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(Dr. Pretyman), he entered upon his has been lamented both in Great Briclerical duties at Gainsborough. In tain and in India. 1794 he was selected by Dr. John Mr. Archdeacon Pott, in proposing Pretyman, Archdeacon of Lincoln, at a meeting of the Society for proand brother of the bishop, to be tutor moting Christian Knowledge the reto his two sons. The bishop present

solutions already referred to, so hoed him, in 1795, to the rectory of nourable to the memory of Dr. MidTansor, in Northamptonshire. About dleton, remarked as follows respecting this time he published a periodical the reluctance with which his friend essay without his name,' entitled accepted the episcopal charge of India. “ The Country Spectator.” In 1797 “'I have heard him say, in the he married Elizabeth, eldest daughter warm effusion of his heart, that he of John Maddison, Esq. of Gainsbo- bad revolved the subject which had rough. In 1798 he published, " The been placed before him by the wishes Blessing and the Curse; a Thanks- of those who, with so much judgment, giving on occasion of Lord Nelson's selected hin, for this charge; and that and other Victories;" and in 1802 having, without eagerness of mind, obtained from his former patron the or overweening confidence, surveyed consolidated rectory of Little Bytham, the matter on all sides, and having with Castle Bytham annexed, which lent an ear to the call, he though he held with Tansor by dispensation. that it remained for him to cast every In 1808 he established his reputation care behind him, and to address himas a scholar by the publication of his self with an humble trust in the good celebrated “ 'I'reatise on the Doctrine providence of Almighty God to the of the Greek Article, applied to the work to which he was appointed. Criticism and the Illustration of the “ I had occasion to see something New Testament;" and the following of the course of study in 'which he year, his “ Christ Divided, a Sermon was then occupied, which was various preached at the Visitation of the Lord in its objects, but directed to one end. Bishop of Lincoln."

I had often telt the power and energy In 1810, he began to act as a Magis- of his comprehensive mind, the com. trate fur the county of Northampton ; pass and sagacity of which have since but in 1811 resigned his livings in been so signally displayed; and I that county, upon being presented may, I hope, be allowed to say, that to the Vicarage of St. Pancras, Mid- the Church of England, by the care dlesex, and Puttenham, Herts.-In of those who preside in it, with whose April 1812, he was collated by the advice and approbation we must all Bishop of Lincoln to the archdeaconry feel convinced that the new-formed of Huntingdon; and in the 'autumn diocese received its first appointed of the same year he directed his atten- pastor, discharged a weighty trust with tion to the deplorable condition of the a singular discretion.” parish of St. Pancras, in which he Mr. Parsons, in his funeral sermo i found a population of upwards of (an extract from which he allowed t. • 50,000 persons, with only the ancient be taken by the Corresponding Com. very small village church, which could mittee of the Church Missionary Sonot accommodate a congregation of ciety), remarked : more than 300. On this occasion he “ To advance under God the gooil published" An Address to the Parish- work of Brown, Martyn, and Buchaioners of St. Pancras, Middlesex, on nan, the Bishop has appositely given the intended Application to Parlia- to the cause of missions the identical ment for a New Church," 8vo. Dr. sort of sanction which it wanted. It Middleton caused a bill to be brought wanted political countenance, and the into Parliament, for powers to erect reputation of sound learning. Judged a new church. The bill was lost, in dangerous in its apparent disregard of the debate upon the second reading. political cares, it was judged of dis

The chiet remaining memoranda putable orthodoxy in point of doctrine. of his life will be found by referring Jo the Church, it had been supposed to the passages above noticed, in our 10 characterize a party. Stability and former volumes. His lordship expired ballast appeared to be wanting to this at Calcutta on the 8th of last July, aged ark upon the waters. Old institutions 53 years, after a short but severe illness for the purpose did comparatively no. of only a few days, leaving a widow, thing toward it: the Government of but no children. We need not add, England had not expressed itself fahow deeply and universally his loss vourably on the subject, beyond an

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Answers to Correspondents. ancient indication or two, grown ob the Archdeacon of Calcutta on the 4th solete: the universities, as such, sent September. This melancholy event forth no men in the cause : it was was produced by a violent attack of prosecuted but collaterally, and by in. cholera morbus, which baffled all medividual efforts : Do provision existed, dical skill. Archdeacou Loring was humanly speaking, for the continuance in every respect, and in the truest sense of missionary exertions in the Church. of the word, 'amiable: it was imposOur departed Bishop has conferred sible to know, and not to love him. upon the missionary camise, according Honest, plain, and manly integrity, to his predilections as to the mode of doing to others as he would be done it, every attestation, aid, and honour, by;' unaffected humility, esteeming which it could expect to receive from others better than himself;' gentlehim. Instead of a dangerous project, manly principles and manners, and he has, with reason, said, that it, or sincere piety, all united greatly to ennothing, must prove our safety in these dear this respectable clergyman to the possessions-that it were preposterous now sorrowing circle of his friends. to suppose ourselves' established here “ As a religious character, the Archfor any purpose except to make kpown deacon will be judged of according to the Son of God to a people ignorant of the views and feelings of those who him. He gave the missionary cause may dwell upon his character. He his heart. During life, he employed regarded religion as an awful thing, on the Mission College all his elabo- and cultivated it in humility of heart, rateness and accuracy of attention: and in faith, conscious of his imperin death, he has bequeathed to it the fections, and demerits, and therefore choice of his books: he has also be- void of familiarity and presumption. queathed a part of what expresses His reading was in great measure of a the heart of man, his money: lastly, religious kind ; and as a proof of the he had bequeathed to it, if it should occupation of his mind, when sickness. please God, his very bones: he had most probably called him from his looked to it, as Jacob to the holy land, desk to his death-bed, a little book, saying, There they shall bury me!" which always lay before him, 'Dod

Archdeacon Loring had observed, dridge's Rise and Progress of Religion in reference to the college, in the ser- in the Soul,' was found turned down mon which he had preached in the open to the chapter on « The Soul moro

submitting to the Divine Examination “ It was to the new mission college the sincerity of its repentance and that the Bishop eagerly looked, as a faith.' But the surest evidence of a sure means of extending knowledge to truly Christian temper is charity, in its the people of this country. This in- true and scriptural sense, and with stitution was the nursling of his latter this grace Providence had greatlybless' years. It occupied his attention many ed him;--that charity which suffer-, hours of every day; and his anxious eth long and is kind; which enmiud was daily gratified with the ex- vieth not, vaunteth not itself, is not pectation of seeing it in full opera- puffed up, doth not behave itself untion."

seemly, seeketh not her own, is not The writer of this statement is him- easily provoked, thinketh no evil, self now no more. We

copy the fol- rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth lowing notice respecting bim from a in the truth; which beareth all things, Calcutta journal.

believeth all things, hopeth all things, “ We performi a painful task in an- endureth all things."" nouncing the death of the venerabile

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

C. W.; A CONSTANT READER; C. B. F; JONATHAN; H.; IGNOTUS; EUSEBIUS ;

D. C.; and W. H.; have been received, and are under consideration. The British and Foreign Bible Society have received the remaining halfofthe Bank Note,

No. 9742, for £.100.

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every true

MEMOIR OF BOSSUET, BISHOP OF the cup from the laity than that MEAUX.

miserable one which is founded on (Continued from p. 139.)

the doctrine of transubstantiation, THE unwearied zeal and activity and which must fall with the subver

of Bossuet were continually sion of the foundation that supports prompting him to fresh encounters it. Of all the unauthorised innowith the Protestants. A more de- vations of the Church of Rome, the termined combatant certainly never

denial of the cup is one of those appeared in the lists of theological most recently introduced, and most controversy. He met, however, with obviously inconsistent with the tenor opponents who were no less confi- of Scripture. dent than himself_and with better In 1689 came out his “Explication reason—ofthegoodnessoftheircause de l'Apocalypse;" in which treatise and the strength of their weapons. his panegyrist assures us, that he Claude, Jurieu, Basnage, and other has completely overturned the Proeminent ministers of the Reformed testant interpretation of the prophechurches on the continent, stood cies of this book. That foremost in this warfare, and never Roman Catholic must anxiously suffered his treatises to remain long desire to see this interpretation unanswered. In the mean time, disproved, there can be no doubt. Tillotson and Burnet were fighting But facts are stubborn things, and the same battle from the opposite they make against him. The Aposhores of Albion, and upholding the calypse is doubtless a difficult and cause of Protestantism with a vigour mysterious book, even to the preand dexterity of argumentation sent day. Scaliger said of Calvin, which have been seldom equalled. that he acted wisely in not medAmong the various excellencies of dling with it. But, independently Tillotson in particular, his powers of the detail of proofs by which of reasoning shine most conspi- many learned men have shewn its cuously and admirably, in his oppo- application to the errors, superstisition to the doctrines and preten- tions, and innovations of Popery, a sions of Popery. Doddridge speaks general survey of its contents' is of his lucky arguments; and surely almost sufficient to determine its never were the weapons of contro- genuine import. If it be not diversy wielded with greater ease, rected against papal Rome, it is happiness, and effect, than in some extremely difficult, if not impossible, of his discourses on the errors of the to discover any other subject of hisChurch of Rome.

tory to which many parts of it will In 1682, Bossuet published his be found at all applicable. « Traité de la Communion sous les In the course of the preceding deux Espèces." I am not acquainted year (1688), this indefatigable polewith the work; but we may fairly mic had made one of his most forconjecture that he could find nomidable attacks upon the Protestbetter argument for withholding ants by the publication of his “ HisChrist. OBSERV. No. 256.

E

may be,"

toire des Variations ;" or an account unity may be only an agreement in of the numerous divisions and diver- errors and abuses. “ There sities of opinion which had prevailed says Lord Bacon," "an universal among the separatists from the consent, which is derived from igChurch of Rome. We are told, by norance,

as all colours are con. his friends and admirers, that this founded in the dark.” treatise was attended with as much But, in fact, has the Church of celebrity as the wonder-working Rome then continued entirely free “ Exposition;" that the Reformed from schisms and divisions ? Every churches themselves were power- one knows she has not. She has fully struck with it; that they now had, formerly, her Thomists and became acquainted, for the first her Scotists ranged in order of bat-, time, with their own history ; and tle against each other ; and, in mothat, as the Exposition had sur

had sur- dern times, her Jesuits and her Janprised them, by a display of purity senists. A fierce controversy was and excellence in the Romish doc- kept up, for nearly two hundred years, trine which they had never before respecting the doctrine of the immasuspected, so the Variations made culate conception; a doctrine which them blush at the contrasted pic- now forms one of the most important ture of their own deformities. This articles of faith. The most violent is very lively, but not very con-; disputes have sometimes prevailed vinçing, declamation. I cannot, how- between the monastic orders; among ever, resist the temptation of of which we may notice, in particular, fering a few remarks on the general the quarrels which arose, in the thirargument here made use of for teenth century, between the Franconformity to the Church of Rome, ciscans and Dominicans, concerning derived from a view of the nume- the rank and pre-eminence of their rous, divisions which have taken respective societies. It may be urged, place amongst those who have se. however, that notwithstanding these parated from her communion; es- manifold differences of opinion, all pecially as it is one which, however the members of the church agreed fallacious, is undoubtedly capable in a main point, which was,-unreof being enforced with much plau- served submission to the infallible sibility, and which perhaps, in point authority of the holy see. But of fact, has made a greater impres- what shall we say to that portension upon

the minds of many Pro. tous schism in the papacy itself, testants than any other by which when, for seventy or eighty years, Popery has attempted to maintain one pope at Avignon thundered out his her errors.

decrees against another at Rome, This argument, as used by the and vice versa; till, according to the Papists, evidently proceeds, in toto, strongly graphic language of old upon the assumption of an infallibi- Fuller, St. Peter's chair was like to lity residing somewhere in their own be broken betwixt so many sitting church, and giving a final authority down together? And what shall we to all its decisions. Once establish say, moreover, to the difference of the point of infallibility, and Pro- opinion, which has always prevailed testants must submit. "But till this in the Romish Church, respecting be established, the argument drawn that particular body in which the from our divisions, were they ten pretended infallibility of her decitimes as numerous as they are, is sions is vested ; whether it be the nothing to the purpose. Our schisms pope in his sole person, or the and separations may be, and doubt- pope with the assistance of a geneless are, wrong; but they can never ral council, or sometimes one and prove the alleged unity of the Church sometimes the other? It is difficult of Rome to be right; because that to conceive any thing more absurd

transubstantiation itself is not more know, has tried this experiment, and so—than the pretence of an infal- has found it, in part, successful. It lible authority, respecting which it is was well adapted to those

ages doubtful in whom or where it resides. of darkness and barbarism during Even admitting that such an autho- which it was projected; but it has rity were probable, how can any become gradually less and less effione be required to bow to it unless cacious in practice since the revival he knows with certainty where it is of true learning, and the diffusion to be found?

of liberal principles of government The Roman Catholic writers have throughout this quarter of the been accustomed to speak of Pro- world. It is greatly to be feared testants, from the Waldenses down- that, with regard to the better-eduwards, as though they had been cated classes in the Church of Rome, the first, or the only, disturbers the blind implicit credulity of former of the unity of the church. They ages has been very widely exappear to forget that there is another changed for the opposite extreme, Christian church, in a state of sepa- of a general spirit of religious inration from their own; a church not difference, scepticism, and hypoincluded under any denomination crisy. The other way in which a of Protestantism, but partaking sort of universal agreement in mata largely of their own errors and ters of religion may be thought possuperstitions. I allude to the Greek sible, would have been by the estacommunion, extending perhaps overblishment of a real infallibility in as large a space as that of Rome, the church of Christ; an infallibility and with quite equal pretensions to so clearly defined and accurately antiquity. This most extensive schism laid down in Scripture, as to leave took place long before the era of no one in doubt with regard to the the Reformation, and is wholly un- succession of individuals in whom it connected with that event; though was vested, and who were authorized we may indulge the delightful hope to pronounce a final decision in all that the day is not very far distant controversies respecting faith and when this oppressed and interesting practice. Now I suppose that there daughter of Zion will shake herself is no Protestant of the present day, from the dust, and, putting on the how much soever he may be disbeautiful garments of a pure faith posed to urge the Divine right of and holy conversation, will shine Episcopal or Presbyterian forms of forth among the brightest ornaments government, who will go the length of a renovated world.

of affirming that there is, or ever As human nature is at present has been, since the times of our constituted; or rather, I should Lord and his Apostles, any such say, in that state of ignorance, in- 'infallibility as this actually resident firmity, and corruption, to which it in the church. Indeed, nothing is now reduced by the Fall, it would short of a standing miracle throughseem that there are but two ways, out successive ages could have proin which even the appearance of duced, it. Such an åppointment universal agreement in matters of might perhaps be deemed desirable religion could be upheld and per- by such short-sighted creatures as petuated for any length of time. we are, amidst " that incurable It might be brought about, in the diversity of opinion " which, says first place, by the

establishment of a Dr. Paley, "prevails amongst manpretended infallibility in the church, kind upon all subjects short of decalculated to impose on the imagina- monstration.". But we see that an tion, and to fetter the conscience; all-wise Providence has not decreed thus precluding men from the due it to be necessary. And we learn, crercise of their reason and natural from the instances which occurred liberty. The Church of Rome, we during the apostolic age, that even

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