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that every deliberative assembly must thor of peace and the lover of concer out possess a certain power over its mem- avert in his mercy the awful porter bers, in order to the due discharge of of this afflicting crisis! The declan its functions, which would always be rations of the British government in liable to derangement is a refractory both houses of parliament indicate, individual might not be silenced or that scarcely any rational hope now expelled; but this power should be remains of peace being preserved beexercised on something of fixed print tween France and Spain. ciple, and should be regulated by SPAIN.–Whether Spain is capable at known rules. By absenting them the present moment of resisting the selves, however, from the sittings of the mighty shock which is preparing for chamber, the opposition deprive the her, is a question which cannot be public of the benefit of those consti- thought of without some considerable tutional discussions which are always, apprehension. Neither her finances in the end, if judiciously and tempe- nor her military establishments would rately conducted, serviceable to the appear equal to the prompt repulse of progress of truth and liberty, however a powerful invading army, especially incapable they may be at the moment when we consider the wide extent of of effecting their immediate object. her internal disorders. She has howThere is nothing which the ultra ever to calculate, on the other hand, party so much dread as inquiry, dise on the civil discontents of France cussion, and the free collision of mind on the spirit known to pervade the with mind. We see this throughout French army, an so strongly demontheir whole policy; in education, in strated in the affair of M. Manuel; on religion, and in the affairs of civil go- the countenance of free governments vernment. Even Pestalozzian estab- throughout the world ; and, we would lishments and independent schools, hope, in the event of invasion, on the especially those on the system of mu- rising enthusiasm of her own poputual instruction, which at one period lation, who are not likely to be effecwere making such hopeful progress, tually conquered unless it becomes have been either discountenanced, or their own wish to be so. The conduct as far as possible drawn within the of the legislature and government has range of ultra influence. And the go- continued to be spirited and decisive. vernment begins to frown even on the extraordinaryCortes, which closed Protestant Bible Societies. Soon, if on the 19th February, provided, before affairs proceed as their projectors seem their dissolution, for the transfer of to wish, no author in France will dare the seat of government from Madrid to write any thing, no printer to print to some other place, in case tbe capital any thing, no instructor to teach any should be menaced by a foreign army, thing, no individual to whisper any The king refused to sign this act, and thing, but what the votaries of reli- dismissed his ministers who pressed it; gious and political bigotry may sanc- but the public agitation became so tion. And here lies our great fear for great that he was obliged to restore that unhappy country; for as

we

them. They afterwards resigned vos cannot for a moment suppose that luntarily, and new ones were appoint

the clock of ages" can be finally puted. The ordinary Cortes met on the so far back as the ultra party desire, 1st of March. The speech from the or that the shadows of night will really throne, and their reply, were both returo on the face of this enlightened couched in the strongest language of nation, we dread the convulsious constitutional patriotism. They place which may yet ensue, tire tremendous their cause on the broad basis of interstruggle, in which may again be agi- national justice, declaring most urtated--not perhapswithout a long period gently that the fundamental laws of of bloodshed and suffering all those Spain can be dictated only by herself, interests which more than thirty years and that they will resist to the utmost of fearful confliction have not yet ad- extremity all hustile interference. justed.

The regular Cortes quite concur with The duc d'Angoulême has set off the extraordinary Cortes in the proto join the army, which is stated to priety of removing the king, court, consist of 90,000 men. The advanced and legislature, should the metropolis guard of 30,000 men has been for some be threatened. Seville is spoken of tine on the frontiers of Spain. May as the most likely place of retreat. the God of battles, who is also the au- The Constitutionalists are stated to

1823.ndiaries, of France.

gion, or for any other beneficial object, ing

PORTUGAL.- An attempt has been due regard being paid to the rights of made in the province of Tras os Mon- every person at present in the enjoytes to produce a counter-revolution. ment of such property: that it is esThe condé de Amarante has raised pedient to inquire whether the Irish the standard of rebellion at Villa Real, Church establishment is not greater and is stated to have under his com than is necessary, both as regards mand a hardy and desperate band of the number of persons employed, and peasantry. The Cortes thought it the amount of their income; and, if so, necessary, upon the receipt of this whether a reduction should not take intelligence, instantly to pass an act place, with due regard to all existing somewhat similar to the suspension of claims: and that the best interests of the habeas corpus act in this country. Ireland require a fair commutation of It is to be feared that those who.or- tithes. In the course of his speech, ganized or fomented the disturbances Mr. Hume stated, that his object was in Spain may have found their way gradually to reduce the members of to Porlugal also; where, however, the Irish bench (as the present posthere is, if possible, still less shadow sessors die off) to one archbishop and of reason for interference than in four bishops, instead of four 'archSpain, as the Constitution was effect- bishops and twenty-two bishops. The ed with the most prompt acquiescence whole remaining body of dignitaries of all the public authorities, the King he also considered far too large; and himself being among the foremost as for deans and chapters he thought io sanctioning the measure.

them wholly useless, and proposed CHINA.-A dreadful conflagration that such appointments should be broke out in Canton on the 1st of last left unfilled up as they became graNovember, and continued till the dually vacant.' He introduced his remorning of the 3d. The number of solutions with premising, that Ireland houses destroyed is estimated, accord- contains 6,800,000 souls, of whom ing to the English account, at 13,700: 5,820,000 are Roman Catholics; that the Chinese make it 16,000. Five consequently only 980,800 Protestants hundred Chinese are calculated to (and of these a large part were Dishave perished. The East-India Com- senters) remained to be benefited by pany have lost property, it is said, to the ministrations of the Established a large amount. Their treasure was Church; that the revenues dedicated saved. Forty thousand Chinese are to this service were far too large; that said to be deprived of their habita- two-elevenths of the whole of the land tions; and some years must elapse is the property of the church; that of before Canton can recover its former 14,800,0001., ihe annual rental of Irecondition.

land, not less than 2,500,000l. (equal,

he thought, if duly improved, to DOMESTIC.

3,250,0001) belonged to the estabWe have already alluded to the de- lished clergy; that in the year 1819, clarations of ministers as to the im- out of 1289 beneficed clergymen, 531 probability of peace being preserved were non-resident; and that of the between France and Spain. They remainder, called residents, a large have engaged to lay before Parlia- portion lived many miles from their ment, soon after the Easter recess, the benefices. He proposed that all the correspondence between this country clergy should have an income of from and the continental powers on the 1501. to 500l. per annum; instead of subject. They appear wisely to have their present great disparity of remuendeavoured to prevent this country neration. The honourable member's froin being rashly committed as a sweeping propositions, we need not party in hostilities.

say, were rejected by the house; not The important subject of Irish tithes less on account of some of the fundahas been brought under parliamentary mental principles upon which they discussion. Mr. Hume proposed the proceeded, than for the exaggeration appointnsent of a committee to carry which evidently prevailed in his deinto effect several resolutions; sta g, tails. On a subsequent evening, Mr. that the property of the bishops, deans, Goulburn brought forward the plan and chapters in Ireland is public pra- proposed by governinent for the ame

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lioration of the Irish tylhe-system. and that, from some hints thro It consists of two parts. The first is by several speakers, it seems a bill to promote a temporary com- bable that the similar enactmentsf concori" position of tithes: the second for a the marriage act, and other acts, whortent, propermanent commutation. The first be rescinded, and care taken to pre- decla

U proposes that the Lord-lieutenant shall vent this interference with the service have the power, upon the requisition of God in all future statutes. of an incumbent or of a certain num- Another subject is also before Parber of the tithe-payers in his parish, liament, and one of a most weighty to direct the assembling of a special character, and respecting which the vestry, to be composed of tithe-payers only wonder to every wise and humane of a certain amount, who shall be mind must be, that the consideration authorized to choose a commissioner of it has been so long delayed—we on behalf the parish, to negociate mean the state of Slavery in our West with a commissioner chosen by the India Colonies, with a view to its ameincumbent; the two comasissioners, lioration and ultimate extinction. That if necessary, choosing an umpire. the miseries of the Slave should be The commissioners thus voluntarily Dearly what they were, before the narappointed by both parties (for the mea- rative of those miseries first thrilled sure is not compulsory on either) are through the ears of a British Parliato take the average price of corn for the ment; that even since the abolition three preceding years, in order to fix of the Slave Trade, the human being a composition, which is to be renewed pronounced by that abolition to have in the same manner iriennially. The been cruelly and unjustly torn from manner of levying the composition is his hone, should remain in the same to be by the parish assessors, in the unmitigated state of bitter captivity to same way as the poors' rates. This which his brutal captors consigned is to our minds far the most important him; that bis unoffending infant after part of the plan, as it will prevent the him should be condemned to wear his present painful collision between the parent's chaio, in interminable bonclergyand their parishioners respecting dage; that tens and hundreds of thou. the payment oftithes; theodium result- sands of our fellow-beings and fellowing from which is most injurious to the subjects should be suffered to pass repose of the pastor, and to the spiri- though life, toiling beneath the tertual interests of his flock. The second rors of the lash, destitute of all that bill proposes, that wherever the mutual makes life valuable; degraded, so far consent of a clergyman and his pa- as man, originally created in the image rishioners shall be obtained, a perma- , of God, can be degraded, by ignorance nent contract may be entered into to ' and vice, by stripes and oppressiou; secure the incumbent an equitable that in the third decade of the nineportion of land in lieu of tithes. The teenth century such a state of things national debt commissioners are, if ne- should exist within the dominions of cessary, to advance money to purchase this free, and happy, and liberalthe land; and are to be paid their in- minded, and Christian country, is terest and principal by means of the indeed an anomaly which cannot tithes, at the valuation fixed in the be contemplated without extreme surcomposition, and which the officers of prise, as well as pain. It is not negovernment are themselves to levy. cessary to allude to particular inObjections, and strong ones, may stances of cruelly, in order to shew the doubtless be made to this or any other incalculable mischiefs of such a state measure for the commutation of tithes; of things; and that not to the slave but, all the circumstances of Ireland only, but, in the end, to the master, considered, we think the plan calcu- and to the country that allows the unlated to be of great utility. . The an- contruuled perpetuation of slavery. nunciation of it was most cordially Our readers will have perceived, in received by all parties in the House the excellent paper which we have of Commons.

inserted in another part of our NumWe are glad to state, that a bill is ber,(see Religious Intelligence;p.186.) to be brought before Parliament to that the advocates for the mitigation relieve the clergy from the well-meant, and gradual extinction of slavery rest but injudicious, obligation of reading their cause upon the inherent and inthe act against profane sweating four separable mischiefs which it involves; times a-year during Divine service; and not upon the frequent and affecta

ing instances (which, however, must ward the subject, and is to submit not be forgotten) of individual barba, motion on the 7th of May, for a Comrity. We can trace the hand of a be- mittee to consider the state of slavery neficent Providence educing good out in the West Indies. The views of the of evil in the aspect which this great benevolent individuals who have this question has begun to assume; for subject at heart are not povel; Mr. had the extinction of the traffic by all Wilberforce has alluded to several the powers of Europe been at once eminent statesmen, who have sanccompleted, and had the interest of the tioned those views; among the rest, slave-holder so far overcome the ordi- Mr. Burke, Mr. Pitt, Mr. Fox, and the nary, prejudices of a slave colony as late Lord Melville. To them he might to raise his unhappy victim but a very have added the name of a revered few degrees in the scale of humanity, prelate, not then in Parliament-the the great guestion might have died present Bishop of St. David's—who away and been forgotten, and West as long since as the year 1789, pubIndia Slavery have continued to de- lished, anonymously, a work which form the creation for centuries to he has since acknowledged, entitled come, or till worn out by its own in- “ Considerations on the Abolition of nate self-destructive properties. But Slavery and the Slave Trade, upon the obstinate retention of the traffic grounds of natural, religious, and poabroad, and the manifest indisposition litical Duty." We are particularly in our own colonies-effectually to anxious to urge the subject upon our ameliorate the condition of the slave, readers on the second of these grounds; have forced the whole. subject upon but for the present we must take leave the public and parlianientary atten- of them and of the question. They will tion; and greatly are we deceived if find many very important facts and the resorm and final extinction of this arguments connected with this and inhuman system may not be calculat- other parts of the subject, in a pamed upon at no great distance of time. phlet recently published, entitled

The shape in which the question" Negro Slavery, or a View of some of has been introduced to the British the more prominent Features of the public and the legislature has been State of Society, as it exists in the peculiarly adapted to secure attention United States and the West Indies.” and inquiry. A petition has been They will be particularly affected presented by the great leader of the by some statements given in that protracted parliamentary struggle on publication, on the testimony of the slave-trade, from a body of per- Mr. Cooper, a missionary to the sons--the Society of Friends-as slaves in one of the islands, who was well known for their disinterestedness obliged to return home on account of and abstinence from political or reli- the difficulties thrown in the way of gious janglings, as for the long tried the religious instruction of the slaves liberality and firmness with which by the incessant labours exacted from they have interposed between the them. The whole question of free slave-trader and the unhappy victim and slave labour, and the impossibiof his cupidity. They also had been lity of the latter competing with the the first to petition against the Slave former, will be found ably discussed Trade. We have so far exceeded our in several recent pamphlets, and limits that we regret we cannot give among others, in Mr. Hodgson's valueven a brief outline of Mr. Wilber- able "Letter 10 Mr. Say." Parliament force's eloquent and convincing ad- will, we hope, enter fully and cordially dress in presenting the petition. He into the whole question. Our legisconsidered that the object which the lators surely will not allow it to be said petitioners wished to ensure was re- that they can humanely attend to the commended not less by sound policy comforts of the inferior animals—that and the true interests of the colonists they will not suffer a horse to be wanthemselves, than by justice and hu- tonly injured, or an ox to appear in manity to the slave. He was sure, . Smithfield market with marks of unwhatever obstacles might be thrown necessary laceration-without interin the way of the cause he advocated, posing and punishing the offender; it would and must prevail at last. His but that human beings, their fellowhealth not allowing of his bearing the subjects, may be exposed to the same, whole fatigue of this great contest or harsher treatment, without comfor a contest we fear it will be-Mr. miseration or redress. We will not Buxton has undertaken to bring for- even venture to imagine such an alCHRIST. OBSERV. No. 255.

2 D

ternative ; for even if the Negro 'race deserve, and the more so for this imawere as brutish as some who ought to gined imbecility, that they should reknow better represent them; it facts pose under the protectiug arm of a Briproved, what they clearly disprove, tish Legislature, and enjoy the ameliothat they cannot be civilized, or chris- rating privileges of our common Christianized, or instructed; still they would tianity.

O BI TU AR Y. THE LATE BISHOP AND ARCHDEACON OF CALCUTTA. We have been waiting the publication mons which his lordship found time of such a full and authentic record of amidst his oriental labours to publish the life, character, and writings of the for the promotion of Christianity both late Dr. MIDDLETON, the proto-bishop among the Native and the European of Calcutta, as might enable us to add population in his diocese. Soine of some interesting notices to those which the masterly details respecting what have at different times appeared in will long perpetuate his name as do our pages relative to that much-la- most important literary and Christian mented prelate. In the mean time, benefactor to India-the mission colwe are warned by the decease of ano- lege at Calcutta—may be found in our ther respected dignitary of the Indian volumes for 1821, p. 456, and p. 643 ; Episcopal Church-the very individual and 1822, p. 59. Our present volume on whom especially devolved the me- (see Number for January, p. 64,) relancholy office of paying the last tri- cords the measures taken by the Sobute to his lordship's memory in his ciety for promoting Christian Knowown catherlral -not to delay any ledge, to honour his memory by the longer the brief sketch which we pro erection of a monument for him in St. posed to exhibit.

Paul's cathedral, and endowing five The principal passages of his lord- scholarships in his college at Calcutta, ship's literary and public life have al- according to a plan which he himself ready been recorded in our pages. In had suggested. We might mention our volume for 1809, appeared a re

several other references in our pages view, continued during threeNumbers, to his learning, his anxiety for the of his lordship's celebrated and justly promotion of Christianity, bis zeal for valued work on the Greek Article, the welfare of the natives of India, which we endeavoured strongly to re- and his indefatigable labours in the commend to the attention of the pub- high duties of his station. But the lic. In our volume for 1813, p. 674, passages already alluded to will prewe gave an account of his truly inter

sent to our readers, far better than we esting and excellentCharge to the Rev. could do by a summary mention, the Mr. Jacobi, on his proceeding to India general outline of his lordship's senas a missionary. Our next volume timents and conduct. We shall thererecorded his own appointment to that fore at present confine ourselves chief country as its proto-bishop. In our ly to a list of facts and dates, adding volume for 1819, p. 470, we gave two or three extracts from the testientire his lordship's celebrated letter mony of those who knew him intirespecting the best methods of pro- mately both before and after he left inoting Christianity in India; which this country. we ventured to pronounce, and still Dr. Middleton was born in Jan, consider, as “ one of the most im- 1769, at Kedleston in Derbyshire, and portant documents of a religious kind was the only child of the Rev. Thomas which has ever appeared in our pages Middleton of that place. He was eduIn our volumes for 1820, p. 558, and cated at Christ's Hospital, wbence he 1822, p. 58, will be found some in- proceeded, upon one of the school teresting extracts from two of the ser- exhibitions, to Pembroke IIall, CamArchdeacon LORING preached a

bridge, where he took the degrees of funeral sermon for the Bishop, in the D.D. in 1808.

B. A. 1792; M. A. 1795; and B. and morning (July 14); and Mr. Parson in the atternoon. Neither of these sermons,

In March 1792, after taking the ye believe, has been published either in degree of B. A. and being ordained India or in this country.

deacon by the then Bishop of Lincoln

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