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The third newspaper which appeared in New IIampshire, was issued from the press in Exeter, near the close of the year 1775, and published, irregularly, by Robert Fowle, under various titles, in 1776 and part of 1777,
until discontinued. It was printed on a large type, small paper,
, and often on half a sheet. It was first entitled, A NewHampshire Gazette, afterwards The New Hampshire Gazette ; The New Hampshire Gazette, or Eceter Morning Chronicle ; The New Hampshire [State] Gazette, or, E.ceter Circulating Morning Chronicle; The State Journal, or The New Hampshire Gazette and Tuesday's Liberty Advertiser. These and other alterations, with changes of the day of publication, took place within one year. It was published, generally, without an imprint. In the last alteration of the title, a large cut, coarsely engraved, was introduced; it was a copy of that which had for several years been used in The Pennsylvania Journal, and the same which Rogers, some time before, had introduced into the Salem Gazette and Advertiser.
Several other newspapers since 1777, have had a beginning and ending in Exeter.
See account of The Pennsylvania Journal, Salem Gazette, &c.
When treating of the introduction of printing into New York, I should have mentioned, that in 1668, Governor Lovelace was desirous of having a press established in that province; and it appears by a record made at the time, that he sent to Boston to procure a printer, but did not succeed in his application. In 1686, among other articles of instruction sent by King James to Governor Dongan, one was, that he should “allow no printing press in the province.” And, consequently, the pamphlets which appeared in the famous dispute respecting the unfortunate colonel Leisler, in 1689 and 1690, are supposed to have been printed in Boston. See Appendix H.
The first newspaper published in the city was printed by William Bradford. It made its appearance October 16, 1725, and was entited,
This paper was published weekly, on Monday. I have a few numbers of this Gazette, published in 1736. They are printed on a foolscap sheet, from a type of the size of english, much worn. In the title are two cuts, badly executed; the one on the left is the arms of New York, supported by an Indian on each side; the crest is a crown. The cut on the right is a postman, on an animal somewhat resembling a horse, on full speed. The imprint, “Printed and Sold by William Bradford, in New York.
Bradford was near seventy years of age when he began the publication of the Gazette; he continued to publish it about sixteen years, and then retired from business. James Parker began The New York Gazette anew in January, 1742-3.
This was the second newspaper established in the province; it made its appearance November 5. 1733. The Journal was of the small size usually printed at that time, that is foolscap; generally a whole sheet, printed chiefly on pica. It was published every “ Munday.” Imprint, “New York: Printed and Sold by John Peter Zenger: By whom Subscriptions for this Paper are taken in at Three Shillings per Quarter.”
The Journal was established for a political purpose. For three years it was in a state of warfare with the administration of Governor Crosby, and his successor Lieutenant
* Zenger, by some mistake, dated his first paper October 5, 1733, instead of November 5. In the account of his trial, he mentions that he began the Journal Nov. 5, 1733, and so it appears from the numbers. No. 2 is dated November 12, 1733.- Munday, was so spelled by Zenger, and others at that time.
Governor Clarke. It was supposed to be published under the patronage of the Honorable Rip Van Dam, who had been president of the council, and opposed the governor and his successor.
The New York Gazette, printed by Bradford, was then under the control of the governor.
Newspapers were not at that time burthened with advertisements. I have seen several numbers printed after the paper had been established seven or eight years, with only one or two advertisements. It was well printed. Zenger appears to have understood his business, and to have been a scholar, but he was not correct in the English language, especially in orthography.
On Sunday, the 17th of November, 1734, Zenger was arrested and imprisoned by virtue of a warrant from the governor and council,“ for printing and publishing several seditious libels,” in the New York Weekly Journal, viz: in Numbers 7, 47, 48 and 49. The governor and council by message requested the concurrence of the house of representatives in prosecuting Zenger, and a committee of conference on the subject was chosen by the house and by the council. The house finally ordered the request of the governor and council to lie on the table, and would not
The governor and council then ordered the mayor and magistrates, at their quarter session in November, 1734, to attend to the “burning by the common hangman, or whipper, near the pillory, the libellous papers.” The mayor's court would not attend to the order; the papers were therefore burnt by the order of the governor, not by the hangman or whipper, who were officers of the corporation, but by the sheriff's servant. At the next term of the supreme court, the grand jury found the presentment against Zenger ignoramus. The attorney general was then directed to file an information against him for printing the said libels, and he remained in prison until another term. His counsel offered exceptions to the commissions of the judges, and prayed to have them filed. The judges would not allow, or even hear the exceptions, and they excluded Zenger's counsel, Mr. Alexander and Mr. Smith, from the bar. Zenger obtained other counsel, viz: Mr. John Chambers, of New York, and Andrew Hamilton, Esq., of Philadelphia. Mr. Hamilton made the journey from Philadelphia to New York for the sole purpose of defending Zenger. Zenger being put to trial pleaded not guilty. The printing and publishing the papers were acknowledged by Zenger’s counsel, who offered to give the truth in evidence. This the court would not admit. Mr. Ilamilton argued the cause in a most able manner, before the court and a numerous and respectable assemblage of people. The judges observed, that the jury might find that Zenger printed and published the papers in question, and leave it to the court to determine whether they were libellous. Jr. Hamilton remarked, that they might do so, but they had a right, beyond all dispute, to judge of the law as well as the fact, &c. The jury having retired a short time, returned with a verdict, not guilty, to the great mortification of the court, and of all Zenger's prosecutors; but which was received by the audience with loud bursts of applause, concluding with three cheers. The next day Zenger was released from prison, after having been confined eight months,
At the common council of the city of New York, holden on the 29th of September following, the mayor, aldermen and assistants, presented Mr. IIamilton with the freedom of the city, and the thanks of the corporation expressed in the following manner.
City of New York, ss.: Paul Richards, Esq., Vayor, the Recorder, Aldermen, and Assistants of the City of New York, conveneil in Common Council, to all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting. Whereas, Ilonour is the just Reward of Virtue, and publiek Benefits demand