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the majority of the people, remained, and also, every one knows, is a very rapid conbecame incorporated with the invaders, ductor of' heat. whether Roman or Saxon, whose descen- Dr. A. Philip has published a series dants, notwithstanding they have lost their of papers to demonstrate that there are mother tongue, are as much British as three distinct powers, the sensorial, the their brethren in Wales. His lordship nervous, and the muscular, concerned in strongly points out the evils and inconve- the animal system, yet without dependniences arising from the prevalence of dif- ence on each other ; that the muscular ferent tongues among members of the same may for a time survive both the sensorial nation, who thus become a sort of foreign and nervous powers ; that the nervous ers to each other. He adds, however, that may survive the sensorial and muscular though for judicial purposes, local improve. powers; and that the sensorial power is ment, charity, and mutual intercourse, it without dependence on the others, except is expedient to encourage but one language, so far as they are necessary for the mainyet that so long as the poor speak the tenance of its organs. The nervous and ancient tongue, the Gospel ought to be muscular powers are the direct means of preached in it for their benefit

. His lord- maintaining the life of the animal, and ship, upon the whole, considers that “the of connecting it with the external world : revival of the Saxon language, or the cul- the former receiving impressions from the tivation of the British, beyond the necessary world, and the latter communicating impurposes of religion, of intercourse with pressions to it. The functions of the nerthe poor, of archæology, and the exercise vous and the muscular powers are viewed of poetical talent, would be more detri- by him as results of inanimate agents mental than serviceable to the public." acting on vital parts, and are capable of This distinction appears sound, and has being excited by electricity, or galvanism, been acted upon by the most judicious artificially applied ; but when from these friends of our various charitable socie- we turn to the sensorial functions, we perties as respects the Gaelic and Irish ceive results which have lost all analogy languages.

to those of inanimate matter : they have Some of the meteorological reports only an indirect effect in maintaining ani. state, that during the late intensely cold mal life, and are excited by no impressions weather, the thermometer, during the but those communicated through the nernights of the 19th and 20th of January, vous system ; and, consequently, are the fell as low as 6 and 8 deg. in London, and results of living parts acting on each other. a little north of London, to 3 deg. The The sensorial are the first functions which thermometer, howeyer, is not a test of the cease when the vital powers begin to fail; sensation of cold on the living frame; in while inanimate agents continue capable, other words, of the rapidity of the abstrac- for a time, of languidly exciting the nertion of caloric, which depends not merely vous and muscular functions of life. This upon the temperature of the air, but alsoupon, theory, rightly viewed, would appear to its degree of moisture, pressure, and rapido - be strongly opposed to the principles of ity of circulation. A scientific friend sug- materialism. gests, that it might be very useful, espe

PORTUGAL cially for medical purposes, if meteorolo- The Government of Portugal has adver. gical observers would institute a series of tised for the best digest of a civil code for experiments to shew what is the compara- that kingdom, in place of the old systein. tive rapidity with which caloric is abstracted The reward for the most approved system from the human frame, in all the vary; is 30,000 crusadoes of gold, or about ing states of atmospherical temperature, 10,0001. ; to be paid in several years. The moisture, weight, and rapidity. The ex. unsuccessful candidates are to be rewarded periments might be tried by means of a according to their merits. The competithermometer raised, say to 98 deg., the tion is open to persons of all countries. point marked blood-heat, and observing

INDIA. accurately the rapidity of the first decre- The difficulty of procuring a proper dements of cooling, under the varying cir- scription of people to fill the situations of cumstances just mentioned. The persons native doctor, has induced the Governoremployed in the late Arctic expedition general to direct the formation of an insticould sustain an intense degree of cold with tution for the instruction of natives in melittle inconvenience if the air was still ; dicine ; to be called the School for Native but a slight breeze rendered the abstraction Doctors. The institution is to be placed of caloric too rapid to be supported, with- under the management of a medical but great suffering and danger. Damp air officer. Hindoos and Moosulmans are to bé equally eligible as students, with the tervention" to prevent the practice of sole condition that they be persons of duelling altogether. It can scarcely be respectable cast and character, and willing doubted, that, if duelling were in every to perform the duties of their calling. The case publicly frowned upon by those who immediate design of this institution is the have the bestowment of national honours supply of the public service, civil and mic and rewards, and in place of it, as has been litary; but we hail it as one more link in often suggested, a court of dignified appeal, the chain of causes and institutions calcu- if necessary, were appointed, this relic of lated to raise the character of the native barbarism might be rendered as unpopular population, and to make way for the ex- as it is disgraceful in itself and contrary to tension of science, education, and, above the most solemn stipulations of our naval all, of Christianity among them.

and military service. And if duelling were A case lately came before a court mar- rendered dishonourable in these profesa tial at Calcutta, of an officer provoking sions, a readiness to murder or be muranother to fight a duel, and continuing a dered upon the slightest provocation, strain of hostility after the commander-in- would not long continue to be thought a chief had ordered the affair to be set at necessary mark of courage in the private rest, and the letters on both sides to be walks of life ; especially after it was once withdrawn. The court found the officer publicly understood that to have fought guilty of not withdrawing his letters ; but, or assisted in a duel would inevitably call considering that he was “influenced solely down the highest earthly displeasure to by honourable feelings, and an anxious de- the anger of God, the deliberate duellist sire to be placed in a situation to clear his must be insensible, and powerfully tend to character from injurious reports," awarded turn aside the stream of honour and pano punishment. The commander-in-chief, tronage from flowing in so discreditable a after urging the many inconveniences channel. which had arisen from this affair, and

THIBET. expressing his surprise that the court had An Italian paper states, we know not adjudged no penal award, declares his upon what authority, “ that the Queen of persuasion that in future " the expediency Thibet has requested no less than eighty will be manifest of an authoritative inters missionaries from the college of the Provention, to stop, in an early stage, the pro- paganda, to convert her semi-barbarous gress of party bickerings, brought within subjects to Christianity; she herself, it is official cognizance, and will shew the fit- alleged, having been converted by an ness of marking with severity any manage- Italian, who has found his way thither, ment for evading the injunction.” We and is now exercising the office of chief notice the subject, chiefly for the purpose minister." of urging the duty of an "authoritative in

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RELIGIOUS INTELLIGENCE.

PRESENT STATE OF THE and patronage. Non-residence, Dr. Yates

CHURCH OF ENGLAND. considers, and justly, as perhaps the most THE Rev. Dr. Yates-who is entitled to serious evil with which our church has at the best thanks of the members of the present to contend. He remarks : Church of England for his diligent exer- “Various deficiences, erroneous arrangetions in pressing on the public attention, ments, and imperfect ministrations, in the several years since, the lamentable ne- several preparatory and superintendant decesssity of increased church-room, and partments of clerical life, have been from whose suggestions were a principal cause time to time noticed and descanted upon; of the formation of the Church Building but the loud voice of public censure has Society, and the Act passed for effecting been more particularly directed to the conthe same object—has just published a Let- centrated danger and powerful mischief, ter to Lord Liverpool, on the patronage of arising from the want of a due, and full, the Church of England considered in and efficient, and personal discharge of the reference to national improvement, the stated and implied duties of a parochial permanence of our ecclesiastical establish- Christian ministry ;-and this defect has ments, and the pastoral charge and clerical been' generally considered as originating character. From his publications we chiefly in what is termed the non-resishall extract some highly important dence of the clergy." statements relative to the present con The celebrated Consolidation Act (57 dition of the Established Church; princi- Geo. III.) like all former statutes, Dr. pally as respects ecclesiastical residence Yatos admits, has failed of effectually se

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30 60

provided, there are no less than 4,809 be sary to tack it on to a larger benefice ? Refices returned without fit habitations for why should its scantiness be considered a the residence of an incumbent; and 4,361 reason for having two clergymen instead benefices not exceeding the annual income of one to partake of its inadequate profits? of 1501. But these returns having been This reasoning applies, more or less, made in the year 1816, before the present wherever a curate is kept by a pluralist. depreciation in the value of all agricultural in the comparatively few cases in which produce, parochial benefices have since livings are so small and so contiguous, that suffered a reduction of at least 25 percent. one incumbent himself attends personally It may be necessary, in order to form a to both, the case is very different. In more accurate idea of the present state of such instances, it is doubtless better that the church establishment, to give an ab- two parishes should be ill supplied than stract of the preceding accounts reduced, neither supplied at all; but all such as the benefices are in fact, full one fourth parishes ought to be forthwith augmented; in their annual income.

and the moment the augmentation becomes Livings from £10 to £30 per ann. 422 such, that a respectable clergyman can be

60 1,207 found to accept of one alone, the excuse

75 75

for pluralities vanishes. A larger stipend 98

793

might be desirable; and ought to be beBenefices not exceeding 981. per ann. 3,067 stowed so as to maintain the incumbent in

a suitable degree of comfort; but an anAnd if the 858 additional benefices returned nexation of livings is not absolutely neto the Bounty Board be reduced in the same cessary, nor ought it to be systematically proportion, we may estimate that at least allowed, except where no respectable two thirds of them do not now exceed clergyman would consent to accept the 981. per annum : this will give 572 to be benefice by itself. added to the above, making a total amount,

• In these remarks, we doubt not, Dr.' according to this estimation, of 3,589 pa

Yates would fully concur ; but the object rochial benefices not exceeding 981. per of his publication being chiefly practical, annur."

he has not so much insisted upon general “It surely affords no occasion of sur- principles, which in the present state of prise that much should remain to be effected affairs are not likely to be speedily carried when, upon an accurate estimation, con- into effect, as upon the necessity of some siderably more than a third of the paro- minor regulations which he considers chial benefices appear to be without a fit would diminish the evil which they could house for the residence of a minister, not wholly remedy. The following pasand nearly one half of them without an sages contain the substance of his suge annual revenue of one hundred pounds. gestions :How lamentably insufficient this must be Temporal advantages will in the geto the respectable maintenance of a liberally neral and regular course of nature be educated public instructor, needs not any sought for by all ;-by men of strict prinfurther enforcement to make evident." ciples and high sense of character and res

We deeply lament, with Dr. Yates, ponsibility in subserviency to those printhese circumstances so ruinous to the ciples; by men of less regard to conefficiency of the Established Church; but science and duty, in less justifiable and we do not see that the smallness of bene- less direct methods. Severe enactments, fices is any just reason, publicly speaking, and penalties of heavy pressure, have been, for the encouragement of pluralities ; for and will continue to be, counteracted and if a benefice will not maintain a resident evaded in every possible way. rector or vicar, how should it both main- “ Those who have patrons and friends tain a curate and in addition furnish a may be willing to obtain the assistance of • surplus for a non-resident pluralist. such patronage to give full operation to Scanty benefices most certainly ought to the permission of the law; and if a judgbe augmented; but they ought not to be ment may be formed from experience of systematically added to larger ones to eke the past, it is to be expected that, in fuout a non-resident incumbent's income, türe, every possible expedient will be rewhile the resident curate performs the sorted to, for the purpose of effecting exwhole duty. Would not the curate in changes, to extend those permissions to almost every such case gladly accept the their utmost verge of either expressed or living, small as it is, and contrive to main- implied legality. tain himself upon it, at least till he pro. “ The very small, unworthy, and insufeared a better; and if so, why is it neces- ficient maintenance, afforded by so large a

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