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their numerous éénéres, and witļu the nerves of of organic life, or solar plexus The roots of here the whole body, they are sometimes called the nerves are in the cerebellum, the seat of motion, Great Sympathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vege- a receptacle of life. Now, we see why intensity table Life. There are three orders of these of thought, carking cares, &c., impede respiration Nerves: one going to the blood vessels and other and infringe on the laws of health, for want of the parts of the vascular system; one to the contrac- proper co-operation with the nerves of organic ule tissues or muscles of involuntary motion : life; inducing dyspepsia, and even consumption, and ose to the nerves of organic sensation, con- hence, the painful mode of teaching children to veyır.3 the impressions made on the organs. read by a book: away with this false system, va
less you would inhumanly sacrifice the rising generation on the altar of evil; let the ear, or righ. feeling predominate : please work out the whole; for you can do it: a hint is sufficient for those wbo think.
6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, (ur.ginating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an extension of the Cerebellum, (b) or seat of Voluntary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a) or seat of Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (c) that goes to the Diaphragm ((,) and is concerned in the office of breathing, which generally acts without the aid of the Will; but yet is controllable by the Will, to a certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, long or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Aceessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in respiration ; one of its fellow roots goes to the tungue (d,) and is concerned in mastication, swallowing, speaking, &c. (Some nerves are thrown back, the better to be seen.) Next in order is the 7. Here is an excellent representation or the pneuinosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (f: Nerves of Voluntary Motion, and of Sense, which, g, h,) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, la- with the nerves of Organic Life, and the Respira. rynx and wind-pipe, (,) aiso to the cardiac, or tory Nerves, constitute the inmosis of the body; heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right also, a posterior, or back view, of the two brains. of (g); a recurrent branch goes to the larynix, &c.; which is the seat of the Mind, the constituents of other branches go to the face to exhibit the feelings. which, are Will and Understanding. The letter All interweave, and bring the vocal organs intoc, indicates the cerebruin, or large brain, where mportant relations with the heart and lungs, with the Understanding, Rationality, or thought is lo feelings and thoughts; while the main body goes cated; and cr, the cerebellum, or Little brain, oue stomach, and unites with the great contre l under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the
ncr.zontal black line is: here is the seat of the 9. We now descend to the hard parts of the Wil, Affections, Passions or Emotions; also the body, which have the least of life in them. This seat of the Motive power of the body; and from is a very correct representation of the Osseous these proceed the spinal marrow, (me,) enveloped system, or the bony paris which may be apuy in three different membranes, lying in the hollow of the back bone, and branching off by thirty pairs of spinal nerves into a great many ramifications over every part of the body; pb, the brachial plexus, a reunion or assemblage of the different nerves distributed to the arms, or upper extremities; and ps, the plexus, or folds of nerves, that form the great sciatic nerves, descending to the legs, or lower extremities. From the spinal marrow, the nerves arise by two sets, or bundles of roots; the front (anterior,) one serving for motion, and the back (posterior,) are the nerves of feeling, or sensibility. Now, in all voluntary actions of the body, whether reading, speaking, singing, or working, there should be a perfect harmony and co-operation of the Organic Nerves, Respiratory Nerves, and Molary Nerves; hence, the volunary effort must be made from the abdomen, where is the great centre of Organic Nerves, in connection with those of Respiration.
8. Here is a striking view of the Muscuiar, or fleshy portions, that form the medium of communication between the Nerves and the Bones: there are several hundreds, acting on the bones like ropes on the masts of ships: let them be trained in perfect subjection 10 the Sou.,
called the basis, or foundation, of the splendid through ths
temple we live in; which is three stories high; Mund; so than
viz. the cavity below the diaphragm, the one above whalever 18
it, and the skull. Examine, minutely, each part, felt & thought,
the situation and attachment of the different bones may be bodied
of the head, the five short ribs, and the seven long forth to the life.
ones, the breast-bone, &c. In a complete human Now let us put
frame, there are 250 bones: they afford us the these three
means of locomotion. Do you see any analogy
between the body and language ? systems, the Nerves, Mus.
10. ZOOLOGY-(the doctrine or science of life,) cles and
is a necessary element of education. Whose cuBones, togeth
riosity has not been excited by the innumerable er, and con
living beings, and things, with which we are sur
rounded? Is it not desirable to scrutinize their jernplate the whole as
interiors, and see how they are made, and underunit, bound up
stand their various uses? Look at a man, a fish, in the skin,
a spider, an oyster, a plant, a stone; observe their
differences, in many respects, and their similar and acting in
ties in others: they all have essence, form, use. obedience to its rightful owner, the Mind; while The tendency of the study of the three kingdoms that mind 18 subserviert to the Creator of mind. lof nature, the Animal, Vegetable, and Mineral,
is to emancipate the human mind from the darkmess and slavery of ignorance, into the light and *iberty of rational humanity. The things of the Animal kingdom live, and move from an interior power; those of the Vegetable kingdom grow; and those of the Mineral kingdom do not live or grow; they simply exist. 11. Three objects are designed by this engrawing: first, to show the body, clothed in its own beautiful envelop, the skin, which is the contizent of our most wonderful piece of Mechanism: second, to call attention to the fact, that it is full cf pores, or little holes, through which passes out
ble perspiration, which is indicated by the cloudy mist, emanating from every part of the surface; and as our bodies wear out, by degrees, and are renewed every seven years, and the skin being the principal evacuating medium for the worn-out particles of the system; the great importance of keeping it in a clean, and consequent healthy condition, by daily washing in soft cold water, must be evident to every one of reflection, it being the safety-valve of the body: and thirdly, to indicate a higher truth, that of the passing off of a subtle and invisible fluid from the mind, in accordance with its state; which is often perceived when certain persons are present; also when powerful speakers are pouring forth their highly wrought affections, and brilliant thoughts; so as wo give the mind a kind of ubiquity, co-extensive with their tones and audible words, ruling immense audiences with absolute sway, and demonstrating the power of truth and eloquence. Animals and Plants increase by nutrition: Minerals by accretion. In infancy, we weigh but a few pounds: at adult age, we exceed one hundred pounds. Whence, but from foreign substances, are the materials of which our organs are composed? In sickness, extreme emaciation proves that our bodies may lose a portion of their bulk, and give back to the world what was once its own. Thus, composition and decomposition,
constituting the nutritive funct or of wh:eh living bodies are the centre, are revealed to us by evidences too plain to be misunderstood: may we have power to appreciate them, being assured that all truths are in perfect harmony with each other. 12. Here is a representation of the Human Form clothed and engaged in some of the uses of Elocution. But it is necessary to enter more
into the particulars of our subject; which is $ons in the succeeding parts of this introduction: however, let the reader bear in mind, that only the out. lines of subjects are given in the book, designed for such as are determined to dig for truth and eternal principles, as for hidden treasures; whose motto is “Press On.” Animals and Plants endure for a time, and under specific forms, by making the external world a part of their own being; i.e. they have the power imparted to them of self-nourishment, and when this outward supply ceases they die, having completed their term of duration: hence, death, to material existences, is a necessary corsequence of life. Not so with minerals: they exist so long as external forces do not destroy them : and if they increase, it is simply by the juxtaposition of other bodies; and if they diminish, it is by the action of a force, or power, from without. Has not every thing its circle? How interesting must be the history of all things, animate and inanimate! Oh that we had eyes to see, and ears to hear, every thing that is manifested around us, within us, and above us! 13. If we would have the Mind act on the Body, and the Body react on the Mind, in an or.
deriy, and, consequently, beneficial manner, it is rience the dreadful consequences. Observe, all necessary that the body be in a natural and up the short ribs, from the lower end of the brezst right position. The following engraving repre-bone, are unnaturally cramped inwardly toward sents the Thorax, or Chest, which contains the
the spine, so that Heart and Lungs; and reason teaches, that no or
the liver, stomach, gans should be in the least infringed upon, either
and other digestive by compressions, or by sitting in a bent position. The Lungs are reservoirs for the air, out of which
organs in that vici we make sounds, by condensation. All are fami
nity, are pressed liar with the hand-bellows: observe the striking
into such a small analogy between it and the body, in the act of
compass, that thrir speaking, singing and blowing. The wind-pipe is
funcions are greatke its nosle, the lungs like the sides, and the ab
ly interrupted, and dominal and dorsal muscles, like its handles; of
all the vessels, course, to blow with ease and power, one must bones and viscera are more or less distorted and take hold of the handles: to speak and sing right, enfeebled. Cease to do evil, and learn to do well. the lower muscles must be used; for there is only one right way of doing anything.
17. This engraving,
of a bell-shaped glass, Larynx, ....
C, C, shows how the Wind-pipe, ...
air gets into the lungs,
and some of its effects. Collar bone, ..
A head is placed on Bronchia,
the cork, T, represent
ing the wind-pipe, and Heart & Lungs,
having a hole through
Cit. L, represents a 7 Long Ribs, ..
bladder, tied to the Diaphragm,
lower end of the cork,
to indicate a lung. At 5 Short Ribs,
D, is seen the diaDorsal and
phragm. The cavity Abdominal
of the bell represents
the inside of the thorax, where the heart and lunye Muscles...
are: there is no communication with the external 14. This is a view of a well developed and air, except through the hole in the cork; air, en naturally proportioned chest; with space for the tering through that hole, can go only into the blad. Lungs, the short ribs thrown outwardly, affording der. Now, when the centre of the diaphragm is ample room for the free action of the organs: it is raised to D, the bladder will be flaccid and devoid the true model of the form of one who would live of air; but when it is dropped, to the situation of to a good old age.
the dotted line, a tendency to a vacuum will be 15. Tight Dressing. No one can enjoy good the consequence, which can be supplied with air, health, or perform any kind of labor with ease, or only through the hole in the cork; the air expandread, speak, or sing, when the thorax is habitual- ing the bladder to its full extent, is shown by the ly compressed. It diminishes the capacity of the dotted circle, around L; and when the diaphragm lungs, for receiving the necessary quantity of air
is elevated again, the air will be forced from the io purify the blood, and prevents the proper action bladder; thus, the lungs are inflated and exhausof the diaphragm. The following engraving shows ted by this alternate operation of the diaphragm, the alarming condition of the chest, when com
and of the contraction and elongation of the abpressed by tight lacing; a practice that has hur-dorninal muscles ; hence, the comparison between ried, and is now hurrying, hundreds of thousands the vocal organs proper, and a pair of bellows, is 10 a premature grave; besides entailing upon the
distinctly seen. offspring an accumulation of evils, too awful to
MUSCULAR ACTION. These coctemplate. What is the difference between
two engravings represent some killing one's self in five minutes with a razor, and
muscular fibres in two states: doing it in five years by tight lacing, or any other
the upper one at rest, with a rebad habit? Our clothing should never be so tight laxed nervous filament ramified through the fibres, as to prevent the air from coming between it and as seen under the microscope ; and the lower one in the body.
a state of contraction, and the fi16. Here follows an outline of the chest, or
bres in zigzag lines, with a simithorax of a female, showing the condition of the
lar nervous filament passing over bones of the body, as they appear after death, in
them: apply the principle to all every one who has habitually worn stays and muscles. The subject might be greatly extended; corsets, enforced by tight lacing. But,' says one, but for further information, see the Author's large
I do not lace too tight. If you lace at all, you work on Physiology and Psychology, which will most certainly do, and will, sooner or later, expe- be published as soon as convenient.
18. Here is a representation of the Air Cells 51 the Lungs, laud open and highly magnified. The body is formed by Blood, which consists of the nutritious portions o of our food, and is in the form of very small globales, or little round balls: a
representation of which is here presented as seen through a microscope, magnified one thousand times. O Every three or four minutes, as a general rule, the blood flows thro'out the whole body; and, of course, through the lungs, where it undergoes a purification: hence may be seen the importance of an upright position, and perfect inflation of the lungs; no one can live out his days without them. 19. Here are two attitudes, sitting, and standing, passive and active. Beware of too much
stiffiness, and too much laxity, of the muscles; be natural and easy. Avoid leaning backwards or forwards, to the right or left: and especially, of resting your head on your hand, with the elbow on something else: by which practice, many have caused a projection of one shoulder, induced spinal affections, &c. Beware of every thing that is improper: such as trying how much you can list with one hand, &c.
20. Here follows a representation of the position of the diaphragm, and illustrations of its actions, in exhaling and inhaling. Figure 1, in the left engraving, represents the diaphragm in its greatest descent, when we draw in our breath : 2, muscles of the abdomen, when protruded to their full extent, in inhaling: 1, in the right engraving, the diaphragm in its greatest ascent in expiration: 2, "he muscles of the abdomen in action, sorcing the
and wholly fill up the cavity of the chest: every one has two hearts, for the two different kinds of | blood, and each heart has two rooms: a, right auricle, that receives all the blood from every part of the body, through the vena cava, or large vein, which is made up of the small veins, e, e, e, e, e, it thence passes into the right ventricle, i, thence into both lungs, where it is purified; after which it passes into the left auricle, and left ventricle, then into the aorta, o, and the carotid and subclavian arteries (u, and v,) to every part of the body * returning every three or four minutes.