ilfracombe, and painted with great richness and brilliancy of colour and lighting, executed with perfect knowledge of the materials and singular command of the technique requisite for such work. The waves are in full motion, and their local colouring is felicitously given, their modelling and that of the rocks being unquestionably good. The effect is that of a strong contrast of light and shadow, while Mr. Knight's, not less than that of Mr. Brett, represents intense sunlight, with accidental and local shadows only. Both the latter artists deal in the chiaroscuro of light as the former one deals in light and shade and local colour, while he neglects, or does not care for, chiaroscuro; besides he sees local tints in an extremely high key. The result of the last-named natural peculiarity in Mr. Naish's vision, especially when combined with his apparent indifference to chiaroscuro, is, that his pictures lack breadth and dignity, if such a phrase be allowed, and they are too much a congeries of parts, admirable in themselves, and singly, rather than as whole. This is, of course, independent of, and not essential to, the expression of the sentiment of the work. Comparison of these pictures is unavoidable, and therefore there can be no reason why we should avoid saying it appears to us that the success of Mr. Brett is due to his having a stronger sense of the value of the chiaroscuro of light than his neighbours. Mr. Naish has least of this precious pictorial faculty. Mr. Knight exhibits sentiment in his, and likewise paints with greater solidity than either of his rivals. He has a freer eye for colour, and has almost as large a of the value of breadth in light as Mr. Brett ; but he is either less willing than Mr. Brett to sacrifice what Mr. Naish will not sacrifice at all, or, as it may be, he is less fastidious than the last-named artist in choosing subjects where local tints do not control, if they do not dominate the scene. No pictorial quality is so easily recognizable, and few are more precious than breadth of effect; none requires more insight for its appreciation than fine sentiment; nothing in landscape art is more rarely acquired than close knowledge of nature; and, accordingly, it is less frequently appreciated than it should be. Some light may be thrown on the respective works of these three remarkable and very genuine painters by considerations of this sort.

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Mr. Dawson has, in Shoreham Harbour, Evening (603), and Shoreham Harbour, Morning (607), two landscapes of the same locality, looking in opposite directions, under contrasted effects of light. Both are charmingly painted, with a fine sense of colour and complete power of dealing with atmosphere. The skies in both these comparatively small works are delightfully composed, and have been studied with knowledge and skill, such as few know how to employ better than this capital artist.-The picture which Mr. A. B. Collier sends, entitled "Sub tegmine fagi" (240), is extremely good in its way, which is a modest and accomplished one; it is a scene on the Tamar.-The Old Home of the McDougalls (222), by Mr. C. E. Johnson, a castle on a cliff, rather lacks something in solidity; but it is effective, and the sky is well managed. -On the Coast, Scheveningen (241), in Gallery III., by Mr. Mesdag, shows the principles which Baron Leys revived with reference to figure-painting, applied to landscape, and it is one of the richest, most powerful, and faithful coast views in this Exhibition. The treatment is masterly, the effect broad, and what may be called the action of the picture completely sustained. This artist has two fine works in the Salon at this time, which we shall notice by

and-by one of them is a most powerful snowpiece. Mr. C. N. Hemy has in The Tyne, from the High Lights, Shields, (317) a striking subject, and one which he seems to have studied with considerable care; but, notwithstanding the effectiveness of the picture, it is, on the whole, less successful than others we have seen by him, although it is decidedly more so than others have appeared to us.-Sir R. P. Collier, in his Clearing after a Storm in the Alps (394), has a telling and vigorous picture, which, as the production of an earnest amateur, is extraordinarily good, both as regards the landscape proper and the sky. See, likewise, On the Mer de Glace (381), by the same. This artist's mode of painting snow in vast masses has the merit of producing solidity, because it expresses care and knowledge; but it must be admitted that the colour is dirty, to the great detriment of the brilliancy of the picture, and the loss of beauty.— Any one who desires to see a manly, solid piece of painting in its way, should turn to Mr. R. Leslie's The Morning Watch (433).

SALES.

MESSRS. CHRISTIE, MANSON & WOODS sold, for pounds, on the 30th ult., the following pictures and drawings by the under-mentioned gentlemen. Drawings: B.Foster, Coming Home from School, 90; Just Shot, 130. Pictures: F. Goodall, An Eastern Lady, 70,-W. Duffield, Interior of the Keeper's Lodge, 241,-A. Solomon, The Artists Abroad, 147,-E. Nicol, "Common Pleas," 75,-T. Faed, The Statute Fair, 409,-A. Vickers, The Road to the Village, 220; Near Malton, Yorkshire, 262,F. Danby, The Birth of Venus, 131; The Departure of Eneas, 68; Æneas witnessing the Games, 84,-J. S. Lander, Christ Teaching Humility, 157, -G. E. Hicks, Letters from Home, 152. The following belonged to the late W. Twopeny, Esq., THE Annual Congress of the British Archæoand were sold by the same auctioneers, on the 2nd logical Association will be opened this year at inst.: F. Hals, The Artist, 257,-J. Burnet, A Bristol, August 4, under the presidency of KirkView in the Environs of London, 53,-Tiepolo, will be devoted to an examination of the antiquiman D. Hodgson, Esq., M.P. The ensuing week Scene from the Life of Louis Antoine Jacques, ties of Bristol, and the counties of Somerset, Cardinal Infant of Spain, 84; The Companion, Gloucester, and Wilts, consisting, in the main, of 73,-C. Jansen, Queen H. Maria, 105,-Hogarth, visits to Bath, Bradford Chapel, Farleigh Castle, Mrs. Pritchard, 52. Another property: Hogarth, Hinton Abbey, Keynsham, Saltford, Cadbury The Lady's Last Stake, Calais, 945; Examination of the Recruits before Camps, Berkeley and Thornbury Castles, Wraxall, Justices Shallow and Silence, 399, Chalfield Manor, St. Mary, Redcliff, and TickenRomney, Miss S. Milnes, 126; Mrs. Thoroton, 89,-Rey-regret that the eminent archæologist and antiquary, ham. The Archaeological world will learn with nolds, A Girl with a Bird (belonged to Rogers), Mr. Gordon M. Hills, has resigned his duties as 189; The Laughing Girl, 168; Miss Wombwell, Treasurer to the Association. 57,-Weenix, Boy with Hare, 91,-Wouvermans, A Landscape, hawking party and stag hunt, 315, Gainsborough, R. Tickell, 1,627, De Loutherbourg, A Rocky Landscape, 136, Landseer, Blaize, a dog, 393,-B. Wilson, Cicero's Villa, 294; A Lake Scene, 556,-J. Stark, A Woody Landscape, 210,-G. Morland, A Hunting Scene, 210,-W. Van de Velde, A Naval Engage ment, 110,-Lely, Lady Denham, 72; Van Tromp, 68,- Wynants and A. Van de Velde, A small Landscape, with a herdsman and sheep, 189; A Landscape, with a herdsman driving oxen, 152, A. Van der Werff, Paris and Enone, 63,-L. Backhuizen, The Dutch East India Fleet leaving Port, 173, -Van Huysum, Flowers, Bird's Nest, &c., 525,-Canaletti, A pair of Views in Venice, 252; View of St. Giorgio Maggiore, Venice, and the companion, 252, Wynants and Lingelbach, A Landscape, with a château, 52,-A. Van der Neer, A Frost Scene, with numerous figures, 152,Weenix, A Dead Swan on a block of stone, 74,Jan Steen, The Broken Eggs, portraits of the painter and Van Goyen, 105,-Raoux, The Sunshine of Love, 168,-Murillo, Our Lady and the Infant Saviour, 283; St. Thomas de Villanueva giving Alms, 126,-Harlowe, Miss Stephens, 63,— Sir J. Gilbert, The King's Artillery at Marston Moor, 372; King Charles leaving Westminster Hall, after receiving sentence of death, 798; The Robbers' Cave, 157,-Maclise, The Wrestling Scene in As You Like It,' 1855, 798,-L. Haghe, An Artist in his Studio, 89.-Leslie, Juliet, 207,-Mr. Dobson, Gretchen, 220,-Collins, The Spinning Girl of Sorrento, 157,-Etty, Phædria and Cymocles on the Idle Lake, 535,-Turner, Falls of the Clyde,

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346; On the Brent, 656,-T. Grönland, Gatherings
for the Banquet, 178,-T. Webster, Bird Catching,
252, F. Leighton, The Mermaid, 299,-Morland,
Interior of a Stable, with figures, a donkey and
pigs, 105,-J. Holland, Rotterdam, the ferry-boat
on the canal, 183; A View of Venice, 278; Venice,
on the Grand Canal, 327,-D. Cox, Milking Cows
at the back of the Cottage, 178,-A. Vickers, Off
the Kentish Coast, with shipping, 141, P. Calde-
ron, Queen Elizabeth and the Earl of Leicester
surprised by the Duke of Northumberland, 152,
J. Linnell, Rest after the Mid-day Meal, 1,008,-
W. Linnell, The Spring in the Woods and the
Woods in the Spring, 215,-E. Van Marcke, Land-
scape, cattle in a stream, 199,-P. Graham, A
Rainy Day, 845,-H. Davis, In Normandy Pas-
tures, 183,-Constable and J. Linnell, A Lake
Scene, with sheep, 420, C. Hunter, A Scottish
Coast Scene, 152,-J. Phillip, Spanish Fortune-
Teller, 183. The following were sold, as above,
on the 4th inst., and belonged to Mr. Baker, of
Russell Square, deceased. Pictures: J. Crome,
The Old Quay, Yarmouth, 94. Another property:
Gainsborough, Miss Carr, 409,-Owen, Lord Lough-
borough, whole length, 84.

Among the noteworthy pictures recently sold in
Paris were the following, May 1: Murillo, El
Pastorcito (the little Shepherd), 120,000 francs,
Jacque, Paysage et Moutons, 3,600 fr.-May 5:
Guardi, Le Pont de Rialto, 5,050 fr.-Lancret,
Les Rémois, 7,500 fr.-Teniers le jeune, Les
Arcquebusiers d'Anvers, 15,700 fr.

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Fine-Art Gossip.

WE shall notice next week the Exhibition

opened in Paris the other day for the benefit of
the exiles from Alsace and Lorraine.

MR. STEPHEN THOMPSON, who, two years ago, successfully produced an extensive series of photographs from the collection of the British Museum, is bringing out, under the sanction of the Trustees, a series of large reproductions of typical specimens illustrating the development of art from the earliest to the close of the Classical period. The work will be complete in sixty plates, of which the first part, twenty plates each, about two feet long, with width according to subject, will include fac-similes by the autotype permanent process, of some of the sculptures and bas-reliefs from the frieze of the Parthenon, the best Egyptian sculptures, slabs from Nineveh, the Etruscan sarcophagus, and the finest pieces of the Townley, Farnese, Blacas, and Castellani Collections.

Ar a meeting held at the house of Mr. Alfred Morrison the other day, it was decided to take steps for raising subscriptions to obtain a mosaic portrait of the late Mr. Owen Jones, as a memorial of his services to Decorative Art. It is hoped that the funds may admit of a medal and travelling scholarship bearing his name being established. An exhibition of his designs is to be held in June.

READERS will notice in our report of Sales that several famous pictures have changed hands, including Hogarth's 'The Lady's Last Stake, engraved by Cheeseman, painted for Lord Charlemont, and a few years ago exhibited at the British Institution as the property of his descendant. Also The Gates of Calais,' Reynolds's 'Girl with a Bird,' which belonged to Rogers; Maclise's Wrestling Scene,' Etty's Phædria and Cymocles on the Idle Lake,' and others, have been sold.

THE Marquis of Bath and Lord R. Leveson Gower have been appointed Trustees of the National Portrait Gallery, to fill up vacancies caused by the deaths of Earl Cowper, and the Bishop of Winchester.

THE French papers record the death of M. Gleyre, the celebrated painter, of Swiss birth, but long settled in Paris, as having taken place suddenly while, on the 5th instant, he was admiring a picture by Greuze in the sixteenth room of the Loan Exhibition at Paris. This event was, it seems, due to the rupture of an aneurism, produced by excite ment, and by the crowded state of the Exhibition. Gleyre was born at Chevilly, Vaud, in 1807, and, having attended the school of Hersent, he went to Italy, and, afterwards, in 1825, to the East. He returned in 1833, but did not exhibit his works publicly until some years had passed, when he produced the 'Vision of St. John, in 1840; later, he painted Le Soir,' 'Les Apôtres allant prêcher l'Evangile,' La Danse des Bac chantes.' He did not exhibit after 1849, owing, it is said, to the force of his political convictions, but he continued to labour with unceasing energy. He painted 'L'Écho,' 'Pentecôte,' and others. 'Le Soir' is now in the Luxembourg, and well known by an excellent engraving. He was a most honourable and amiable man, whose numerous pupils unite in expressing their sorrow for his loss; and among these pupils were several Englishmen of reputa tion. Mr. Wallis was, we believe, for some time in Gleyre's atelier.

MUSIO

MUSICAL UNION.-MDLLE. KREBS and SIGNOR PAPINI, TUESDAY, May 19. at Three.-Quintet, G minor, Mozart; Ballad, No. 1, G minor, Chopin; Quintet in B flat (by request), Mendelssohn; Quartet, E flat, Pianoforte, &c, Schumann; Polonaise in C. Op. 89, Beethoven; and Solos by Mdlle. Krebs. - Single Admissions, 78. 6d.; to be had of Cramer, Lucas, and Austin, at St. James's Hall. Visitors, on giving their names, can pay at the Regent Street entrance.

PROF. ELLA, Director.

PHILHARMONIC SOCIETY.-Conductor, Mr. W. G. CuginsFOURTH CONCERT.-St. James's Hall, MONDAY, May 18, Eight o'clock.-Symphony in G minor, Mozart; Song, Herr Gustav Walter (K. K. Kammersänger aus Wien); Concerto for Violin (first time in England, Lalo, Mons Sarasate (his first appearance in England); 'Offertorium,' Neukomm. Stradella, Mr. Santley; Overture, 'The Calm Sea and Prosperous Voyage,' Mendelssohn; Symphony, No. 6. in F. Beethoven; Duo, Herr Gustav Walter and Mr. Sautley: Overture, Lodoiska,' Cherubini.-Stalls, Area, or Balcony, 10s. 6d.; Balcony Reserved Seats, 78.; Unreserved, 58.; Area or Gallery, 28. 6d.

MONS. ALPHONSE DUVERNOY will give TWO PIANOFORTE RECITALS, at the Queen's Concert Rooms, Hanover Square, on FRIDAY, May 29, and THURSDAY, June 18, at Three o'clock.-Stalls, 108. 6d. Unreserved Seats, 58. Stanley Lucas, Weber & Co., 84, New Bond Street; Chappell, 50, New Bond Street; Mitchell's Royal Library; and at the Hanover Square Rooms.

COVENT GARDEN THEATRE.

Or the Queens of Song of the present period, Madame Adelina Patti is the most popular; she has sung in nearly all the leading musical cities of Europe since her first arrival here from America, The secret of her success is simple enough-she is naturally an actress, and is to the manner born, -indeed, Madame Patti almost drew her first breath on the lyric stage, for she saw the light only a few hours after her mother, a prima donna also, had been playing Norma at the Opera-house in Madrid. Her father was a tenor, and her teacher and trainer was her brother-in-law, Herr Maurice Strakosch. Besides being an impulsive actress, who can always create a character with pronounced individuality, and who has the gift of concealing completely the artifices of art, Madame Patti has been gifted with a voice which has gained yearly in richness and roundness in the middle and lower notes, whilst retaining the brightness and brilliancy of her upper

ones.

The lady has thus earned her position by originality in her dramatic delineations, and by displaying the attributes of a thoroughly trained musician in her vocalization. Her répertoire as a comedian has included the best opera-buffas of Rossini, Donizetti, Mozart, and Flotow, as well as the deeply tragic parts of the modern Italian school. To specify Rosina (Il Barbiere'), Adina (Elisir d'Amore'), Zerlina (Don Giovanni'), Marta of Flotow, and Desdemona ("Otello"), Ninetta (Gazza Ladra"), the Lucia and Linda of Donizetti, the Amina (Sonnambula"), the Dinorah of Meyerbeer, the Margherita and Juliet of M. Gounod,

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&c., is enough to show how varied are her Vocal and histrionic attainments. Madame Patti inherits the range of parts illustrated by Sontag, Persiani, Jenny Lind, and Bosio; and there is no exaggeration in asserting that, so long as Madame Patti is heard within their circle of characters, she is unrivalled. It is to be regretted that Meyerbeer did not live to compose an opera expressly for Madame Patti, as he intended to have done. After his death, Sir Michael Costa purposed to write a work for her; and if we are right as to the subject of the libretto he selected, it would have enabled her to "create" a character, while the chances offered to her in the operas by the late Prince Poniatowski ('Gelmina') and Signor Campana ('Esmeralda") were lost through the weakness of the two productions.

The return of Madame Patti last Tuesday, in her pet part of Rosina, was a gala night for the Royal Italian Opera, and it consoled the subscribers for their sufferings during the reign of mediocrity, for, Mdlle. Marimon excepted, there have been no artists of calibre enough to take the place of Madame Pauline Lucca. For her lesson solo, Madame Patti chose Signor Verdi's Bolero, from the 'Vêpres Siciliennes'; and, after thus exhibiting her executive skill and fioriture, on the encore she sang Bishop's simple but irresistibly touching melody, "Home, sweet home," to prove how perfectly she can exemplify the ballad school. The reception of Madame Patti was a rapturous one throughout the opera, both for acting and singing. There was a new Basilio, in Signor Bagagiolo, vice Signor Tagliafico, by which change the music of the part gained immensely, but the personation lost greatly. Signor Tagliafico has done good service since he began at the opening of Covent Garden in 1847; he is the only artist left of the original troupe, and he certainly deserves a pension.

LES DIAMANS DE LA COURONNE.'

ONE of the most popular of the long series of operas produced at the Salle Favart has been 'Les Diamans de la Couronne'; yet although it has gone the round of nearly all the lyric theatres of Europe, and was adapted for Drury Lane and the Princess's Theatre in 1843 and 1844, with Madame Anna Thillon at both houses as La Catarina (the original representative of the part in Paris), no Italian version was given here until last season at Covent Garden. It proved, however, despite the finished singing and admirable acting of Madame Adelina Patti as the Queen of Portugal, a most unsatisfactory performance, mainly through Signor Vianesi's reprehensible meddling with Auber's score. The setting of the accompanied recitatives was radically repulsive, and was in complete opposition to the French composer's piquant and vivacious style. Moreover, as musical director, Signor Vianesi must be made responsible for interpolations, for transpositions, and for curtailments altogether uncalled for and unjustifiable under any pretext of conciliating a prima donna. The Drury Lane arrangement is free from the highly objectionable modus operandi adopted at Covent Garden. The recitatives used, in place of the lively spoken dialogue of MM. Scribe and De Saint-Georges, are those which were sung in Milan,—that is, it is principally recitativo parlante, as it ought to be. They were written by Signor Gelli.

But the production of 'Les Diamans' at Her Majesty's Opera was marked by an incident, the parallel of which it will tax the memory of the most ancient opera-goers to find, namely, the début of a prima donna who, whilst presenting the part of Catarina in an unexceptionally dramatic form, being, in fact, a complete comedian, sings with a limited volume of voice which renders her almost inaudible in the lower notes. And yet there is the strange fact connected with this lack of power, that more finished vocalization has, perhaps, never been heard on the lyric stage. Rarely have we been more struck with the surety and safety of scale passages than when they came from the lips of Malle. Louise Singelli, in whom habitués of the Athénée in

Paris, and of the Opera-houses in Brussels and Antwerp, will readily recognize the Belgian artist who for some six or seven years has been able to sustain the bravura parts in the works of Rossini, Donizetti, Flotow, Auber, Adolphe Adam, &c. Moreover, so late as the season 1873, in Paris, this lady, in the same theatre as Mdlle. Marimon, maintained a prominent position in two operas-French adaptations of Signor Pedrotti's Tutti in Maschera' ('Les Masques') and in Luigi Ricci's 'Fête de Piedigrotta.' What struck the Parisian connoisseurs, and what has equally struck those of London, are her combined qualifications as comedian and cantatrice. It would be not easy to match such adroit agility as Mdlle. | Singelli displays in the air, with variations, in the second act, "Ah spezzar vo' mia catena." The grace and charm of her cadenzas are indescribable -the compass of the organ attacking F in alt is marvellous. To her the praise bestowed by Auber on Madame Thillon may safely be extended, "Elle a la voix bien timbrée, agile, et habilement conduite." It was quite refreshing, in these days of sliding and slurring, of eluding thirds and fifths, of shirking arpeggios and trills, to listen to Mdlle. Singelli singing, as if she were using her voice like a violin; and in this last word is the secret of her successful scales. At seven years of age she was a violinist-a child prodigy, who astounded the musical public by her precocious skill. Like Madame Nilsson, Mdlle. Singelli, after fiddling for a subsistence, essayed vocalization. But the question arises, to what extent can the bravura attributes of the new-comer be carried. It seemed to us that her Catarina was an exquisite cabinet picture; that it had the precision and delicacy of a musical snuff-box; and that the organ of the artist could not be turned to account in characters where the carriage of the voice must be extended to passionate expression. In the 'Diamans de la Couronne,' in the 'Domino Noir,' in other operas of Auber, in the music of the Queen of Night,' in Mozart's Magic Flute,' in the florid roulades exacted for the Queen in the 'Huguenots,' and, in fact, in all works where extraordinary execution is exacted, Mdlle. Singelli would be invaluable, Such flexibility combined with sweetness and evenness is a rare gift. Naturally, her performance was a great triumph, and she enlisted the sympathy of her hearers for La Catarina almost exclusively, although pains had been taken to secure a strong cast-the Diana being Mdlle. Risarelli; Signor Naudin, Enrico; Signor Rinaldini, Sebastiano; Signor Agnesi, Rebolledo; and Signor Borella, the pompous chef de police, who is so easily mystified. There were enthusiastic encores for the Bolero duo between Mdlle. Singelli and Risarelli, and for the variations by the former. The Belgian artist will gain on rehearing, for nervousness and the French diapason to which she has been habituated affected her intonation in the first act, but she rallied rapidly in the second act. Band and chorus were remarkably good.

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THE MUSIC OF THE FUTURE.

THE Wagner Society has completed the series of six concerts of its second season, by a scheme last Wednesday, in St. James's Hall, which throws no new light on the theories of the German reformer. One advantage has assuredly been achieved by the association Herr Wagner's orchestral works may be regarded as having found a musical public to accept and appreciate them. The operatic question remains undecided, that is, so far as regards his latest productions, on which he pins his faith and relies for fame. Whether our opera-goers of various tastes, who take to Beethoven, Mozart, Weber, Spohr, Flotow, Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Verdi, Bishop, Balfe, Wallace, Macfarren, E. Loder, &c., will relish the 'Tannhäuser' and 'Lohengrin,' has yet to be proved. There is, however, one opera by Herr Wagner, on the prospects of which prophecy can safely be hazarded, namely, Tristan und Isolde.' Such music as is contained in it will never find favour in this country. The words of the analyst

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of the programme alone would suffice to insure the condemnation of the work: "In "Tristan und Isolde' we hear for the first time the unimpaired language of dramatic passion intensified by an uninterrupted flow of expressive melody, the stream of which is no more obstructed or led into the artificial canals of aria, cavatina," &c. Now this passage, in common parlance, and divested of its mystification, means substantially, that the solo in opera is to be replaced by monotonous iteration of Such ear piercing phrases. succession of shrill sounds as the death-scene of Isolde, sustained with desperate effort by Madame Otto-Alvsleben, would destroy any soprano's voice in a couple of seasons. The strain upon the organ of such vocalization, whilst fatal to the artist, is most disagreeable to the ear. system of Herr Wagner is radically wrong in aiming at the annihilation of the air or cavatina, the romance or scena. The solo in opera can no more be dispensed with than the soliloquy of the acting drama. This is the rock on which Herr Wagner's latest operatic imaginings will be wrecked. It is lamentable, with such powers as he possesses, that he is not more practical, and that he does not keep to mother earth, instead of soaring to dreamland for his ideas. He should write his scores for a realistic world. Let him give us a Fidelio' or a 'Don Giovanni,' even if his imagination be too grim to create a 'Nozze di Figaro' or a 'Barbiere.'

The

Thanks, however, are due to Mr. Dannreuther for his perseverance and energy in making known here the compositions of the latest German school. He must, and other Wagnerites must, be content with the partial success of their ideal. At the same time, it may be conceded that Impresarios are not doing their duty to the operatic public in denying to both amateurs and artists the opportunity of drawing their own conclusions about the pretensions of the advocates of the Music of the Future. Operas which are going the round of the world seem to reach this country last of all. This ought not to be, and it is to be hoped a German troupe may be imported to enable us to hear at least Lohengrin' and 'Tannhäuser.'

C

Berlioz's overture, Benvenuto Cellini,' and a pastoral chorus, "L'Adieu des Bergers à la Sainte Famille," from his oratorio, L'Enfance du Christ,' were agreeable precursors of the Wagnerian gleanings from 'Der Meistersinger von Nürnburg,' Lohengrin,' 'Der Fliegende Holländer,' and Tristan und Isolde,' with the Kaisermarsch as a wind up. There were two encores, to which really no objection could be raised, for very charming instrumental introductions to the third acts of the Meistersinger' and 'Lohengrin.' The SpinningWheel chorus, from the 'Flying Dutchman,' was taken much too slowly.

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Musical Gossip.

THE débuts of two artists of foreign fame are announced that of Madame Essipoff, at the fifth New Philharmonic Concert, this afternoon (the 16th), when the lady will play Herr Rubinstein's Fourth Pianoforte Concerto in D minor; and that of the Spanish violinist, Señor Sarasate, who will introduce a concerto by Lalo at the fourth concert of the Philharmonic Society, on the 18th inst.

THE State Visit of the Czar, with various members of the Royal Family, to the Crystal Palace, will be made this afternoon (Saturday), when a monster concert, at which eleven military bands and 2,500 choralists will perform, is to be given, with Mdlle. Tietjens, Madame Patey, Messrs. Lloyd and Santley, as principal singers. Next Monday, the Emperor of Russia will be present at a concert in the Royal Albert Hall, under the direction of Mr. Barnby.

In addition to the concerts specified above, there will be, next week, the Pianoforte Recitals of Herr Pauer and Herr Halle; an Italian Opera programme on the 20th by the leading Drury Lane artists; and Miss Steele's annual evening concert.

SIGNOR CAMPANINI has arrived from New York,

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