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should conceive himself at liberty,-not within which those who differ may con. even the highest in the church, who, in scientiously subscribe to a common creed: this case has no more right than the lowest, and those, on the other hand, who will -to impose upon these Articles any private admit no such latitude, contradict the Arsense or comment of his own, to the ex- ticles which they profess to support; and, clusion of every other that may not hap- if they happen to possess authority in the pen to agree with his in every particular. Church, they are fearfully responsible, as It is manifest, that he who does so pro- guilty of an act of schism, in driving from poses a new test, different from that the Church those who may be purer which has been sanctioned by the church members of it than themselves; in raising to which we belong; and, so far, usurps up those curious questions and controveran authority to which he has no title, and sies, which war with Christian concord; in himself violates the standard by which he rending asunder that one great family presumes injuriously to judge the ortho- which should live together in brotherly doxy of others.

union; and in setting up a variety of creeds, “ To prove, that this is a just view of in place of the one admirable, comprethe case, I shall read to you part of the hensive, and scriptural digest, under which Declaration, which, by Royal Mandate, is the members of our church have the happrefixed to the Articles; and which open- piness to enjoy a Christian freedom. ly manifests the true spirit in which they “ If any proof were wanting, that our were composed, and the duty of those who Articles are, as they profess to be, of a profess to submit to their direction. For comprehensive character, it would be the purpose of healing the curious and found in this, that, of the contending parties unhappy differences, which have for so into which our church is unhappily divided, many hundred years, in different times each claims them as its own. By those and places, exercised the church of who hold the creed of Arminius, they are Christ,' the Royal Declaration observes, pronounced to be Arminian: and, by

We will, that all further curious search those who hold the creed of Calvin, they be laid aside, and these disputes shut up in are pronounced to be Calvinistic. The God's promises, as they be generally set natural inference of the impartial reasoner forth to us in the holy Scriptures, and the would be, that they are neither; whilst general meaning of the Articles of the they contain within them what may be Church of England, according to them. traced to some of the leading principles And that no man, hereafter, shall print or of both. And this is the truth. They

are preach, to d:aw the Article aside in any not enslaved to the dogmas of any party in way, but shall submit to it in the plain religion. They are not Arminian. They and full meaning thereof; and shall not are not Calvinistic. They are Scriptural. put his own sense or comment to be the They are Christian. As the different meaning of the Article, but shall take it in parties profess to derive their leading the literal and grammatical sense.? tenets from Scripture, so do they profess

“ Thus, happily, through the wisdom of to find them in the Articles. But these the Church, we have one standard, not are answerable for the extravagances of nó many. We are not left to the authorita- sect; and are as far removed from the untive dictum of every confident person, who justifiable assumption, that man is sufficient shall assume more than oracular authority, for his own salvation, as they are from the and pronounce that his view, and his view monstrous metaphysics that would render only, of the doctrines of the Church, as him in all respects a necessary agent, and set forth in the Articles, is the true one; altogether passive and inoperative in that but, each individual is left to the literal great work. and grammatical sense of the Articles, and “At the same time, the true Christian to his own conscience, to judge what they teacher should not be deterred from setdeclare to be the doctrines of Scripture: ting forth the great fundamental doctrines and, the same Articles refer him to that which the Articles contain, by the imScripture, as the only authority by which putation of particular names, which ignothey submit themselves to be tried. rance may attach to those doctrines. Thus we see, that, if the unity of the Nothing, in truth, has contributed to give, church be broken by the jarrings of those to some of the sects and parties in religion, who exclude from the pale of her received so much credit and popularity, as the doctrines all that differ from their peculiar erroneously ascribing to them, as characviews of orthodoxy, the Articles are not teristics of their peculiar creed, tenets the cause of this dissension. They pro- which belong to our common Christianity. nounce, that a certain latitude exists, Thus, for example, nothing is more common, at the present day, than to hear a cited a warm controversy, which person pronounced to be a Calvinist, be having now, we believe, died cause he holds the doctrine of original sin,

away, or of justification by faith; whereas, he

we shall cautiously abstain from remight with equal justice be so denomi- newing ; especially as we have not nated for holding the doctrines of the time or space at present to enter, at Trinity or the Atonement. But, let the the length and with the attention honest and faithful servant of his Lord which the topic would demand, not fear to insist on all the great doctrines upon the very peculiar and delicate of the Gospel, as they are laid before him circumstances under which the in the Articles. The Fall of man, the Established Church of Ireland is Atonement by Jesus Christ, the Personal

placed. We may possibly take ity and Divinity of the Son of God and the Holy Spirit, the doctrine of Original an opportunity, at some future time, and Actual Sin, the insufficiency of man to

of stating our humble views upon merit heaven by his own works, justifica- the subject; but at present we tion by faith, the need and nature of the confine ourselves to two or three Divine influences, the importance of the extracts from his Grace's Charge, Christian sacraments, the social, moral, unconnected with points of controand spiritual duties, which become the

versy. Christian, and which are to be grounded

The Archbishop thus affectionateupon evangelical principles, on love to ly impresses upon his clergy the God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ: duties which they bound themselves these are the vital truths, which the Articles fully justify him in preaching; and to perform at their ordination :these are the truths which, if preached ." What is the description which zealously and honestly by the clergy of our Ordination Service presents, of the the Established Church, will not fail to character, duties, and obligations, of those uphold the credit of that church, whilst who are admitted to the Christian ministry they promote the true cause of Christian in our church? Are they not there exholiness in these lands.

pressly represented as the messengers, “ At the same time, 'it is particularly watchmen, and stewards of the Lord; necessary to guard the young student in who are to teach, and to premonish, to divinity against extremes on these very feed and to provide for the Lord's family?' points. The ardour of youth requires to Are they not warned to keep in constant be restrained, not stimulated : it seizes

remembrance how great a treasure is upon strong points, and is disposed to committed to their charge;' no less than take rapid views. The young preacher, the sheep of Christ which he bought therefore, should be particularly careful with his death, and for whom he shed and suspicious of himself. He is in great his blood; and that the chnrch and condanger of identifying 'himself with par- gregation, whom they must serve, is his tisans, who are ever watchful to enrol spouse and his body;' and that, if it him amongst their ranks : and therefore, shall happen the same church or any until he has time and opportunity to take member thereof, to take any hurt or a comprehensive and scriptural view of hindrance by reason of their negligence, the Gospel, and fully to acquaint himself they should think with dread upon the with the opinions and arguments of ex- greatness of the fault, and the horrible perienced and eminent divines, he will be punishment that will ensue:' that they much safer in not pushing his bark ad- should therefore, considering with themventurously from the shore. His preach- selves the end of their ministry towards the ing should be moderate on these great children of God, towards the spouse and leading points, and dealing more in their body of Christ,' beware that they never results of holiness and good living, than cease their labour, their care and diligence, in the schemes and systems to which they until they have done all that lieth in them, may seem to lead.” pp. 30–36.

according to their bounden duty, to bring The length of this highly impor- all such as are or shall be committed to tant extract will preclude our de- their charge, into that agreement in the faith voting much space to his Grace's and knowledge of God, and to that ripeness

and perfectness of age in Christ, that there Charge to his clergy of the arch- be no place left among them, either for bishoprick of Dublin.

Some re

error in religion, or for viciousness in life? marks in this Charge naturally ex- • Well then, indeed, may they be so

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lemnly called on (as they are immediately demeanor and habitual carelessness about after) to see, with what great care and spiritual concerns. study they ought to apply themselves; as “ The time is come, when, if not from well that they may shew themselves higher considerations, we must, from prudutiful and thankful to the Lord, who dence at least, bring these things to an hath placed them in so high a dignity, as end. The time is come, when we must also to be careful that they neither them- shew ourselves, in truth and in spirit, selves offend, nor be occasion that others what we profess ourselves to be, the offend:' and that, for this purpose, they soldiers and servants of Christ; when we should, as much as in them lies, • forsake must manifest in our lives the superior and set aside all worldly cares and studies,' excellence of that pure and reformed reand endeavour' by God's grace to give ligion which we have undertaken to themselves wholly to the office, whereunto teach.” pp. 17, 18. it hath pleased God to call them, so as, to

His Grace further strongly enthe utmost of their power, to apply themselves wholly to this one thing, and draw forces the duty of “ strict residence" all their cares and studies this way; and in the clergy, and dwells particularthat they will continually pray to God the ly, and with great feeling and force, Father, by the mediation of our only upon their office as a pastoral relaSaviour Jesus Christ, for the heavenly as- tion. sistance of the Holy Ghost, that, by daily

The true relation of the clergy to the reading and weighing of the Scriptures, people (it cannot be too often repeated) they may wax riper and stronger in their is a pastoral relation. It is not by the ministry; and that they may so endeavour parish minister's securing the ostensible themselves from time to time, to sanctify discharge of the Sunday's duty, that he the lives of them and theirs, and to fashion properly exercises his functions ; nor even them after the rule and doctrine of Christ, by his providing for a punctual attention that they may be wholesome and godly to those occasional duties which he is inexamples and patterns for the people to

vited to discharge. No: the clergynan follow.'” pp. 7–9.

should be the true parish priest ; in conHis Grace earnestly points out tinual contact with his flock; one, whose the necessity of increased zeal and voice they know; not only in constant unanimity in the clergy, from the residence amongst them, but in continual consideration not only of personal their friend ; the moderator of their dis

intercourse with them; their adviser; duty, but of the peculiar circum

putes; the composer of their differences ; stances of the times. Thus he re

the careful instructor of their children; not marks :

content merely to afford spiritual aid where “There is no slumbering on our post. it may be demanded, but vigilant to disWe may rest assured, that if we join

cover where it may be applied, and prompt lukewarmness from within, to the unceas

to bestow it where it will be received: ing hostility, which assails us from without, stimulating all, and particularly the young, and assails us in every form and degree to come to that fountain of living waters, from the false and hypocritical pretence of which it is his office to dispense; and a desire for the improvement of our order, proving to his people by every possible to the open violence which avows the pur- exertion, that the first object he has at pose of its extinction, the triumph of heart is their everlasting welfare. All this, those who labour for the downfal of our it is manifest, he can effect, only by living church will soon be completed.

continually amongst his flock, and by the “ It will not do, to boast of our ortho- continued personal discharge of the several doxy, and shew no fruit of right opinions offices of the priesthood.” pp. 30, 31. in our practice; to content ourselves with There are some points in this exclaiming against what is called new light, Charge, and perhaps in the former, without endeavouring to extend to our on which minor differences of opiflocks the benefit of the old; to be fearful of an excess of zeal, without any alarm as

nion may exist among good men, to the consequence of indifference; and to

and even among sound churchmen. reserve for the appearance of sanctity and On these we have avoided touchseparation from the world amongst our ing, being anxious chiefly to bring brethren, the indignation and censure, before our readers on the eastern side which should be bestowed upon levity of of the channel a portion of the valuable remarks of the learned Arch- of respect to those eminent qualibishop, without entering at present fications which have long placed into the litigations either of British his Grace high among the most of Irish controversy. We had occa- learned and successful defenders of sion in former years (see Chris- “ the faith once delivered to the tian Observer for 1803 and 1810) saints," against some of the most to speak with high applause of dangerous errors which have infested his Grace's now well-known and the Christian church. We only add. justly popular discourses on Sacri- our humble prayer to the Giver of fice and Atonement ; and we have every good gift, that the Most Re. hailed with great pleasure the ac- verend author may be long spared cession of so zealous, learned, and to regulate the affairs of his imorthodox a prelate to the episcopal portant province with that piety, ranks of the sister kingdom; a re- wisdom, conciliation, and firmness, mark which, as his Grace has been

which its circumstances so urgently pleased, in the work just mentioned, require; and that his clergy, ento designate the Christian Observer, lightened and guided by the senas “a periodical publication distin-timents which we have quoted from guished for the uprightness," as well these Charges, may be enabled dilias for “ the talent with which it is gently and successfully to promote conducted,”—we trust, will not be the Gospel of their Saviour, with all construed into a mere customary its holy and healing effects, in their compliment, but be viewed as an respective spheres of ministration. unfeigned, however humble, tribute


&c. &c.

Mean Duration

verse ratio of 100 to

125 124 130


sealed paper, containing the name of the PREPARING for publication :- The Found- writer within it, and inscribed with the ers and Benefactors of Oxford and Cam. motto of the Essay. bridge ; by Alexander Chalmers ;--The

The following table of the average duraLibrary Companion; by the Rev. T. F. tion of human life, in our island, from the Dibdin ;-Original Letters, from Auto- year 1693 to 1789, has been lately published graphs in the British Museum ; by H. by Sir Gilbert Blane, on the authority of Ellis ;-A Translation of Sismondi's Lite-. Mr. Finlaison. rature of the South of Europe ; by Mrs.

of So that the Increase Roscoe.

Ages. Life, reckoning from of Vitality isiathe io.

1693 1789 In the press :-Boutenoch's History of Spanish and Portuguese Literature, trans

5 41.05 | 51.20 lated from the German;, by Thomasina 10 38.93 48.28 Ross ;-A Tour through the Morea ; by 20 31.91 41.33 Sir W. Gell;—Memoirs of Marie Antoi- 30 27.57 36.09

131 nette; by Madame Campin.

40 22.67 29.70

131 The St. David's Church Union Society

50 17.31 22.57


60 have offered a Premium of Fifty Pounds

12.29 15.52


70 for the best Essay on the following pro

7.44 | 10.39 140 position :-" That there is more Credulity The greatly increased healthiness of the in the Disbelief of Christianity, than in the community exhibited in this statement, Belief of it.". Also, a Premium of Fifty Sir Gilbert Blane considers chiefly referPounds for the best. Translation of the able to the more ample supply of food, Canwll y Cymry into English Versé.- clothing, and fuel; better habitations ; The compositions are to be sent on or before the 1st day of October, 1823, di improved habits of cleanliness and venrected to the Rev. D. Lewis, Secretary tilation; greater sobriety, and improved to the Society, to be left at the Vicar-. medical practice. Had the table been age, Carmarthen. They must be sent made up to the present period, according in a legible hand, accompanied with a to the late census, the average of life would CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 254.


appear still more favourable; and among ings should excite gratitude to God, and the causes of the increase, in addition to

induce every person of intelligence to greatly augmented improvements in all the endeavour, to the utmost of his power, points mentioned by Sir Gilbert, the dis- to introduce the arts of social improvecovery of vaccination, though it may have ment among the poor and ignorant in proved fallible in individual cases, would his vicinity. We cannot, however, resist claim a large share". Such public bless- adding, as Christian Observers, that the

average prolongation of life is no just plea * Having alluded to the discovery of for procrastinating the great work for vaccination, we cannot forbear pausing for which we were sent into the world. To a moment to inform our readers, that the

every individual, the term of his earthly amiable and excellent author of this dis- existence is as absolutely uncertain, and covery is now no more. Before his most his dissolution ultimately as inevitable, in important discovery was announced, the the most salubrious climate, and under the small-pox was a far greater scourge to the most improved arts of life, as amidst the human race, than the plague itself ; and, swamps of Batavia, the jungles of India, the even where it did not deprive the suf- earthquakes of Smyrna, or the pestilence ferer of life, almost every second or third of Constantinople. “Be ye also ready; for face in every public assembly, exhibited the in such an hour as ye think not the Son of remains of its ravages; at least, till the

man cometh.” disease was moderated by the practice of The Bishop of St. David's remarks, in inoculation.

his postscript to the second edition of his The small-pox had existed in the East, Vindication of 1 John v. 7. (which a friend especially in China and Hindostan, proba- has adverted to in another part of this. bly for several thousand years. It visited Number), that in our English language, the more Western nations towards the there is a sufficient mixture of the British middle of the sixth century : it broke out or Welsh in common use, changed indeed near Mecca, immediately before the birth in the spelling, to prove that, though the of Mohammed. It was afterwards gra- military part of the British Nation retired dually diffused over the whole of the Old into the West, the unarmed part, including World, and was finally transported to the New, shortly after the death of Columbus. served, “ that men are not grateful to me; In the British islands alone, it has been but I am rprised that they do not feel gracomputed that forty thousand individuals titude to God, for making me a medium of perished annually by this disease! It killed good.” This was the habitual frame of one in fourteen of all that were born, and one his mind. He invariably exhibited an in six of all that were attacked by it in the exemplary uprightness of conduct, singlenatural way. The introduction of inocu

ness of purpose, and disinterested earnestlation for small-pox was productive of ness to promote the welfare of his species. great benefit to those who submitted to the These qualities particularly arrested the operation ; but though it augmented in. attention of the many distinguished fodividual security, it added to the general reigners who came to visit him ; and were mortality, by multiplying the sources of not less the cause of satisfaction and decontagion. This disease has now been light to his friends. The last public act banished from some countries, and, with of his life harmonized with his previous due care, might probably be eradicated efforts in behalf of his fellow-creatures. from all ; and notwithstanding prejudices, He attended a meeting convened on the carelessness, and ignorance,millions, doubt 19th of December last, at Berkeley, for less, now live, who, but for vaccination, forming a Bible Society, and moved the would have been in their graves.

first resolution. It was, doubtless, a sight We are informed that the meekness and singularly gratifying, to behold a venerable simplicity of the demeanour of the excel individual, whose life had been spent in lent individual to whom we are indebted successfully devising means to extinfor this discovery, formed a striking con- guish a pestilential bodily disease, thus trast to the self-esteem which might have putting his hand to a work which has arisen from its splendid consequences. been designed for arresting the moral He was thankful and grateful to God; but pestilence that desolates so large a portion to pride and vain-glory he seemed to be an

of the earth, and for the healing of the utter stranger. Ashort time before his death, nations. the nature of his services to his fellow

We are happy to learn that a memoir of creatures having been the subject of con- his life is likely to be undertaken by a genversation : "I do not wonder," he ob- tleman competent to the task.

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