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would never write without that." The first glass put him in a train of thinking; Aitken feared the second would disqualify him, or render him untractable; but it only illuminated his intellectual system; and when he had swallowed the third glass, he wrote with great rapidity, intelligence, and precision; and his ideas appeared to flow faster than he could commit them to paper. What he penned from the inspiration of the brandy, was perfectly fit for the press without any alteration, or correction.'


A public journal was printed in the German language at Germantown, as early as the summer of 1739, by Christopher Sower. The title of it in English, was,

The Pennsylvania German Recorder of Events.3

At first this paper was printed quarterly, at three shillings per annum; it was afterward published monthly, and con

Aitken was a man of truth, and of an irreproachable character. This anecdote came from him some years before his death. Paine, when he edited the Magazine for Aitken, was suspected of toryism.

* This person was a native of Germany, born 1793, and immigrated 1724. He wrote his name Saur (pronounced sour), for which reason, it is probable, his son altered the orthography of his own name to Sower. For a particular description of Saur and his enterprises, Simpson's Eminent Philadelphians, 902; Printer's Circular, VII, 356; O'Callaghan's List of American Bibles, passim. —M.

This paper was entitled Der Hoch-Deutsch Pennsylvanische Geschict. Schreiber, oder Sammlung wichtiger Nachrichten aus dem Natür-ünd KirchenReich, signifying in English, the High-Dutch Pennsylvania Historiographer, or collection of Impartial Intelligence from the Kingdoms of Nature and the Church. Saur designed it to serve as a journal for the sect of Tunkers, with whom he was identified, and at first published it only occasionally on one side of a sheet for gratuitous distribution. It took a more definite form in 1736, as a folio, 9 by 13 inches. See Printer's Circular, vII, 356.-M.

tinued for several years. This was, undoubtedly, the first newspaper printed in the German language in America.

Germantanner Zeitung (Germantown Gazette).

This Gazette was printed by Christopher Sower, jun., and, probably, as a substitute for the Germantown Recorder, which had been published by his father. It was a weekly paper, and commenced about 1744. As an appendage to it, Sower for some time published, every fortnight, a small magazine of eight 8vo. pages, containing, chiefly, moral and religious essays; with which, it is said, he, for some time, supplied his newspaper customers gratis. It was entitled Ein Geistliches Magazin.' The Zeitung was continued until the troubles occasioned by the revolutionary war obliged the publisher to drop it. It had an extensive circulation among the Germans settled in Pennsylvania. Its publication was continued till 1748.


A newspaper in the English and German languages was published in Lancaster, by Miller and Holland, in January, 1751. What the title of it was I cannot learn, nor the time at which it was discontinued.

Francis Bailey, it is said, published a paper in English soon after the beginning of the war, but this fact is doubted by some. He afterwards removed to Philadelphia, in 1778, and there published the Freeman's Journal.

1 For a more correct account of this work see Simpson's Eminent Philadelphians, 903-4, note.-M.


The district of country which composes the state of Delaware, was, previously to the revolution, distinguished as "The Counties of Newcastle, Kent, and Sussex, on Delaware."


The first and only newspaper published before 1775, in what is now the state of Delaware, made its appearance in Wilmington about the year 1762, entitled, if my information is correct, The Wilmington Courant, printed and published by James Adams, for the short period of six months; when, for want of encouragement, it was discontinued. About the year 1787, Adams commenced the publication of another paper, entitled The Wilmington Courant. Its continuance was only two or three years.


A newspaper was published at Annapolis, in this colony, as early as 1728. Three papers only had been printed before the revolutionary war, and two of them were published when it commenced.

The Maryland Gazette.

I cannot determine the exact time when this paper was first introduced to the public; but the best information I can obtain dates its origin from 1727. I have ascertained that it was published in June, 1728, by the following record of the vestry of the parish church in Annapolis, dated in June, 1728, directing "the register of the vestry to apply to the printer to have an advertisement inserted in the Maryland Gazette;" and, by a subsequent record of an account" rendered by the Printer for publishing an advertisement in the Gazette, and printing hand-bills." These and other facts indicate that it was established the previous year; and I have reason to believe that it was published irregularly until 1736. I have seen extracts from it dated in August, 1729.

It was printed by William Parks.

The Maryland Gazette.

This was the second newspaper published in the colony. The first had been discontinued about nine years, when the

second of the same title came before the public in April, 1745, printed by Jonas Green. It was published weekly, on Thursday, on paper of foolscap size, folio, but it was enlarged, some years after, to a crown sheet. The typographical features of this Gazette were equal to those of any paper then printed on the continent. It has been regularly and uniformly published from 1745, to the present time (1810), with the exception of a short suspension in 1765, on account of the stamp act; and there is only one paper printed in the United States which is of prior date.

After it had been published several years, the imprint was as follows: "Annapolis: Printed by Jonas Green, at his Printing-Office in Charles-Street; where all persons may be supplied with this Gazette, at 12/6. a year; and Advertisements of a moderate Length are inserted for 5s. the First Week, and 1s. each Time after: And long ones in Proportion."

When the publication of this Gazette was suspended on account of the stamp act in 1765, its printer occasionally issued a paper called The Apparition of the Maryland Gazette, which is not Dead but Sleepeth. At one corner of the sheet of The Apparition was, as a substitute for a stamp, the figure of a death's head, about which the words following were thus arranged:

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The publication of The Maryland Gazette was resumed January 30th, 1766, and it was printed until 1767; completing a period of twenty-two years by Green, the first publisher. From April 1767 to December of that year, it was issued from the press by his widow, Anne Catharine

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