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duced, certainly not by way of any and the impossibility of explaining direct proof, but simply by way of the mysteries of the subterranean shewing that the system of expand- world, by calling in the agency of ing the six demiurgic days into six the deluge. ample periods is no merely modern “ (1.) Moses assures us, that speculation.

pairs of all the land-animals, which “IV. The discoveries, or possi- existed before the flood, were prebly the re-discoveries of our ablest served in the ark. Hence it follows, physiologists afford however, so far that at least no genus of land anias I can judge, positive and direct mals was lost or became extinct in and palpable demonstration, that consequence of that catastrophe. the six creative days must have been Modern oryctology, however, six periods of vast, though to us teaches us, past all reasonable unknown, duration.

controversy, that whole genera of “ Few subjects are more inte- animals, which now no longer exist, resting than that upon which I am and which (if we admit the inspiranow entering : and to the sound tion of Moses) must therefore have believer it is rendered doubly inte. ceased to exist anterior to the deresting, both by the strong light luge, did actually exist at the pewhich it throws upon the Mosaical riod when their remains began to narrative, and by the wonderful and be fossilized. Such being the case, (as it were) undesigned confirmation the deluge plainly cannot account which it affords to the scriptural for the fossil remains of animals, verity.

which had themselves ceased to “ 1. It was long and very natu- exist or had become extinct before rally received as a principle by the deluge. To solve the difficulty, Christian philosophers, that the we must call in some great revoluvarious fossils which from time to tion yet more ancient than the flood; time have been dug up from the by which unknown land-animals and bowels of the earth, particularly unknown sea-animals and unknown those which contain the relics of vegetables, all at present in a fossil marine animals, and which yet have state, were lodged many feet below been found in the very recesses of the surface of those lands which we. the largest continents, were the now inhabit*. But no such revoluresult of the universal deluge, and tion took place, between the creatherefore gave the most incontro- tion of man and the general deluge. vertible attestation to the Mosaical Therefore the revolution must have record of that catastrophe.

taken place, and the animals must “The argument seemed valuable, have become extinct, at an epoch at once for its brevity and its con- anterior to the creation of man. clusiveness ; for no doubt, where “ (2.) Again : rents and ruptures marine exuviæ are discovered, there and disarrangements may be contiat some period or other must have nually observed in the several strata been the waters of the ocean : and, of fossil bodies ; which disturb their as such, it was constantly adduced regularity, and which have evidently as a most powerful auxiliary to that mass of arguments by which the « * It is possible, I allow, that many genetruth of this grand historical fact ra of marine animals, as yet unknown to has been so triumphantly and so in- naturalists, may even now be in existence; controvertibly established.

but it is next to impossible, that any ge“ But when the science of oryc- be in existence, and should nevertheless

nera of the larger land animals should still tology came to be more minutely have hitherto remained concealed from huand systematically studied, difficul- man observation. See this matter well ties gradually arose ; which more discussed in Cuvier's Essay on the Theory and more shewed the impropriety of the Earth, $ 25. p. 61. 4th edit."

It may

been produced by some mighty are daily found in a fossil state convulsion. But the strata them throughout every part of the globe ; selves which contain such fossil the human species alone, with a bodies, must necessarily have exist- strange exception to a general rule, ed before the disarrangement which entirely escaped fossilization.” they experienced from the agency

(To be continued.) of the convulsion that disturbed them. Therefore, whether that convulsion was produced by the de. Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. luge, or whether it preceded the I was pleased to find that you had deluge (for, in either case, the re

taken notice of the endeavour which sult of the argument will be the has recently been made to benefit same), the fossil remains which the rising generation, by means of constitute those strata; must have Infant Schools. Your review of Mr. existed anterior to the deluge, and Wilderspin's publication presents us consequently cannot be the effects with a method of conveying early of the deluge*.

instruction, which will, without “ (3.) With this conclusion agrees doubt, be highly beneficial, not a most remarkable fact, which per- pnly in the case of Infant Schools, haps on no other principle can be but of many private families. Mosatisfactorily accounted for. While ral tuition (founded, I need not say, the fossil relics of beasts, and birds, on the principles of Christianity) and fishes, and vegetables, exist to can never begin too soon. such a stupendous amount, as to commence advantageously with the form even whole masses of secon. earliest dawn of reason, and should dary mountains; no proper fossilized be employed to regulate almost the portion of the human subject has first perceptible ebullitions of feelever yet been detected in the midst ing. It may, however, be justly of this multitude of animal and doubted, as you have shewn, whevegetable fossils. Now, when we ther the case be quite similar with consider the millions who perished regard to intellectual teaching. No at the time of the universal deluge, small degree of judgment is requiso extraordinary a fact is surely site, in order to regulate the menmost unaccountable, if we adopt the tal discipline of childhood so as hypothesis that fossil remains are not to injure the delicate and tenthe consequence of the deluge: for, der faculties of the opening mind, in that case, we shall be obliged to either by a too indiscriminate, or a admit, that, while innumerable ani- too early, attempt to improve or remals, which were then destroyed, strain them. A tree, even though

intended at some future period to be “* Mr. Cuvier justly pronounces this regularly trained to the wall, or as great convulsion to have evidently been

an espalier, is not thus confined in produced by a mighty flood of waters, its earlier growth. It is suffered to which, not more than five or six thousand years ago, buried all the previously inha- assume its own peculiar form; and bited countries: but my argument will be subsequent culture easily removes equally conclusive, whether we ascribe the unnecessary shoots, and gives a the rents and ruptures in question to the right direction to those which are agency of the general deluge or to that of vigorous and proper to be retained. some yet more ancient convulsion. (Essay Still it must be allowed that a on the Theory of the Earth, 34. p. 173, certain degree of early intellectual 174.) Mr. Parkinson agrees with Mr. tuition is advantageous, especially Cuvier on this point. (Organic Remains of for mental discipline : and if, at the a former World, vol. iii. p. 454.) Indeed there can be no reasonable doubt, I think, same time, attention is paid to mothat the strata were broken and dislocat- ral and religious culture, its advaned, as we now find them, by the action of tages will, of course, be proportions the deluge.”

ably greater. Infant schools thereCHRIST. OBSERV. No. 259.

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fore ought, in this view, to be encou- constant exposure to alf, with all raged; but, like every thing else, they the variations of weather, which have their legitimate boundary and causes, perhaps as much as any sphere of action; and, as is observed thing, the hardiness of our English in your review, their distinguishing peasantry. Besides, our manufacexcellence is their peculiar suitable- tures are already extensively unness to large towns and populous or dermining the health of a large pore manufacturing districts; to which tion of our population. Firmness of I will add, that I fear that con- bodily contexture, and vigour of siderable evils might arise from constitution are lamentably disaptheir general introduction into our pearing among the lower classes of country villages and agricultural our countrymen, in consequence of parishes.

their confined and sedentary habits; To rescue the infant poor con- and, in many instances, diseases are nected with our large towns from perpetually fixed upon the present the filth and idleness of their crowd- and future generations. But surely ed courts and alleys, and, what is if we advert to the amazing importstill more to be dreaded, from the tance of health and vigour to those early contagion of vicious habits who are dependent upon their lawhich find so ready a reception in bour for subsistence, and who, if our fallen nature, is exceedingly deprived of these blessings, become desirable, and cannot fail to be ap- burthensome both to themselves proved and cordially promoted by and to others, we ought not, without every Christian philanthropist and the greatest consideration and cauliberal-minded politician. "But if tion, to adopt any measures, even benevolent or opulent persons, who of intended philanthropy, which are have seen the good effects of Infant calculated to augment the growing Schools in these instances, should evil, especially by extending the adopt measures for their establish: debilitating effects to the ment in their respective neighbour children of the agricultural classes. hoods in the country, I consider that But, in addition to these physical the production of ultimate good injuries, I am apprehensive lest the would be exceedingly questionable. system under consideration should

To allude, in the first place, to tend to loosen the bonds of domestic what

your review so strongly insists intercourse ; an evil which you justly upon, the health and physical vigour deprecate, but which you state does of the poor, I would inquire whether not apply to the schools in question. the system proposed would tend to Parental and filial affection forms form so hardy a race as the present one of the most pleasing characterpeasantry of our land. Can we ex- istics of our lower classes ; as well as pect that a child in an Infant School one of the greatest alleviations of should gain that strength and vigour the hardships connected with their which it would acquire, if suffered lot. This affection is doubtless often to play in a garden, a field, or on a injudiciously manifested; but still it hedge-bank, for the first six or seven is a blessing conferred by God himyears of its life? When twenty or self on our common nature, and thirty little creatures are thus sys- ought not to be trified with. It is tematically drilled together, even in early life, even at the very time supposing that the utmost ingenuity when they are necessarily the greatis employed in order to devise suit- est burthen to their parents, that able means of exercise and indul- the children of the lower classes gence, yet no one can imagine that constitute their greatest comfort ; this can be effected in the same but should they be removed from degree as on the supposition of each under the affectionate superintendchild's being left to exercise and ance of the mother, what can we examuse itself. Nor can there be that pect but that the affection both of

same

the child and of its parent will be schools for Infants in such places as proportionally diminished. I must seem to afford a prospect of utility: allow, however, some deduction for On the contrary, it is my sincere what you observe, that the children wish that this truly praise-worthy are not separated from their parents attempt to benefit the young, may except during a few of the busy be fairly tried in all our large towns hours of the day: that “their meals, and manufacturing districts. But their

repose, their endearments," as I feel desirous that, through the you observe, “are at home: they medium of your useful publicaare not made Spartans by the hard- tion, the matter should be more hearted policy of sacrificing the in- thoroughly examined before the dividual to the state ;” and that the adoption of Infant Schools shall beSchools in question are intended come general throughout the counonly as “an asylum to which, dur- try. The higher orders may do ing a few hours of their arduous much for the benefit of the lower; day, the poor may send their chil- but if their assistance be not wisely dren without risk, and receive them adininistered, it may prove, and back to partake with them of their too often does prove, injurious to humble repast, to share their po- the objects of their care. There verty and privation, and to nestle never can be too extensive an exaround them after the cares of the ercise of true benevolence; but there day are concluded."

may be too great haste in adopting Again : possibly in some cases, well-meant schemes of improvein addition to the points which I have ment, the failure of which tends to mentioned, moral evils also may cast undue suspicion on every other arise from the extension of Infant scheme of intended charity. Schools to our agricultural districts.

C. E. Children in towns will, of necessity, herd together; and therefore, in such cases, the formation of Infant Schools Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. tends to diminish the evils of their If the writers of many of our popular intercourse ; for, under the restraints hymns could witness the numerous of a school, they are less likely to alterations which successive editors corrupt each other, than if suffered and collectors have introduced into to run wild through the streets. their compositions, they would, in But the case is far otherwise with many instances, be scarcely able respect to the agricultural poor. to identify their own stanzas. One Their cottages are often detached; correction is made for the sake of and even villages afford no very nu- the sense, and another for the sake merous population. May it not of the sound; one, for the sake of then become a question, whether, the doctrine, another for the sake by collecting these little creatures of the music; short hymns are eked in bands of twenty, thirty, or forty, out, and long ones are lopped off, we do not run a greater risk of till the original poem, as it came fostering their inherent corruption, from the hands of the writer, is than by leaving them in their native superseded and forgotten. Bishop cottage, or by suffering them to Kenn's well-known Morning and play before its door? Here again, Evening Hymns, among others, however, I am willing to allow for have so long undergone these a right as well as a wrong influence emendatory processes, especially in of social feeling under judicious di- the article of abridgment, that in rection; and am only anxious for nearly twenty collections of Psalms a deliberate survey of the question and Hymns which I have consulted, on all sides. I am far from wishing I have not been able to find a copy of to disparage schools for the instruc- the original verses. This abridgment tion of youth in general, or even is, indeed, quite necessary for the purpose of singing, as the Bishop's Reflect all heay'n's propitious rays, hymns are more than double the In ardent love, and cheerful praise. length usually allowed for compo- Wake, and lift up thyself, my heart, sitions of this nature ; but I think And with the angels bear thy part; your readers will be of opinion with Who, all night long, unweary'd sing,

High praise to the eternal King, me, that in the abridgment some very beautiful lines and thoughts wake, I wake, ye heavenly choir :

May your devotion me inspire, are usually omitted.

That I like you, my age may spend, The following is, I believe, a cor- Like you, may on my God attend ! rect copy of these celebrated hymns, May I, like you, in God delight, as they came from the hands of

Have, all day long, my God in sight; the author. Various improvements Perform, like you, my Maker's will. might, doubtless, be suggested, and, O may I never more do ill ! among others, the alteration of such Had I your wings, to heav'n I'd fly; words as 6 dear” and “lovers,” But God shall that defect supply, which do not convey precisely the And my soul, wing'd with warm desire, same associations now as in Bishop Shall all day long to heav'n aspire. Kenn's time; but I doubt whether All praise to thee, who safe hast kept, the popular substitution of "early" And hast refresh'd me, whilst I slept: for “joyful,” in the first stanza, is Grant, Lord, when Ifrom death shall wake, an improvement; for a man who I may of endless life partake. awakes and rises with the sun, may I would not wake, nor rise again : be concluded to rise “early,” though Ev'n heav'n itself I would disdain, such is the insensibility of our And I in hymns to be employ'd.

Wert thou not there to be enjoy'd, hearts for the greatest mercies, that he may still need, like the royal O never then from me depart ;

Heav'n is, dear Lord, where'er thou art : Psalmist, to exhort himself to pay for to my soul, 'tis hell to be his sacrifice of praise and thanks. But for one moment void of thee. giving with a “joyful” heart. Some Lord, I my vows to thee renew, of the other current corrections are, Disperse my sins, as morning dew; doubtless, improvements; and I Guard my first springs of thought and will, think it might be well if among other And with thyself my spirit fill. alterations, a slight turn were given Direct, controul, suggest this day, to one or two expressions which, All I design, or do, or say; to many minds, wear a somewhat That all my pow'rs, with all their might, self-righteous cast; though nothing In thy sole glory may unite. can be more clear than the ortho- Praise God, from whom all blessings flow, dox and scriptural complexion of

&c. the whole composition.

All praise to thee, my God, this night, WINTONENSIS,

For all the blessings of the light :

Keep me, O keep me, King of kings, MORNING HYMN,

Beneath thy own almighty wings. AWAKE, my soul, and with the sun

Forgive me, Lord, for thy dear Son, Thy daily stage of duty run :

The ill that I this day have done; Shake off dull sloth, and joyful rise,

That with the world, myself, and thce, To pay thy morning sacrifice.

I, ere I sleep, at peace may be.
Thy precious time, mis-spent, redeem;

Teach me to live, that I may dread
Each present day, thy last esteem; The grave as little as my bed;
Improve thy talent with due care ; To die, that this vile body may
For the great day thyself prepare. Rise glorious at the awful day.
In conversation be sincere,

O may my soul on thee repose,
Keep conscience, as the noon-tide, clear; And may sweet sleep mine eye-lids close;
Think how th' all-seeing God thy ways, Sleep, that may me more vig'rous make,
And all thy secret thoughts, surveys. To serve my God, when I awake.
By influence of the light divine,

When in the night I sleepless lie, Let thy own light to others shine; My soul with heavenly thoughts supply:

EVENING HYMN

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