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people, gave out, that he brought with rality, and religion, that an evil may be him twenty thousand Laplanders, clothed committed for the sake of good, which may in the skins of bears, all of their own kill- arise from it. But we cannot suppose ing; and that they mutinied because they even this principle, (as bad a one as it is), had not been regaled with a bloody battle should influence those persons who, by so within two days after their landing. He many absurd and monstrous falsehoods, was no sooner on the throne, than those, endeavor to delude men into a belief of the who had contributed to place him there, danger of the Church. If there be any finding that he had made some changes at relying on the solemn declarations of a Court which were not to their humor, en- prince, famed for keeping his word, condeavored to render him unpopular by mis- stant in the public exercises of our relirepresentations of his person, his charac- gion, and determined in the maintenance ter, and his actions. They found that his of our laws, we have all the assurances nose had a resemblance to that of Oliver that can be given us, for the security of Cromwell, and clapt him on a huge pair the established Church under his governof mustachoes to frighten his people with : ment. When a leading man, therefore, His mercy was fear; his justice was cru- begins to grow apprehensive for the elty; his temperance, economy, prudent Church, you may be sure that he is either behaviour, and application to business, in danger of losing a place; or in despair were Dutch virtues; and such as we had of getting one. It is pleasant on these not been used to in our English kings. occasions, to see a notorious profligate He did not fight a battle, in which the seized with a concern for his religion, and Tories did not slay double that number of converting his spleen into zeal. These what he had lost in the field, nor ever narrow and selfish views have so great an raised a siege, or gained a victory, which influence in this city, that, among those did not cost more than it was worth. In who call themselves the Landed-interest, short, he was contriving the ruin of his there are several of my fellow freeholders, kingdom; and in order to it advanced who always fancy the Church in danger Dr. Tillotson to the highest station of the upon the rising of bank stock. But the Church, my Lord Sommers of the Law, standing absurdities, without the belief of Mr. Mountague of the Treasury, and the which no man is reckoned a stanch Admiral at la Hogue of the Fleet. Such Churchman, are, that there is a Calves'. were the calumnies of the party in those head Club; for which (by the way) some times, which we see so faithfully copied pious Tory has made suitable hymns and out by men of the same principles under devotions : That there is a confederacy the reign of his present Majesty." among the greatest part of the prelates to
destroy episcopacy; and that all who talk In the same paper are these just ani- against popery are Presbyterians in their madversions on the conduct and con
hearts. The emissaries of the party are versation of those who pretend a vast
so diligent in spreading ridiculous fictions interest for the welfare of religion; of this kind, that at present, if we may making that a cloak for political ambi- credit common report, there are several tion:
remote parts of the nation in which it is
firmly believed, that all the churches in “ But the most fruitful source of false- London are shut up; and that if any clerhood and calumny is that which, one
gymnan walks the streets in his habit, it is would think, should be the least apt to
ten to one but he is knocked down by produce them; I mean a pretended con
some sturdy schismatic." cern for the safety of our established religion. Were these people as anxious for The table of contents to this Whig the doctrines which are essential to the journal is varied enough, one would Church of England, as they are for the suppose, to suit almost any taste: monominal distinction adhering to its inter- ral essays on patriotism and perjury, ests, they would know, that the sincere the laughable memoirs of a Preston observation of public oaths, allegiance to rebel, letters from and to the Female their kin submission to the bishops, Association, political homilies, porzeal against popery, and abhorrence of rebellion, are the great points that adorn traits of public men, general maxims of the character of the Church of England, state and current suggestions, as the and in which the authors of the reformed advertisers of cheap goods always add, religion in this nation have always gloried. to suit the times. Most of the scenes We justly reproach the Jesuits, who have described in this work, and the quesadapted all Christianity to temporal and tions debated, have become, by the political views, for maintaining a position lapse of time, of historical importance, so repugnant to the laws of nature mo and give it the value and weight of one
of the most important contemporary ble to ladies who are at the same time the sources of history for the year of the most beautiful and the most loyal of their first “ turning out,” 1715. As a model sex. To hide their faces behind the fan, of fine writing also it is deserving of at- when they observe a Tory gazing upon tention, to see how lightly this delicate them. Never to peep through it, but in artist handled the deepest topics. He order to pick out men, whose principles made them even agreeable to the la- make them worth the conquest. To redies. We cannot leave this pleasant dresses, than by counting the sticks of it
turn no other answer to a Tory's adbook without extracting some of his all the while he is talking to them. To gallant comicalities. He makes it ap- avoid dropping it in the neighborhood of pear that the ladies formed a female a malecontent, that he may not have an association, and gives the results of opportunity of taking it up. To show their deliberations in his habitual their disbelief of any Jacobite story by a happy manner:
flirt of it. To fall a fanning themselves
when a Tory comes into one of their as“I have heard that several ladies of semblies, as being disordered at the sight distinction, upon the reading of my fourth of him. paper, are studying methods how to make “ These are the uses by which every themselves useful to the public. One has fan may in the hands of a fine woman bea design of keeping an open tea-table, come serviceable to the Public. But they where every man shall be welcome that is have at present under consideration cer. a friend to King George. Another is for tain fans of a Protestant make, that they setting up an assembly for Basset, where may have a more extensive influence, and none shall be admitted to punt, that have raise an abhorrence of popery in a whole not taken the oaths. A third is upon an crowd of beholders; for they intend to let invention of a dress which will put every the world see what party they are of, by Tory lady out of countenance: I am not figures and designs upon these fans; as informed of the particulars, but am told in the Knights-errant used to distinguish general, that she has contrived to show themselves by devices on their shields. her principles by the setting of her Com “ There are several sketches of pictures mode; so that it will be impossible for any which have been already presented to the woman, that is disaffected, to be in the ladies for their approbation, and out of fashion. Some of them are of opinion which several have made their choice. A that the fan may be made use of with pretty young lady will very soon appear good success, against popery, by exhibit- with a fan, which has on it a nunnery of ing the corruptions of the Church of lively black-eyed vestals, who are endeaRome in various figures; and that their voring to creep out at the grates. Anoabhorrence of the superstitious use of ther has a fan mounted with a fine paper, beads may be very aptly expressed in the on which is represented a group of people make of a pearl necklace. As for the upon their knees very devoutly worshipcivil part of our constitution, it is unani- ping an old ten-penny nail. A certain mously agreed among the leaders of the lady of great learning has chosen for her sex, that there is no glory in making a device the council of Trent; and another, man their slave, who has not naturally a who has a good satirical turn, has filled passion for liberty; and to disallow of all her fan with the figure of a huge taudry professions of passive obedience, but from woman, representing the whore of Babya lover to his mistress."
lon; which she is resolved to spread full in
the face of any sister-disputant, whose arAnd further on, he thus gossips with guments have a tendency to popery. The the happiest air:
following designs are already executed on
several mountings. The ceremony of the “ As an instance of this cheerfulness in holy Pontiff opening the mouth of a Carour fair fellow subjects, to oppose the de- dinal in a full consistory. An old gentlesigns of the Pretender, I did but suggest man with a triple crown upon his head, in one of my former papers, “That the and big with child, being the portrait of fan might be made use of with good suc. Pope Joan. Bishop Bonner purchasing cess against popery, by exhibiting the cor- great quantities of faggots and brushwood ruptions of the church of Rome in vari- for the conversion of heretics. A figure ous figures ;' when immediately they took reaching at a sceptre with one hand, and the hint, and have since had frequent con. holding
a chaplet of beads in the other; sultations upon several ways and methods with a distant view of Smithfield.” "to make the fan useful.' They have unanimously agreed upon the following We have been uncommonly full in resolutions, which are indeed' very suita- our quotations from the Freeholder, as
it is a work seldom read at the present service by an eloquence and brilliancy day, though, independent of its value unsurpassed in political oratory and as a party production, it affords good political writing. It were idle, at this reading to all who cherish the fame, epoch, to recriticize those sterling efand have been (as who has not?) de- forts that have delighted and instructed lighted with the grave irony and gay thousands for the space of more than pleasantry of the painter of Sir Roger half a century. But to allude to two de Coverly.
only of his masterly attempts; AmeriJohnson, in English literature, fol- cans should never forget their advocate, lows Addison, critically considered, as whose noble speech is not to be paralJuvenal follows Horace, more magis- leled in the records of ancient eloterial in his air and imposing in his quence; nor can the political writer manner. A Tory from constitutional find anywhere a nobler model for the peculiarities, by no means made such very highest species of political writby his pension, we cannot help respect- ing, than the admirable Letter to a ing Johnson, in spite of his prejudices; Noble Lord. and among them, none was more bot Junius is, to use a homely analogy, tomless, irrational, and palpably ab- Burke cut down, razeed into a sparksurd, than the view he took of the ling letter-writer; in place of the magAmerican Revolution. His own defer- nificence and grandeur of the orator, ence to authority and love of power, we have the cutting sneer and polished impelled him to write in advocacy of sarcasm of the refined gentleman and a high-toned government. Himself a scholastic wit. We conceive it al. literary despot, he too much inclined most an impossibility that Burke could to favor arbitrary principles; yet the have been the author of the “Letters." magnanimous nature of the old Tory His power of imitation, to be sure, sometimes got the better of his sophis- was great; but then his original must tications, and at heart he was the have been more after his own manner. lover of liberty and hater of oppres. Bolingbroke's style he easily adoptsion. Boswell once extorted a memor- ed, since there existed a previous simiable confession from him ; after press- larity, in their copiousness, vigor, and ing his inquiries as to how far a people harmony of composition. But Burke should bear the exacting claims, often and Junius had little in common. falsely urged, of its rulers, he is report- Burke was of a generous spirit; Junius, ed to have answered, that driven to malignant as a fiend ;-Burke's inveca certain point, human nature could tive was almost poetic; Junius was bear no more, and must vindicate its very sarcastic, very bitter; but these inherent rights by turning upon its are the talents of a small though an oppressors. This was a brave speech acute mind. Compared with the richfor so contracted a politician. The ness of Burke, Junius shrinks into a tract,“ Taxation no Tyranny,” is alto- writer of epigrams. The one had a gether framed to suit the views of his fertile imagination; the other a trained party; and although Johnson was a fancy. Burke is an author for the strong Tory before he received a pen- world ; Junius for the most exclusive sion, (given, as stated, for no future po- and insignificant portion of it. The litical services, which were neverthe- former latterly “narrowed his mind; ” less expected as a matter of gratitude, the latter could never boast of any if not as a matter of course, in a busi- great comprehensiveness. With Juness point of view), yet we cannot nius ends the race of pamphleteers who help thinking that unpensioned he had have in England obtained any permanever written that odious plea for ty- nent reputation. Clever men write, ranny, and eulogy upon oppression, are read, and speedily forgotten. One Johnson the moralist, does not appear political writer of the present day, we here, but Johnson the bigoted parti- shall notice presently. But for the san; the violent assailant of tolerant next great political writer, and for the Whigs and enthusiastic republicans; rest of whom we shall speak, with and not the friend of liberty and hu- one exception, we must come home. manity.
And here we meet at the commenceHis great friend Burke, in his better ment of our glorious struggle, the days, did the good cause honorable name of Thomas Paine.
Perhaps no writings are more disre- his imagination was smitten with the love garded, or more often ignorantly con of chivalry, of antiquity, of fallen grandemned, than the political writings of deur. This tendency of his imagination Thomas Paine. Of these capital led him on to aristocracy; while the abpieces we take the liberty to include sence of it in Paine, probably, strengtha criticism written some time since, ened his democratic tone of character. by the author of the present paper, and smartness-far less, however, of
“ Paine had more every-day shrewdness and published in a volume of limited cir. Burke's comprehensive sagacity and gorculation. The matter will probably be
geous fancy. Junius was more cutting new to the reader. *
and vexatious, fuller of glittering points,
and altogether a greater master of sar" It is a fact not a little singular, in the casm. That was his chief weapon; but history of literature, that political writing he wanted the fulness and coloring of which relates to matters of great practi- Burke, and the fine declamation of Paine. cal importance, and which is sure—when Both Burke and Paine were metaphysical well done-of meeting with vast popu- in their cast of mind; but Burke saw larity, is generally the worst executed of farther in his moral views, and extended any species of composition. In general, his perceptions over a greater range of slovenly and carelessly written, it is pure- speculation. Coleridge used to compare ly ephemeral—seldom containing truths Berkley and Paine, by likening the acuteof sufficient importance to endure, in the ness of the first to that of a philosopher, meagre shape in which they are envel- and the shrewdness of the second to the oped. The truth is, however, that poli- cunning of a shopboy. This parallel is tics, rightly viewed, is a noble study, and deformed by extravagance and distorted the inquiries tending to it of great value, by prejudice. Nevertheless, Paine's range both speculative and practical. It is a was lower and narrower, though not to theme of some dignity, perhaps of the such a degree as the comparison implied. greatest. No employment of the facul- He has, notwithstanding, very great and ties can be greater than the government of distinct merits, wholly undeniable; and
Most political pieces are expected the services he has rendered this country to be, however, of a current nature mere by his pen are too great to account ferly. Occasionally men arise who discuss cept on one ground) for the declension the questions more important than any and comparative obscurity of his reputato the human race, after the truths of tion. It is allowed by all liberal judges religion, in a manner so as to impress du- that, in his 'Common Sense,' and papers rability on their productions. Sometimes entitled “The Crisis,' he strengthened the politician is a philosopher and a poet: in the American mind its aspirations and then, his works are appealed to as after liberty; gave them the right direcstandards of foresight and wisdom. tion; manfully exhorted them in their
“ Political writers may be divided into wavering hour, and acted the part of a three classes :
freeman and an active friend to humanity. “I. Those who write to and for states- In the face of all this, he is now become men and philosophers;
odious, and his name passes for a by-word “ II. They who write for those of the of contempt. He is ranked with Wright, educated classes who are neither; and, Trollope, and a similar band, and despised
« III. Those who write for that 'many as a mere flaming Democrat. He passes headed monster,' the people.
for a thorough-going Radical, whereas he “ Among English writers, Burke is the was the firmest of Democrats. The reafinest specimen of the first subdivision, sons of this we believe to have originated Junius of the second, and Paine of the chiefly from his religious blasphemiesthird-each admirable in his way, but which have rendered that part of his charwholly different from his rivals. The char- acter justly contemptible--and the popuacteristics of Burke are brilliancy and lar cast of his style and address. The profundity; and he, together with Bacon, first of these causes is indefensible; we Milton, and a very few others, is a rare will not pretend to palliate it. We write instance of the union of these most op- and speak now only of Paine the politiposite qualities. The second possessed cian—with his religion we have nothing to pointed sarcasm, and a keen, polished do. It is to be observed, however, that in style. The third was shrewd, admirably his political writings published previously clear, pithy and caustic. Burke was less to the Age of Reason,' he never alpractical and more romantic than Paine; ludes to the Deity but with the most reve
• The Analyst, p. 104.-Art. V. “The Political Writings of Thomas Paine."
rential mention. The only other cause read, however, was choice literature; and for his obscurity seems to result from his his few quotations are exceedingly apt. style. Though a master of composition, He composed by paragraphs—which acand an acute thinker, he was the people's counts for the extreme finish of his style; writer-expressing their views, as well as for, though a very plain style in general, his own, but then better than any other yet this could be perfected only by elaborman could. Clear, plain, explicit, close, ation and study. His plain manner and compact, he could be understood by all; simple ground-work set off his wit, his and he further possessed a most desirable illustrations, his occasional flights, and faculty in a certain off-hand, dashing man- his metaphysics, to great advantage, and ner, which carried off everything, besides contributed largely to his popular
“ He is always full of sense, perfectly ity. During his lifetime he enjoyed a clear, and admirably concise. He is, great and most deserved reputation, which whenever he attempts it, as brilliant á nothing could have destroyed but his relideclaimer as Burke, with almost equal gious dereliction and consequent debasefancy, and without any of his verbosity. ment of character.” His glowing tirade on titles in the · Rights of Man,' and frequent passages in the
Crisis,' are perfect specimens. His The American Revolution regarded secondó Crisis," addressed to Lord Howe, primarily the rights of the people, not is equal, for sarcastic point and cutting of the rulers only but the ruled, not of sneers, to anything in Junius. What the freeholder solely, but the humblest wit he had grew out of strong sense, laborer. It embraced, in its views of sharpened by a satirical spirit and a con- Liberty and of Government, every cititempt of imposture, however successful. zen; and so with the writers of the He is not a wandering, episodical writer, Revolution. Before the time of Paine, like Cobbett, but direct and straight-for, one had sought to strengthen the regal ward, perhaps a little too formal, and with as few digressions as any English power; one to defend the commercial writer.
-one, the landed interest : here was “He has none of the common faults of the defender of the artizan or manufacpolitical writers: he is never wordy-ne- turer ; but the mass of laboring poor ver clumsy and round-about in his expres
were without a representative. That sions-never dull and tedious in his class, since the Revolution, have now arguments. He has no pointless anec- become the most important body in the dotes-no heavy familiarity-no puerile state at large: and their wants and rhetoric-no labored bombast. His interests are studied by the most phisentences are clear and shapely-he is losophic statesmen and philanthroclosely logical, and his arguments are pists. connected as by a fine net-work. What
At the present day, however much ever style he undertook, whether of ex- of inequality may exist in the social postulation or defence, narrative or logi- condition of our citizens, we justly ascal, declamatory or moral, ironical or earnest, it always was perfectly perspicuous sume as a first principle their political and admirably appropriate. "Hazlitt,' says
equality. This has greatly changed the he,' is excellent at summing up and give character of political composition and ing conclusions, but that he lacks the fa- the estimation of political writers. Po culty of giving his ideas as they rise fresh litics are a popular study, and the in his mind.' He prefers Cobbett for this journalist takes rank with the statesprogressive exhibition of the course of his man and orator. Newspaper writing thoughts.
has become quite a different thing from “ There is a pungency in his manner what it was half a century ago. It imof uttering the simplest truths, which proves yearly. Fonblanque in London, gives his pieces the air of a collection of and Bryant in New York, are classical aphorisms. He gives point to everything writers in their way. Leggett's vigorhe touches, and is never dull and spirit; ous pen entitles him to rank with less. He abounds in original sayings, and these, and his generous spirit, strengthalways concludes his pieces with a smart ened by a love of truth and justice, sentence: 'An army of principles can penetrate where an army of men cannot,' and gone on improving in style, to per
would have raised him had he lived, is one of a thousand instances.
“ Paine is said to have been little of a haps a higher rank than that of the reader—to have purposely excluded his first writer. The pure poetry of Bryant mind from the acquisition of particular places him above competition : and we kinds of knowledge, in order to concen cannot close this slight review of an