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With the high price of labor that than encounter the moral degradations exists in the United States—with our of a life of vice and infamy, there is scanty supply of moneyed capital- no necessity for legislative attentionwith our unlimited range of unculti- no scope for the exercise of philanvated or half-improved soil—it is almost thropy-no occasion for enlightened a crime against society to divert hu- reform. Such is the argument of a man industry from the fields and the certain class of economists, who have forests to iron forges and cotton factor- never troubled their heads about a sciies. Nature has pointed out the course entific investigation of the matter, but which we ought to pursue for perhaps who, for political objects, or through half a century to come, till the plough interested motives, have preferred to and the spade have followed the axe remain in the dark, rather than be enof the wood-cutter into their “prime- lightened, for fear that the truth would val wilderness of shade," and till hap- militate against their advancement as py plantations shall have been formed politicians, or take money out of their on the deserted domains of the Indian pockets as editors of newspapers, or huntsman from the Atlantic to the as parties protected by the restrictive Ohio, and from the Mississippi to the duties. Pacific. She has directed us to cling To say that these hapless victims of to the bosom of mother Earth, as to the man's cupidity, confined within the most fertile source of wealth, and the dungeon-walls of factories, are to be most abundant reward of labor. She excluded from legislative protection on has told us to remain planters, farmers, account of that beautiful spirit of resigand wood-cutters—to extend society nation which carries them through the and cultivation to new regions—to fiery ordeal without one audible murpractise and improve the arts of the mur of discontent, is the same as saying builder, the carpenter, and the naval that a man who had been accustomed architect-to facilitate every means of to eat but one meal in twenty-four hours internal communication-io promote without repining, was not entitled to every branch of internal trade--to en- two; or that the very negro whose courage every variety of landed pro- emancipation is so loudly cried for, was duce, but noi to waste the energies of altogether unworthy of the boon of our labor; or to interrupt the course of freedom, because he had been guilty of our prosperity, by forcing at home the forbearance in not turning upon and manufacture of articles which foreign- murdering his master. This would be ers could supply at half the price for a refinement upon cruelty worthy of the which they could be made in Ame- darkest ages of error and feudalism. rica.
We have no desire to exaggerate the During a recent visit we made to existence of these evils:-we are well Lowell, Nashua, and other manufac- aware that in point of humane treatturing districts of New England, we ment, rate of wages, and moral restrichad an opportunity of ascertaining the tions, our factory system is far superior true condition of the laboring classes to that which is the shame and degraboth as to the severity of their toil, and dation of England:-we are also willing their frequent liability to destitution to acknowledge that there are occasionfrom irregularity of work. Superficial ally startling instances of prosperity and or interested observers, the advocates happiness growing out of early initiaof a protective tariff and the favorers tion into these dens of toil and trouble: of commercial restrictions, would fain but it does not require a great deal of persuade you, that the indwellers of penetration to perceive that, notwithihese gloomy piles of brick and mortar standing these negative advantages, the are contented, cheerful, and well-pro- principles of WHITE SLAvery are gradvided that they have no wish beyond ually taking root in the very midst of us. the immediate means of gratification The multitude of defective beings, with --that because the wail of lamentation sallow complexions, emaciated forms, is not heard, there is consequently no and stooping shoulders—with premacause of distress-that because thou ture wrinkles and furtive glances, that sands of destitute females passively are to be met at all our manufacturing submit to all the horrors and privations places, tell of misery and degradation of the factory system, under the present in language not to be mistaken. existing restrictions upon trade, rather The doctrine, that there are in the
United States a vast number of persons tained in these few sentences; for the who cannot procure employment, has existence of such a nation, importing long been a favorite one with the re- commodities from a distance which it strictive party. If there be, however, could make as cheap, or cheaper, at any truth in the position, they may home, may fairly be questioned. Nor thank their own policy for it. Restrict. is the introduction of any manufacture ive laws, as we have already observed, to a position which nature has rendered retard the accumulation of capital; and peculiarly favorable to it, beyond the as capital is the only source of affording power of a private individual, or, at employment 10 laborers, it is manifest least, a body of individuals :-witness, that any measure which diminishes the for instance, the establishment of manratio of accumulation, must have the ufactures in New South Wales, in coneffect of throwing people out of employ- sequence of the discovery of coal in that ment. Toattempt to cure such an evil, colony; and that by individuals, who therefore, by further restrictions, would never thought of calling on the nation only be making the matter worse; and to defray the cost. would be as silly, as if the quack, who But it would not be very easy to count had brought his patient to death's door the expense to which the forced esiaby debility from bleeding, should insist blishment of any manufacture would upon it that the way to cure him would pui a nation. Let us suppose, that in be to apply the lancet again.
order to encourage the manufacture of There is a class of writers, who, of stockings, cur government should place late years, have undertaken a crusade a high duty on their importation. Now, against Adam Smith and his followers, every purchaser loses the difference averring that the modern school of po- between the American and the English litical economy is based on erroneous prices; but the manufacturer does not principles, that the system of protect- gain that amount, because the cost of ive duties established by our ancestors production is greater to him than to the was the consummation of human wis- Englishman. The purchaser also loses dom,--and that it is not merely the in the inferiority of the article supplied; right, but the duty, of a state to deter- for forced manufactures, protected by mine in what channels capital should monopoly, are not only dear, but bad, flow, and toward what objects industry as was proved within our own memory should be directed. The principal ar- by the English silk trade. The governguments adduced in favor of this anti- ment must lose, by the necessity of emquated theory are these: First, that ploying means to prevent smuggling. a nation imports from a distance a ma. And finally, the improvement that is to nufactured commodity which it could remunerate all these losses is at best make as cheap, or cheaper, at home, problematical; for no manufactory were the manufacture introduced there. protected by a monopoly has ever yet Secondly, that as the introduction of improved. Protection and monopolies such manufacture would be too expen- are not only evils, but they are evils sive a project to be carried into effect that love to perpetuate ihemselves. by any private individual, the whole To establish them is easy enough; but society might do so, through the expen- to remove them has been the most diture for a few years of a portion of its difficult task that modern staiesmen revenue, much less than what an equal have had to encounter. number of years succeeding them will Again--the supposition that those return to it in the diminished cost of the who legislate for the society embrace article. Thirdly, that he, or they, who the apparent benefit, &c., is a rash and legislate for the society, embrace the daring assumption, contradicted by apparent benefit, and by means of a daily experience. The legislator, in small expenditure, effect an increase of the first place, does not increase the the productive powers of the communi- productive powers of the community; ty. Fourthly, that in this the legislator he only gives them a new direction. acts in a manner that would be ac- If the manufactory be one less suited to counted prudence in a private person, his own country than that in which the who conducted any system of industry manufacture was previously establishfor his own emolument.
ed, he gives them a wasteful direction. Now, the whole fallacy of those who The article must, in the first instance, sup} .t the restrictive system, is con- confessedly be produced at a greater
expense; and that expense operates as one request that manufacturers of any a tax on the productive powers of the country should make to their governnation, by checking the production of ment: it is that which was addressed articles to exchange with the foreign to Colbert—“LAISSEZ NOUS FAIRE." manufacturing country. There is but
ANECDOTES OF GENERAL JACKSON.
BY AMOS KENDALL.*
PUBLIC men often suffer great wrong during his Presidency was decidedly in reference as well to their pri- devout; that no man could be more vate as their public character and con. kind and indulgent in all his private reduct, from the misrepresentations of lations; and that if he be censurable their political adversaries, frequently on this score, it is for too much forbearaggravated by personal animosities. ance. With what pain he found himIndividuals of a party who mean to be self compelled to give up his favorable honest, and would not in word or opinion of old friends, and with what tethought intentionally do injustice to a nacity he clung to them, in many cases, human being, often believe, with a too after everybody else pronounced them ready credulity, the assertions of party venal and treacherous, was witnessed by presses, political leaders and personal those who were intimate with him enemies, thereby becoming accom- during his administration. But withplices in the infliction of injuries at out touching at present upon anything which their own consciences, if proper- connected with his political course, I ly instructed, would revolt with hor- propose to give in the present and in
some succeeding papers a few authenThe opinions imbibed by a large por- tic anecdotes which will tend to cortion of mankind in reference to the rect the erroneous opinions entertained temper and conduct of General Jack- by many as to his religious impresson in his personal relations, furnish a sions and imputed violence of temper. striking illustration of these iruths. Those who sat down with General Multitudes there are, both in the Uni. Jackson at his private table to break ted States and other countries, who, bread, know with what fervor he unihaving received their impressions with formly invoked the blessings of Heaout due consideration, from presses and ven upon the repast provided by its persons opposed to him, believe that bounty. A stranger could not witness distinguished man to be reckless of re- the scene without according to the venligious faith, if not of moral obligation, erable man before him, who thus ferocious in temper, and in all the re- bowed his grey head in humble suplations of life a iyrant. Such individ- plication to the Giver of all good, uals will learn with astonishment, that a heart sincerely religious. this picture is all the reverse of truth; All will remember, that toward the that the tone of Gen. Jackson's mind close of his administration the General
It is generally known to the friends of Gen. Jackson, that he has committed all his papers, &c., to the hands of Mr. Kendall, from whose able hand a Biography worthy of the subject may be expected at no very distant day. In the mean time, the readers of the Democratic Review will have the benefit of some portions of these authentic materials, for the illustration of some of the most interesting passages in the life of the good and great old man.--ED. D. R.
was attacked by a bleeding at the this,” taking a miniature from his lungs which threatened to be fatal. bosom. Nor will it be forgotten, that some of On another occasion, calling upon the party presses attributed this attack him on some urgent business, I was into a violent fit of passion, in the pa- vited into his bed-chamber. I found him roxysms of which they said he had too ill to sit up. The curtains in front ruptured a blood-vessel. What a con- of his bed were open, and he lay with trast the real scene presented, I had an his head somewhat elevated on a full opportunity to learn from the mouth of pillow. Opposite the foot of his bed, an eye-witness. The cruel fabrication nearly touching the post, stood a little had reached the members of the Presi- table, and on it was the miniature of dent's family, and from the lips of Mrs. Mrs. Jackson leaning against a small Jackson, the lady of the General's Bible and a Prayer Book which had adopted son, rendered unusually elo- been hers. It was evidently so placed quent by the indignation which lighted that he might, as he lay, gaze upon the up her beautiful face, I heard the fol shadow of those loved features which lowing narrative:
had enraptured his youthful heart, and “Father,” said she,“ is in the habit, contemplate those virtues which, in old every night before he goes to bed, of age, and even death, rendered them calling me in to read to him a chapter dear to the bosom of the hero and in the Bible. On that night, having statesman beyond any other earthly finished his business, he called me in to object. perform that service. I read to him as I was not then so thoroughly acusual, and having finished the chapter, quainted with Gen. Jackson as I afterreceived from him an affectionate ward became; but on witnessing this good-night and retired to my bed- scene, I said to myself, this must be a chamber, which was in an adjoining good man. None other could enterroom. He then called the servant who tain so deep, so abiding an affection usually attended on him in his cham- for a departed companion, however ber, and was undressing. Suddenly he cherished while living, Love like this called me, and entering the room I is all good, all heavenly, all divine, as found him bleeding at the mouth. nearly as anything on earth possibly What produced the attack I know not; can be; it cannot dwell in a bad heart; but certain it is, that so far from in- it cannot assimilate with a perverted dulging in any outbreaks of temper, mind. his mind was calm and devotional, I had never seen Mrs. Jackson; but seeking to close the business of the day from that moment I pronounced her a by communion with heaven.
superior woman. None but a woman The practice of reading or listening of surpassing virtues could so fix the to a chapter of Holy Writ and sending affections of such a man. None other up fervent aspirations to Heaven every could maintain such a hold on such a night before he retired to rest, Gen. mind, amidst the enjoyment of glory, Jackson brought with him into the the gratification of ambition, the cares Presidency. No man had a deeper of state, and never-ceasing excitements sense of dependence on the Giver of all sufficient to overpower and swallow good, or a more sincere and earnest up the kindly affections of ordinary desire to avail himself of the wisdom men. None other could occupy, in which comes from on high, in the dis- life and in death, so broad a space in charge of his arduous duties. But it the remembrance and affections of one cannot be doubted, that in his devo- who in devotion to his country never tional fervor there was mingled a holy had a superior. And I could not but and never dying affection for his de- regret, that she had not lived, not so parted wife, whose presence was, in much to enjoy a signal triumph over his susceptible imagination, as neces- her own and her husband's traducers, sary an incident of Heaven as that of as to comfort, advise, and sustain her the angels.
devoted companion in the midst of nevA portrait of this dearest object of er-ceasing toils and vexations, the hearthis earthly affections hung in his cham- lessness of false friends, and the asber. “Is that a good likeness ?” said saults of unrelenting enemies. a lady to him in my presence. "Pret Who that visited the President's ty good," said he, “but not so good as House during General Jackson's ad
ministration does not remember Jemmy suitable person should be entrusted O'Neal, the Irish doorkeeper? Jemmy with that duty. “ Well, well,” said was kind-hearted, but blunt in his the General, we cannot bear it any manner; so much so on some occa- longer; tell Jemmy he must find a sions as to appear rude if not insult- home elsewhere." ing. Often one might ring the bell Again and again I called, and Jemtime after time, and no Jemmy make my still presented his rubicund face at his appearance. There was a particu- the door, often in a plight not befitting lar cause for Jemmy's apparent rude. his station. “How is this,” said I one ness and occasional absence.
day to Major Donelson, “I heard the Calling one day, upon business, I General tell you that Jemmy must be rang the bell repeatedly, but no door- discharged.” Yes,” said the Major, keeper appeared. As I had done before “and that was the third time I had reunder like circumstances, I opened the ceived such an order; but on each ocdoor and walked up stairs to the Presi- casion Jemmy waited on the General dent's office. There I found the Gen- in person, was exceedingly sorry for eral and Major Donelson. Presently the his fault, shed tears of repentance in bell rang again, again, and again. abundance, promised to behave better in “Where can Jemmy be!" said the Gen- future if he could be forgiven this once, eral. “ Drunk, most likely,” replied Ma- and never desisted until he obtained a jor Donelson. I then stated that I had promise that he should be tried a while not been able to raise him, though I longer." had rung until I was tired, and that And whoever was familiar at the this was not the first occasion. Major White House, will remember Jemmy's Donelson then observed, that this dif- red face and bluff voice at the door down ficulty was now of almost daily recure to the end of General Jackson's adminrence; that he had, on several occa- istration, ever and anon repeating his sions, found Jemmy in his room wholly fault, and as often by unfeigned reunable to get to the door ; that when pentance and distress extorting fornot so disabled, his conduct towards giveness from his kind-hearted master. visiters was often, from his peculiar Can such traits of character belong situation, anything but polite or re- to a tyrant or a bad man? All that is spectful; and he expressed the opinion good in human nature answers, no. in very decided terms, that a more