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evening service announced at sent I do not recollect four places church to begin at early candle of all those at which I have stopped light. This want of precision would either to eat or sleep, since I left run away with all the spare hours in Washington in January, where there our country Another thing which were no domestic slaves ; and in two struck me in the valley was the of these instances abject poverty was large proportion of cleared land, pleaded as an apology! At most even and the absence of the stumps of of the better houses of entertainment trees, which are every where con- where you stay, you see black slospicuous amidst the crops in the venly looking hovels round the yard, countries settled within the last where the domestic Negroes live, twenty years. On reaching East and the young Black fry are crawlTennessee, the sight of two fields in ing about the door, and, if the fadepth appeared so strange as to re- mily are indulgent, about the house. mind me strongly of England ; cul- The Black children are frequently tivation seldom extending in a great quite naked, as sleek and glossy as part even of the cleared country may be; and I have often thought above one field deep into the woods. how you would laugh at their little A pair of stocks, which I saw on a rotund alderman-like figures. When village green in the valley, at last very young, they seem to mix alfurnished a decisive proof that we most indiscriminately with the White were again within the pale of children, who however occasionally civilization.
demonstrate their assumed I was most interested, however, periority, though less frequently in observing a great alteration in and less peevishly than I should the relative numbers of the White have expected, at least as far as fell and Black population, and a cor- under my observation. The very responding increase of free labour youngest of them appear to me to engaged in agriculture. This is view a White gentleman with some probably owing to the poverty of distrust, and to be daunted with any the early settlers, which has secured thing like attention. With the aid to their posterity a greater blessing of my watch, however, I have genethan the richest inheritance of rally succeeded in setting them a blood and muscles. Not that these little at ease, and have often found lovely scenes are unpolluted by them very arch little figures. Notslavery: there is scarcely a family withstanding the painful feelings without slaves, and almost every their situation must excite, there is tavern is branded with the most something so very grotesque in the disgusting advertisements for run- contour of these little Black cupids, aways; but the heart is less fre- that I cannot, to this moment, quently sickened at the sight of avoid smiling when I see them. large gangs (excuse this hideous When treated with kindness and but technical term), broiling under confidence, as they often are, the a vertical sun, and goaded to pre- older ones seem to make excellent ternatural labour by the brutal lash. and intelligent servants; and my Here their masters, or other White first impressions of their well ordered labourers, occasionally work among manners and good language have them; and the several productions of been fully confirmed. Their desire this part of the country are less to speak well, or rather their paspowerful stimulants to the avaricesion for it, and their love of long of their owners, than the sugar, words, often lead them into humorous rice, or cotton of more southern mistakes. A few mornings since, states.
when I asked the ostler what time I shall be truly glad when I can he generally opened the stables, pass a day without seeing one fel- he said he always slept there “ in low-creature in bondage. At pre- order to congratulate gentlemen on urgent business.”—In the better inn, to breakfast, where I saw some kind of houses of entertainment, journals containing recent British there are usually several juvenile news; and among other articles of slaves of different ages waiting on intelligence, the
sentence proyou at table, the little ones under nounced on Thistlewood and his the orders of the oldest. At this associates. We shortly afterwards season of the year, one or two are passed throughCharlottesville, where employed in driving away the flies. General Tarleton was nearly capturAt Mr.
's at Natchez, I ing Mr. Jefferson and the Legislafound they had adopted the Indian ture in the Revolutionary War, being mode of keeping you cool and drive prevented only by a private intiing the flies away, having a large mation from a female relation of one fan suspended from the top of the of the officers a few miles distant, room, wafted by a little Negro in at whose house the General and the adjoining hall, who pulled a his suite had invited themselves to string. We were several times breakfast. Here we saw an extenamused to see him continue his sive university, which the State is see-saw operation when apparently érecting under Mr. Jefferson's fast asleep; only starting a little auspices, and to which it is intended occasionally when he made too to invite the ablest professors which deep a vibration.
Europe can supply. We arrived at On the 16th, about an hour be- Monticello, three miles farther, at fore sun-set, I reached Waynesbro', eleven o'clock, ascending the southa peaceful village at the foot of the west mountain, on which the house Blue ridge, very like one of the little is situated, by a winding carriagevillages in the north of England. road through the woods. I sent in Here I began to ascend at Rock my letter to Mr. Jefferson, who Fish Gap. After a steep ascent of came out, and gave me a very polite two miles and a half we reached reception; but of my interesting the summit, and had a fine view of visit to this philosophic legislator, the valley between the Blue ridge I must give you the particulars and the North mountain. A hundred when we meet. Crossing the Ripaces brought us into another world, vannah, at the bottom of Mr. Jefferas we began to descend into the son's grounds, the water up to our deeper valley on the eastern side; saddle skirts, we proceeded to Mrs. and for some time I enjoyed one Boyd's tavern, about eight miles of the most magnificent views distant. On the 19th (the 18th which can well be conceived. I being Sunday), we resumed our think I never shall forget the half journey; and on the 20th reached hour I spent in contemplating this Richmond. We breakfasted that scene; first, gilded by the rays of a morning at a very comfortable inn, glowing sun going down to the with a rich tobacco planter and his inhabitants of the valley while it wife, who were going to Richmond. was yet day," and then losing every The lady's Black maid rode on feature of sublimity and beauty in horseback behind; and I suppose the indistinctness and obscurity of nothing would have induced them night. I thought of you all; of our to admit her into the carriage. summer evenings, and our moun- The Black servants who drive their tain views; and rode to a quiet inn masters or mistresses in gigs geneat the foot of the Blue ridge, the re- rally sit on the steps, which has a tirement of which allowed me to most unpleasant and unsafe appearindulge my home recollections till ance. I was particularly struck I went to bed.
with this at Charleston and SaThe next morning, at four o'clock, vannah. I proceeded to Grock's, an excellent Excuse a long rambling letter, written under a degree of heat more disqualify them no less in body than oppressive than I ever yet expe- in mind for the ruder occupations of rienced.—Yours, &c.
society, I wish to inquire whether (To be continued.)
it is not both possible and highly desirable to form one or more Cle
rical Provident Societies, the object Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. of which would be for the clergy
to insure each other, in such a way The affecting exhibition of the pe- that their families would be entitled, cuniary necessities of a very large in case of their death, to claim, not portion of our national clergy, con- as a charitable boon, but a debt, a tained in your last Number, from the certain annuity or sum of money to statements in Dr. Yates's recent be fixed by the rules of the instipublication, induces me to trouble tution. you with a few lines on a subject The most obvious plan would be, which has of late been a matter of that every clergyman should invest much conversation in ecclesiastical annually, or at once, a certain sum circles; I mean the formation of in the proposed clerical insurance : Clerical Provident Societies, either the relief arising from which must of for the benefit of clergymen in course be calculated according to the want or old age, or for the benefit ordinary probabilities of mortality: of their destitute families after their To this, however, there is one very death. The clergy ought doubtless formidable objection; namely that to be enabled to maintain them- those whose families, and themselves selves and their dependents com- in old age, would most need assistfortably and competently upon the ance, could not generally subscribe
emoluments of their profession : sums sufficient to afford any thing serving at the altar, they ought to like a suitable provision. Indeed, if be able to live by the altar. So far, they could do so, the best way would however, is this from being generally be at once to insure their lives in the case, that a large portion of them an ordinary insurance office. These might nearly starve, as far as public offices, however, would not admit provision is concerned; their de- what are called “bad lives ;" and ficiency of clerical income being what is then to be done in the case supplied either by their private for- of those of the clergy who are sickly, tune or by the arduous labours of and who constitute the very pertuition. Indeed, many even of those sons for whom, and for whose fawho hold ecclesiastical preferments milies, the projected relief is often sufficient for their support can hard- most needed? ly be said to live wholly by means It is clear also, that the admission of the church; since their livings of bad lives into a clerical mutual have been bestowed upon them by provident society would reduce the friends or relations, as an outfit value of the assurance, and thus perhaps for life, to the exclusion place a young and healthy clergyman of a share of property which would subscribing, in a worse condition otherwise have ultimately fallen to than if he had put out his money in their lot.
the common offices. Considering it unnecessary, from It seems then impracticable, on the notoriety of the fact, to prove these and other grounds, to plan an that the widows and families of our efficient clerical provident institution clergy are often great sufferers from on the mere principles of business. the want of a provision being made The advocates for the measure have for their support-a provision the therefore generally mixed up conmore necessary on account of their siderations of charity with their education and habits of life, which scheme; and have proposed that the more affluent of the clergy, and as shall wholly obviate this eyil. The many as should see fit of the laity importance and exigence of the case, also, should subscribe to the fund, however, demands that every reasonbut without any intention of re- able suggestion should be delibeceiving assistance from it either for rately weighed, and not abandoned themselves or their families. Now till it is found either inexpedient or it is a grave question whether, gene- impracticable.
B. rally speaking, this eleemosynary assistance could be secured on scale sufficiently liberal and permanent to supply so large a demand as Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. would inevitably arise ; and even if it could, this after all would be but
The public convenience having another species of charitable society, new Marriage Act, and the details
loudly demanded a revision of the in which the claim of each applicant for assistance must be met, not as a
of that revision being now under the
consideration of Parliament, I am matter of regular official demand, but according to the necessities of anxious to call the attention of those
of the case. In fact, the matter must
your readers who have influence always come to this; that a curate directly or indirectly in the business or small incumbent cannot possibly of our national legislation, to one make a comfortable provision for his most ominous feature of the recent family out of his scanty income, ex: Marriage Act--the injudicious and cept by enabling them to provide which it enjoins. In your review
irreverent multiplication of oaths for themselves. A general clerical mutual insurance therefore, if en
of its provisions, in your Number joined by law, would be merely
for September, 1822, you strongly making the richer brother pay for the pointed out this enormous evil **; poorer. I do not say that a distant
• “ Independently,” you remark, " of prospective measure of this kind the minor objections that we entertain would be altogether unjust, as the against the new Marriage Act, we cannot sums assessed would be taken out of but avow two, that we think are of more the general church property in pro- than ordinary weight. The first is, the portion to the magnitude of its parts; multiplication of oaths which it will but this is certainly not what the occasion. Already is our statute-book projectors of the measure intend. On grievously open to this objection. For
purposes the most trivial, for offices the the other hand, if it were not en
most ordinary, an oath is indispensable. joined by law, the scheme could not, .A pound of tea cannot find its way to the it is feared, be carried into effect,
consumer, without passing where oaths no unless, as before remarked, upon the less than seven have been administered. principles of charity.
Now, unquestionably, if the sanction of an The writer of a respectable little oath is justifiably required any where, it is pamphlet justpublished, entitled “Pro- in the article of marriage; but still we posal for the Formation of a Clerical think the number far too great. A comProvident Fund, by a Rector" (Oxford,
mon marriage by banns now requires two
oaths; that by licence, three at the least, in * 1823), but which did not issue from
some instances four or five: and we can the press till some months after the foresee cases where not less than sir oaths substance of the foregoing remarks will be necessary before a licence can be was committed to paper, strongly obtained, besides the inconvenience, the and justly protests against the pro- difficulty, and the delay, which all this will posed relief for the clergy partaking occasion. In all cases
, both parties, the of the nature of a charitable insti- lady as well as the gentleman, are to make tution. In this he is clearly in the the affidavit. Surely this increase of oaths right; but I do not comprehend, feeling for the sacred obligation of an oath,
is not likely to revive that reverential from his pamphlet, in what manner which its hackneyed repetition, in coman arrangement can be made which pliance with the incessant demands of the CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 255.
but I fear that the subject has not have been relanded in Great Britain, hitherto sufficiently arrested the at- in consequence of the vessel being tention, either of the public or of stranded on her passage, but that those with whom it immediately lies they were subsequently reshipped, to provide a remedy.
and arrived at the destined port. The multiplication of oaths, par
When the merchant is preparing ticularly in matters of revenue, is to ship particular descriptions of among the most disgraceful parts goods, which he has received proof our national enactments. How miscuously from the interior of the such an abuse can have so long been country, he is compelled to swear tolerated in a Christian country, it that he believes the duties of excise is almost impossible to conceive. to have been fully paid; although Its existence, indeed, can surely be it is known that he has no precise accounted for on no other principle information on the subject. If the than the difficulty of exterminating commodities happen to be printed an evil once incorporated in the calicoes, he is compelled further to system, and implicated with all its swear that they have been printed official forms. To call upon the since the 10th May, 1787; if plateHigh and Lofty One, who in- glass, that it has been made since habiteth eternity, to witness the the 5th July, 1812. truth of the commonest assertions Before he can recover the duty in the details of commercial life; on particular goods, which he is in the hurry of distracting engage- going to re-export, he is compelled, ments, perpetually to invoke that in the first place, to obtain an oath Sacred Name which the Jews, in from the parties by whom they were their solemnities, were scarcely per- originally imported, and then an mitted to pronounce, is in the high- oath from all the intermediate perest degree irreverent, if not abso- sons through whose hands they may lutely profane.
have passed. If an accident prevent If a merchant, in the discharge him from shipping his goods by the of his vessel, finds that, in conse- vessel he intended, he must take an quence of some error in the docu- oath before he can enter them for 'ments received from abroad, he has another ship. paid the duty on a greater quantity But I will not proceed further of commodities than were actually in this long catalogue of oaths: the in the ship, he is compelled to take preceding statement is sufficient to an oath before he can recover the prove that they are multiplied to a excess, although the custom-house most lamentable excess. officer, who attended the discharge, Now, sir, it cannot but be dishas certified that his statement is pleasing to the Governor of the correct. If he is going to receive Universe, to behold the Sacred Rethe drawback on goods shipped to cord of his Divine communication foreign parts, he is compelled, after thus prostituted to the commonest producing an official certificate that purposes of life; degraded from the they have been landed at the destined dignity of its high and awful errand, port, to SWEAR that they have not to rank among the instruments of been landed, nor intended to be re- official forms. Who that has learned landed, in any part of Great Britain, to appreciate justly this depository &c.; and that they were, at the time of our brightest hopes-ato discern in of entry, the property of A. B. it a solution of the phenomena of This oath is required, although the human life, an antidote to the evils merchant may, at the same moment, which press so heavily on our frail inform the collector, that the goods condition, and the only rational
support in the fearful hour of our statute-book has nearly extinguished."" mysterious change-but must mourn Christian Observer for 1822, p. 591. to see it divested of all its sublime