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lar, and has ever since been sustained, principle would have proved, in prac-
any plan which contained this the golden age of America.
THE PALACE AND THE HOVEL.
Behold yon palace, lifting up its dome
THE TWO MURDERERS.
RH. S. S. ANDROS.
BY 0. A. BROWNSON.
Most Americans, and, we were about They wholly mistake the nature and to say, all Englishmen, of the present purpose of philosophy who define it to day, who devote themselves to philo- be a merely speculative science. It is sophic studies, take altogether too low not, as too many of our modern psychoand contracted views of philosophy, logists contend, the product of mere reand seem to have no suspicion of the flection, of what M. Cousin terms the real grandeur and extent of its province. reflective reason. Its province is preThey make philosophy, even when cisely that of religion, of which it is wishing to commend it to our love and merely a special phase; it embraces reverence, consist in mere speculation; the same objects, contemplates the or in the mere analysis and classifica- same ends, uses the same means, and tion of dry abstractions, or the dead relies on the same authority. The phenomena of our past lives, utterly philosopher is never a cold, dry, withincapable of affording us either light or ered-up being, without heart or soul, warmth for the duties that lie before surveying with indifference, without
passion or sympathy, all systems, all Rightly defined, philosophy is so opinions, all beings, and all phenomena; much of ihe religion of a given country, but he is a living man, deeply, often or of a given epoch, as the human mind terribly, in earnest, and manifesting in in that country or epoch is able to under- its most awful energy, man's threefold stand and appropriate. It is the science power to know, to love, and to do. He of life, and embraces within its view is no amateur, no dilettante; but a fullGod, Man, and Nature. Its aim is to grown man, hearty, robust, and resoenlighten the mind and warm the lute; meaning what he says, and doheart. It does not merely make disc ing what he means. He thinks, specucursions on what is, or what has been; lates, feels, acts, always to some end. it does not seek merely to explain and He has always a point to carry-a account for the past and the present, purpose to accomplish. His philosoto make us familiar with the laws of phizing is never but a means to an end. Providence, of the universe, or of hu- He is one who is not and cannot be manity; but it aims to disclose to men satisfied with what has already been a new and a loftier Ideal of wisdom, gained. Prevalent systems of faith beauty, and goodness; and, therefore, strike him as defective, false, or misto have an immediate bearing on every- chievous; approved practices as low, day life. It surveys the past and the corrupt, and corrupting; established present, it is true; is erudite and ob- forms of worship as puerile, cold, and servant; inquires into the nature of uninspiring ; existing governments as man and the universe, into the origin oppressive, tyrannical, grinding, at best and relations of their respective pheno- inadequate to man's wants, rights, dumena; but always with a view to ties, and destiny; and over them all, practical life,-always with the sole over the whole Actual, there hovers to aim of making mankind wiser and bet- his mind, a bright and kindling Ideal ter ; of ameliorating their moral, in- of something fairer, freer, loftier, tellectual, or physical condition, and of wiser, and better ; more conducive to inducing them to live in stricter obe- the glory of God, and the relief of dience to the law of their being, and man. To this Ideal, seen clearly or the will of their Maker.
dimly, which forsakes him never, his
Psychology; or, Elements of a New System of Mental Philosophy, on the Basis of Consciousness and Common Sense. Designed for Colleges and Academies. By S. S. Schmucker, D.D., Professor of Christian Theology in the Theological Seminary, Gettysburg, Pa. New York: Harpei aiiù Brothers. 1842. 12mo. pp. 227.
soul is wedded, for better or for worse, gion is always authoritative, always for life or for death, time or eternity ; legislative; it imposes the law; comand he studies, toils, struggles, suffers, mands, nay, enforces us to do our best lives, dies, but to realize it in the prac- to realize the ideal it proposes. Of tical life of his race. No man is a phi- this ideal it permits us to lose sight losopher who has not an ideal Good, never; but compels us to seek it, though as well as an ideal Truth or Beauty, at the risk of being scorned and dewhich he burns to realize, and which rided, though we must brave exile and he will realize, cost what it may. the dungeon, the scaffold, or the cross. Something more than reflection, then, But none of our sciences are authoritais necessary to make the philosopher. tive; none of them propose an ideal He needs io be inspired, as much as and bind us, in foro conscientiæ, does the genuine poet, the prophet, or to realize it. They have, then, no the founder of a Church.
religious, but an irreligious character. Philosophy is not merely the science Their authority is lost by the fact, that of man, of nature, or of God. It is the they are mere individual sciences, wantscience of sciences; that which brings ing a common bond of unity, a vivifyall the special sciences up to a common ing principle, embracing, explaining, unity, disclosing the common basis of and uniting them all in one uniform them all, and directing their cultiva- and catholic science. They are now tion and application to a common end, weak, and mutually destructive, like a —the continued progress of mankind, mass of individuals thrown together, or the uninterrupted amelioration, in and striving to exist together without the speediest manner possible, of their any power of cohesion, or principle of moral, intellectual, and physical con- social order, which is out of the quesdition.
tion; for each is infinitely repellant of In this high, this religious sense, we the other, and one perpetually neutralhave no generally recognized philoso- izes or thwarts the efforts of another. phy among us. We have sciences, The secret of this scientific anarchy but no science. All is special, indivi- may be found in the separation which dual, anarchical; nothing general, ca- has for a long time been attempted betholic, orderly. Thought has no unity, tween religion and philosophy. Phieither in aim or result. The special losophy is asserted to be of human orisciences we cultivate are not subjected gin, and religion to be of divine origin. to one and the same law of thought, Religious people formerly condemned are not pervaded by one and the same philosophy as repugnant to religion ; living idea—and do not conspire to one philosophers have latterly condemned and the same social and religious end. religion as repugnant to what they Theology, geology, chemistry, physio- have been pleased to call philosophy. logy, psychology, ethics, politics, are More lately still, the rational and bettertreated as so many distinct and sepa- informed among religious people have rate sciences; not merely as different contended that God
teach branches of one and the same science. through nature one doctrine, and an In studying one of them, we must opposite doctrine through Revelation; learn what we must unlearn in study- and they, therefore, have sought to ing another,--receive in this as true harmonize religion and philosophy, by what in that we must reject as false. making the teachings of the one quadContradiction, confusion, falsehood, rate with those of ihe other. This is therefore, reign in our scientific world, what Leibnitz attempts in his “ Theoand science is able to do comparatively docea.” little for the advancement of the But these last fall into as great,
though not so obvious, an error as the In consequence of this anarchy, aris. other two; and do equally separate ing from the individualism which pre- religion and philosophy. Philosophy dominates, all the sciences, not except- is said to be that amount of truth to ing even theology, have with us some which we attain by the natural exerwhat of an irreligious tendency. The cise of our faculties, without any speradical conception of religion is that cial aid from our Maker: religion is something which binds, lays under the truth which we are taught by suobligation is thoritative, has the pernatural revelation. Here are then
w systems of truth and if we yo.
mine their contents, we shall find them that raises up all special sciences to a treating precisely the same questions. common unity, vivifies them, and Now these two systems must needs be directs their application to a common either opposing systems or parallel end. The anarchy and irreligious systems. If philosophy, acknowledged tendency of modern sciences grow out to be of human origin, be true, what of the fact, that the authority of Chrisneed of divine revelation? If divine tianity in regard to them is denied, and revelation be necessary to teach us the the principle of individual liberty, in iruth, what is the use of philosophy ? its most unrestricted sense, is affirmed. Or how can philosophy, resting upon a This must be corrected. For after all, basis independent of revelation, pos- we cannot get rid of Christianity, nor sibly be true? The separation of reli- of its authority, even if we would; and gion and philosophy, then, necessarily our efforts to do so only confuse our declares, to say the least, that one or language, and render us unintelligible the other is superfluous.
each to himself, and all to one another. But there is no separation between Christianity has become our life; it religion and philosophy admissible. lies at the bottom of all our literature; We do not mean to say by this, that and we cannot think, feel, or act, withthe two coincide or harmonize in their out thinking, feeling, acting it. It, so teachings; but that the two are not far as we have realized it, has become two, but one. We have no original human nature, natural reason, the means of arriving at the knowledge of soul, the heart
, the mind of all men. truth but the supernatural revela. What is needed, then, in the philotion of God. This revelation is the sophical world, is the reassertion of necessary basis of all that can be re- the legitimate authority of Christianiceived as truth, whether termed reli- ty, in all that pertains to human degious truth or philosophical truth. Reye- velopment. By this reassertion we lation is as necessary to furnish the shall attain to a complete and living basis of philosophy, as it is to furnish synthesis of every branch of human the basis of religion. Philosophy, then, is science; and the whole of life will be not a system of truth built up on a se- harmonious and consistent, and society parate foundation, independent of reli- in all its departments will be subordigion, and able, and therefore having nated to the one catholic principle the right, to sit in judgment on reli- of the Gospel, for the realization on gion, to overthrow it, or to explain and earth of the true Christian Ideal, that verify it; but is, if it be philosophy, is, the establishment of the reign of identical with religion—the form which God in all human affairs. religion necessarily assumes when subjected to the action of the human mind. The work before us is a sincere Instead, then, of seeking to reconcile effort of its author to contribute his religion and philosophy, we should quota towards advancing our knowseek their synthesis, to resolve philoso- ledge of ourselves; and, as such, whatphy into religion, and to find in divine ever estimate may be formed of its posirevelation the one solid basis for our tive merits, deserves to be cordially whole faith, whether termed religious welcomed, and honestly considered. or philosophical.
We have read the work with some A people believing in the Christian interest. We like its spirit ; its religion can have, can at least tolerate, general tone and sentiment. It has no philosophy resting on a basis inde- given us a favorable opinion of the pendent of Christianity, and contem- worth and ability of its author, as a plating any Ideal but the Christian. man whose personal influence on the Christianity is the philosophy, and the young men committed to his care must sole philosophy of Christendom. It is be pure and elevating. As a work on with all Christian people the supreme an interesting branch of science, it dislaw of life. It has then the right to plays more than ordinary capacity, preside over the whole moral, intellect- and makes us regret that the author ual, and physical development of hu- did not enlarge his views, adopt a more manity. Its Ideal is the only author- comprehensive plan, and take in a ized Ideal. In Christianity, then, we wider range of topics. Still, it bears must seek the science of sciences, the on its face, and we are able to find, afcommon bond, the catholic principle, ter the most diligent scarch, no proofs
that its author has any tolerable con- rights, his duties, and his destiny, find ceptions of philosophy in the broad, no appropriate place, is no more to catholic sense in which we have de know man in any true and worthy fined it. It is true that he professedly sense of the term, than knowledge of treats only a special department of the properties of the triangle is knowphilosophy, and it would be unjust to ledge of that threefold energy of our demand, in a work intended to discuss natures by which we are able to act, merely a particular science, all that be- to know, and to love. Dr. Schmucker longs to science in general. We do seems to us, therefore, like a great not, therefore, complain of the book many others, to have mistaken in the because it treats merely a special outset the real significance of psychobranch of general science, nor because logy, and the real questions it ought to it confines itself to what properly discuss. By rejecting the concrete belongs to that special branch; but man—the living man-man in his rebecause it does not treat that special lations with God, with nature, and branch in the light of general philoso- with other men, and confining him phy. The author does not show us solely to the mere isolated and abstract its precise place in universal science; man, he has given us not psychology, its relation to the Christian Ideal; nor but at best a mere psycho-anatomy, bearits practical bearing on the great du- ing no more relation to psychology, ties of every-day life.
properly so called, than anatomy does A genuine psychology-one worth to physiology. It is a mere dissection the writing or the reading-cannot of the dead subject, an analysis and possibly be written but in the light of classification of the phenomena of the à general philosophy of God, man, and dead subject, which can throw little or nature. Such a work must answer the no light on the living. questions of man's wants, rights, du But not to cavil at a term-admitting ties, and destiny. But these questions that the work before us is rightly are never answered by studying man named psychology, or an analysis and in the abstract, as isolated from na- classification of the phenomena of the ture, from his race, and his God; but soul, we may still ask, what is its use, by studying him in the concrete, as a if it leave out all religious, ethical, soliving man, as existing in God, in na- cial, and political questions? What ture, in humanity; that is, in his actual does man live for? In relation to what relations, connexions, and dependen- should he be instructed ? Is a work cies. To study man in these rela- which throws no light, which does not tions, connexions, and dependencies, is even profess to throw any light, on any to study him in the light of a general of the great practical questions of real philosophy. Dr. Schmucker does not life, precisely the work for our young so study him, and therefore leaves all men to study—a work that indicates these great questions of man's wants, no losty social, political, moral, or relirights, duties, and destiny, not only gious Ideal on the part of the author, unanswered, but even unasked. and that demands no pure, deep, seri
A psychology which leaves out these ous purpose, no high, holy, and moral questions, the only questions of any aspirations on the part of the student? practical importance in the conduct of What, again, do we live for? Has life, is, to say the least, of questionable life no purpose ? Was man made utility, and by no means precisely the merely to play at marbles? If man psychology a wise man would wish to was made for an end more serious, high, have studied in our colleges and aca- and solemn, what is it? “What is demies. For, after all, what is its sub- the chief end of man?" That end ject-matter? Man as a living being? once determined, should not all instruca social being ? a moral being ? a reli- tion, all education, nay, all life, be digious being ? Not at all; but simply man rected to its fulfilment? Will Dr. as an abstraction, as isolated from God, Schmucker tell us what relation there nature, and humanity; in which sense is between making ourselves familiar he has no actual existence, does not with these psychological abstractions, live at all, and is at best a mere possi- distinct from all the great practical bility, or virtuality. To know man in questions of life, and living to fulfil the this isolated and abstract sense, in end for which God made us, and which the questions of his wants, his clothed us with the power to do, to