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of her face, is black as coal, and coarse scarcely a blanket to cover us. Oh, blessas the tail of a horse, from which it seems ed lady, (accursed be thy dead, as many as to have been gathered.
thou mayst have!) we have no money to "There is no female eye in Seville can purchase us bread; we have only our wissupport the glance of hers, so fierce and dom with which to support ourselves and penetrating, yet so artful and sly, is the our poor hungry babes. When God took expression of their dark orbs; her mouth away their silks and gold from the Egyptis fine and alınost delicate, and there is ians, he left them their wisdom as a renot a queen on the proudest throne be- source that they might not starve. Who tween Moscow and Madrid who might can read the stars like the Egyptians ? not, and would not, envy the white and and who can read the lines of the palm even rows of teeth which adorn it, which like them? The poor woman read in the seem not of pearl, but of the purest ele- stars that there was a rich ventura for all phant's bone of Multan. She comes not of this goodly house, so she followed the alone; a swarthy two year old bantling bidding of the stars, and came to declare it. clasps her neck with one arm, its naked Oh, blessed lady, (I defile thy dead corse!) body half extant from the coarse blanket your husband is at Grenada, fighting with which, drawn around her shoulders, is se- King Ferdinand against the wild Corohai, cured at her bosom by a skewer. Though (May an evil ball smite him, and split his tender of age it looks wicked and sly, like head!) Within three months he shall rea veritable imp of Roma. Huge rings of turn with twenty captive Moors, round false gold dangle from wide slits in the the neck of each a chain of gold. (God lobes of her ears; her nether garments grant that when he enters the house a are rags, and her feet are cased in hempen beam may fall upon him and crush him !) sandals. Such is the wandering Gitána, Your palm, blessed lady, your palm, and such is the witch-wife of Multan, who has the palms of all I see here, that I may come to spae the fortunes of the Sevillian tell you all the rich ventura which is countess and her daughters."
hanging over this house; (may evil lightMention to me a point of devilry
ning fall upon it and consume it!)” with which that woman is not ac "Such," says our author, “was the quainted !"—is the emphatic exclama. Gitána in the days of Ferdinand and tion in which, on another occasion, our Isabella, and much the same is she author sums up the total of the char- now in the days of Isabel and Chrisacter of the wild creature we have tina.” And having thus conveyed thus allowed him to depict. Now some tolerable idea both of the physique comes her address to the lady of the and the morale of the Gitána, it is but house, and her own running commen- fitting that we should clothe her in her tary upon it, which, be it imagined or proper costume: described, is sufficiently amusing:
66. The dress of the Gitánas is very va. “Oh may the blessing of Egypt light ried : the young girls, or those who are in upon your head, you high-born lady! (may tolerably easy circumstances, generally an evil end overtake your body, daughter wear a black bodice laced up with a string, of a Busnee harlot !) and may the same and adjusted to their figure, and contrastblessings await the two fair roses of the ing with the scarlet-coloured saya, which Nile here flowering by your side! (may only covers a part of the leg; their shoes evil Moors seize them and carry them are cut very low, and are adorned with across the water !) O listen to the words little buckles of silver; the breast, and of the poor woman who is from a distant the upper part of the bodice, are covered country; she is of a wise people, though either with a white handkerchief, or one it has pleased the God of the sky to pun- of some vivid color; and on the head is ish them for their sins by sending them to worn another handkerchief, tied beneath wander through the world. They denied the chin, one of the ends of which falls on shelter to the Majari, whom you call the the shoulder, in the manner of a hood. queen of heaven, and to the Son of God, When the cold or the heat permits, the when they fled to the land of Egypt, be- Gitána removes the hood, without untying fore the wrath of the wicked king; it is the knots, and exhibits her long and shinsaid that they even refused them a draught ing tresses restrained by a comb. The of the sweet waters of the great river old women, and the very poor, dress in when the blessed two were athirst. O, the same manner, save that their habiliyou will say that it was a great crime; ments are more coarse, the colors less in and truly so it was, and heavily has the harmony, and more disorder in their array, Lord punished the Egyptians. He has Amongst them misery appears beneath sent us a-wandering, poor as you see, with the most revolting aspect; whilst the
poorest Gitáno preserves a certain deport- ed the richest and the poorest is ment which would make his aspect sup- slowly decaying, and giving place to portable, if his unquiet and ferocious indifference, or, one would hope, in glance did not inspire us with aversion.'”
time, to a wider and more comprehenThe Gypsy race has been at sundry sive charity. One can scarcely, pertimes the subject of severe persecutions. haps, see these changes without some Their supposed acquaintance with the degree of regret. Wearied with the arts of magic, and their real thievish uniformity of the mass of civilized men, and mischievous propensities, were the eye rests with a certain pleasure enough to make them unwelcome on the exaggerated and unharmonious guests, wherever they might seek a traits of savage life. The wild man, home. In France, they met at the whose religion is a superstition, whose very first with a hostile reception, and virtue is an instinct, has yet, in his unsuch strong and deadly measures were trammelled liberty, a grandeur and digtaken for their ejection that they soon nity which belong not to the poor crearetired into Spain. Even there, vari- ture whose every action and word is ous edicts have sought to drive them influenced by laws often trivial and out, and the hatred of the common arbitrary; a grandeur which his many people has often threatened their exist- imperfections, and even his unpoetical ence; but, strong in the celerity of their eccentricities, cannot conceal. There movements, in their power of enduring is in the mind of the savage something every species of exposure and of priva- of the faith and fearlessness of the little tion, the Gitános stood their ground, child, and they are beautiful, even until the storm had blown over, and a though, like the child, he should at the milder government sought to win those same time be mischievous, destructive, whom it could not subdue.
and self-willed. True it is, these GypThe crimes of the Gypsies against sies have fallen far below the rank of the Busnee, or whites, and their deadly such children of nature, and differ but hostility to them, if once only defen- little from the lower classes of civilized sive, are now comparatively aggressive people, except perhaps in being more and unprovoked. Still, this feeling wretched and ignorant than they. Yet prevails with great force among them. they are a curious type of humanity, a The Gypsy nurse hates the Christian strong link between the present and child committed to her care, for its the past, and we cannot but grieve a white blood, and is capable of doing it little, though unreasonably, to see the a secret injury which may ruin it both bundle of rods unbound, and unbound in mind and body for life. Had the to be broken. people in general power to execute that Mr. Borrow complains somewhat of which they have skill and malignity the want of fidelity in those highly to invent, not a Christian would be left wrought pictures of the Zincali which in the countries in which they reside. are given us in those novels of which Yet it seems that, as a nation, they feel they are the heroes or accessaries. He the influence of the milder treatment contends, and with reason, that the which they now receive; the strength lofty and poetic diction with which and ferocity of determination which they are generally invested, are not true were called forth in them by severity to either their feelings or expressions. and persecution have died away with Without descanting upon the merits of these causes, and in many places the the examples adduced by him, we will peculiarities of the race are gradually only observe that they are probably disappearing, while they themselves, as faithful as the novelist's picture of so long the outcasts of society, are human nature is apt to be. It is not insensibly blending with the civilized man, as we see him every day, who is fraternity of man. The love of wan- therein portrayed, but man in a sort dering from place to place, the strong of holiday dress, which may become feeling of brotherhood among them- him more or less, but never so well,we selves, appear less and less in the mod- think, as his working clothes. It must ern Zincali of Spain. Those who are be acknowledged that the brief space able to support themselves comfortably allotted for the development of chagenerally settle in the towns, and be- racter in the novel and the drama, come more and more like other people. seems to render this exaggeration neThe bond of sympathy which once unit- cessary. The personages of the tale
or play must be painted in quick, bold a helping hand, and bid them, as he strokes, in strong light and shade; of old, in the name of Jesus Christ of they must say that which they would Nazareth, to arise and walk. never have said, and do that which The religion of the Gypsies appears they would never have done. Thus to have been originally the Brahminthe highest truth must be sacrificed to ism of India, a dim and mystical creed, that which shall be most distinguish- of which they retain nothing save a ing and striking, to bring out that inner belief in their own immortality, and nature of man which in life is rarely in the existence of a God, whom, howbrought out in deeds and words. For, ever, they have ceased to worship. did it take us as long to find out men Mr. Borrow anathematizes this wild in works of fiction as in real life, the and imperfect faith, and terms this novel would be a biography, the god of the Brahmins “ the father of all drama, long and wearisomie as life imposture ;" but this view seems to us itself.
unjust. The deity of the wildest savThe Gypsy of the present day is age, abominable as may be his worship indeed a sad relic of barbarism; he and degraded his attributes, is yet but wears but the very rags and tatters of a defaced representation of the true humanity; yet such is our faith in that God who has written his name upon wondrous and indestructible texture, every heart. The hymn to Brahmah that we willingly believe his to be or to Buddh, which our author has anmade of the same stuff as our own. nexed to his translations of Gypsy We would fain regard him in his pres- rhymes, has in it some views so just ent position as the mere wreck and and noble, that we are tempted to vestige left by one of those mighty quote it partly for the sake of overprinciples, whích, having slowly raised throwing his position. We cannot to themselves a monument from the speak of the correctness of the transcrude material of mind and matter, lation, yet we wish that the poem had pass on in their eternal march, leaving not been rendered into English doggrel the mass to crumble and return to no- --brief blank lines would have given thingness, to be one day recombined a better idea of the wild measure and into new form and grandeur by the language of the original : Master workman of the universe. We would find in the distinguishing traits “Should I Foutsa’s force and glory, of his character some remnants of Earth's protector, all unfold, barbaric virtue. We would hope that Through more years would last my story, he learned to steal when the whole Than has Ganges sands of gold. human race was one mighty horde of Him the fitting reverence showing robbers; that his vindictiveness of spi
For a moment's period, brings
Ceaseless blessings, overflowing, rit was not at first an unprovoked hos
Unto all created things. tility to the rest of mankind, but the
If, from race of man descended, impulse of resentment awakened by Or from dragon's kingly line, some cruel injury and outrage; that Thou dost dread, when life is ended, his indifference to the pleasures of Deep in sin to sink and pine, sense, his strong attachment to his own If thou seek great Foutsa ever, race, and his pative cunning, have one with a heart devoid of guile, day deserved the names of austere tem- He the mists of sin shall sever, perance, of true patriotism, of deep All before thee bright shall smile. sagacity. Of these qualities there re Whosoe'er his parents losing, main few traces at the present day. From his earliest infancy, The world itself has changed for the Cannot guess, with all his musing, better, and these people have not
Where his brethren now may be; changed with it,--the great tide of bar- He who sister dear, nor brother, baric life has ebbed, and has left these Since the sun upon him shone,
And of kindred all the other to wither on the shore,—the mass of Shoots and branches ne'er has known, mankind around them have risen, and If of Foutsa Grand the figure stand erect, while these still retain He shall shape and color o’er, their crouching and recumbent posture, Gaze upon it rapt and eager, clinging to their mother earth, until And with fitting rites adore, those who have combined to trample And through twenty days shall utter and weigh them down shall lend them The dread name with reverent sear;
Foutsa, huge of form, shall flutter Round about him, and appear, And to him the spot discover Where his kindred breathe again, And, though evils whelm them over, Straight release them from their pain. If that man, unchanged, still keeping, From backsliding shall refrain, He, by Foutsa touched when sleeping, Shall Biwangarit's title gain. If to Bouddi's elevation He would win, and from the three Confines dark of tribulation Soar to light and liberty; When a heart with kindness glowing He within him shall descry, To Grand Foutsa's image going, Let him gaze attentively : Soon, his every wish acquiring, He shall triumph, glad and fain, And the shades of sin, retiring, Never more his soul restrain. Whosoever bent on speeding To that distant shore, the home Of the wise, shall take to reading The all-wond'rous Soudra* tome; If that study deep beginning, No fit preparations made, Scanty shall he find his winning, Straight forgetting what he's read; Whilst he in the dark subjection Shall of shadowing sin remain, Soudra's page of full perfection, How shall he, in mind, retain ? Unto Him the earth who blesses, Unto Foutsa, therefore, he, Drink and incense, food and dresses Should up offer plenteously; And the fountain's limpid liquor Pour Grand Foutsa's face before, Drain himself a cooling beaker When a day and night are o'er; Tune his heart to high devotion ; The five evil things eschew, Lust and flesh and vinous potion, And the words which are not true; Living things abstain from killing For full twenty days and one; And meanwhile, with accents thrilling, Mighty Foutsa call uponThen of infinite dimension Foutsa's form in dreams he'll see, And if he, with fixed attention, When his sleep dissolved shall be, Shall but list to Soudra's volume, He, through thousand ages' flight, Shall, of Soudra's doctrine solemn, Ne'er forget one portion slight. Yes, a soul so highly gifted Every child of man can find, If to mighty Foutsa lifted
He but keep his heart and mind. He who views his cattle falling Unto fierce disease a prey, Hears his kindred round him brawling, Never ceasing night nor day, Who can find no rest in slumber From excess of grief and pain, And whose prayers, in countless number Though they rise, are breathed in vainTo earth favouring Foutsa's figure If but reverence he shall pay, Dire misfortunes' dreadful rigor Flits for ever and for aye. No domestic broils distress him, And of naught he knows the want ; Cattle, corn, and riches bless him, Which the favoring demons grant ; Those who sombre forests threading, Those who sailing ocean's plain, Fain would wind their way undreading Evil poisons, beasts, and men, Evil spirits, demons, javals, And the force of evil winds, And each ill which he who travels In his course so frequent finds,Let them only take their station, 'Fore the form of Foutsa Grand, On it gaze with adoration, Sacrifice with reverent hand, And, within the forest gloomy, On the mountain, or the vale, On the ocean wide and roomy, Them no evil shall assail. Thou, who every secret knowest, Foutsa, hear my heartfelt prayer ; Thou who earth such favor showest, How shall I thy praise declare ? If with cataract's voice the story I through million calaps roar, Yet of Foutsa's force and glory. I may not the sum outpour. Whosoe'er, the title learning of the earth's protector high, Shall, whene'er his form discerning, On it gaze with steadfast eye, And at times shall offer dresses, Offer fitting drink and food, He ten thousand joys possesses, And escapes each trouble rude; Whoso into deed shall carry Of the law each precept, he Through all time alive shall tarry And from birth and death be free. Foutsa, thou, who best of any Know'st the truth of what I've told, Spread the tale through regions many As the Ganges' sands of gold.”
Is not this hymn the voice of aspiring and adoring humanity? Is there not in it something of revelation, at
* The sacred Codex of the Buddhists, which contains the canons of their religion.
least of holy doctrine, and of heavenly It is well perhaps that Mr. Borrow consolation? It is a comfort to us, does not himself entertain any very to read in these, and other such scat- sanguine hopes for the realization of tered hieroglyphics, that God has al. such a result, so that he is at least safe ways been with all his creatures in from all danger of disappointment. “I wisdom and in love, not only to create can scarcely flatter myself,” he says, and sustain, but also to guide and in- “with having experienced any success struct; that his wide bounty has never in my endeavors. Indeed I never exbeen bounded by the confines of either pected any, or at least any which I mycountry or race; but that, spiritually as self could hope to witness; I knew too well as temporally, among the heath. well the nature of the ground on which en, as well as among the Christian and I was casting seed. True it is that it the Hebrew, his rain has descended may not be lost, and that it may evenand his sun has shone, upon the evil tually spring up in this or that direcand the good. It is a comfort to us, tion, as barley has been dropped from to distinguish a drop of his precious the cerements of a mummy, and has essence in the very dregs of humanity, sprung up, and displayed vitality after to find his stamp upon its basest coin, lying choked and hidden for two thoufor he made us in his own image, and sand years.” even when we have passed through We are tempted to quote two or the hands of evil spirits we are no three
passages from which the reader counterfeits.
may form some idea of the nature of One word concerning Mr. Borrow's the task our good missionary had to mission among the Zincali. It is one perform, in his attempt to exert on such upon which he cannot look back but minds the slightest influence of a reliwith pleasure. He has left behind him gious character. At Madrid, on one a valuable legacy, and a monument to occasion, he receives a visit from Pépa his own erudition and industry, in va- and Chicharona, already mentioned, acrious portions of the Scriptures render- companied by two daughters of the ed by him into the dialect of the Rom- former; one of whom, a very remarkmany. He seems, moreover, in his ef- able female, was called La Tuerta, forts to enlighten them, to have acted from the circumstance of her having with forbearance and consideration, and but one eye, and the other, who was to have endeavored to accommodate a girl of about thirteen, La Casdami, his expositions of Christian doctrine to or the scorpion, from the malice she their peculiar character and position. occasionally displayed. The following We gather from his own account of his scene then occurred: intercourse with them, that he did not dazzle and bewilder their dim vision with the deeper mysteries and dogmas what have you been doing this morning ?
“ Myself.—'I am glad to see you Pépa; of the church; but that he went among “ Pepa.—'I have been telling baji, and them as a brother, gently and kindly Chicharona has been stealing à pastésas; reproved their evil practices, and strove we have but little success, and have come with patience and discretion to guide to warm ourselves at the braséro. As them to even a remote perception of the for the One-eyed, she is a very sluggard, truth, following his own sense of their (holgazána,) she will neither tell fortunes wants and capacities, rather than the nor steal.' guidance of a wildly zealous spirit. Nor “ The One-eyed.—Hold your peace, do we doubt that his labor, lost as it mother of the Bengues; I will steal, when may have seemed to him, will produce I see occasion, but it shall not be à pastéthe wished-for result. The good seed, sas, and I will hokkawar (deceive) but it sown in so good a spirit, cannot fail, we
shall not be by telling fortunes. If I dewould fain hope, to bring forth at least ceive, it shall be by horses, by jockeying. some fruit, even in this stony ground. You know already what I am capable of,
If I steal, it shall be on the road—I'll rob. And those even who mocked at his yet knowing that, you would have me tell pious endeavors to enlighten them, will fortunes like yourself or steal like Chichaperhaps one day gladly and gratefully rona. Me diñela cónche (it fills me with acknowledge the debt they owe him fury) to be asked to tell fortunes, and the who visited them when sick and in pri- next Busnee that talks to me of bájis I son, for their own sake, and for the will knock all her teeth out.' sake of One greater than they.
“ The Scorpions - My sister is right; VOL. XI. -NO. XLIX.