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Commerce of the Jesuits in the 18th Cen-
tury. History of Father de la Valette, 1
Commerce of the Jesuits in the Eighteenth
The late S. T. Coleridge on the Sohoolmen 241
The Dark Ages
Circular Letter of the chief Rabbi in Lon-
don to the Jewish Congregations in
Proceedings in Monasteries. Their Mode
of Reading Scripture in the Chapel and
Refectory:- Time Occupied in Reading
through the whole Bible, with some
The “ Dublin Review," and Luther's
Work, and on the Work itself, by the
Disposal of Higher Church Preferment, 139
Inviolability of Cathedral Charters 512
Extempore Prayer. – Address to the
406, 410, 522
Oxford Petition in behalf of Episcopacy
Distribution of the Elements at the Lord's
The word “Merit”-Mr. Barter ... 176, 414
Concert for Prayer. -Rev. J. H. Stewart, 269
Mr. Edward Bickersteth and the Bishop
A Visit to Birr- The Rev. Messieurs
Crotty - The Independent Catholic
Pinamonti.-Conversion of Roman Ca-
Letters on the Church of the Fathers, 398, 517
Justin Martyr.-Humanitarians 413, 657
Philalethes Cantabrigiensis. Transub-
Cambridge Petition of 1641 against the
Abolition of Deans and Chapters 525
The Conclusion of the Morning Prayer
Conduct of Clergy during the Plague
Rev. J. Mendham's “Index Expurgato-
Dr. Burton's “ History of the Christian
Protestant Monastic Institutions.-Chap-
Administration of the Holy Communion, 642
American Prayer on Induction to a Church 643
Clergy Aid Society. - Welsh Church in
Review of Mr. Grinfield's Essay
Patronage of the New Churches in the
Turning to the East
Incomes of the Clergy
Report of the Statistical Society of Man-
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Number of Dissenting Ministers
Duty of Churchwardens to make a Rate, 324
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Better Observance of the Lord's Day 446
Lichfield and Coventry Church Building
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Church Accommodation within the
Bishop's Commission to make a Rate for
NOTICES AND REVIEWS ... 55, 178, 292
The Christian Advocate and the Spectator 69
Exeter Diocesan Church Building Society 193
Projected Church Building Society for
Member of a Board of Guardians' Letter, 195
Scripture Lessons in the National
Lord Brougham's Bill on Education and
Upper Canada.–King's College, Toronto.
College of the Holy Trinity at La Tour,
Account of the Divinity Studies at the
Plan for Electing Bishops in Ireland 564
The Index Expurgatorius of Rome
Transmission of Foreign Registers .. 567
An Inaugural Discourse preached in the
Parish Church of Leeds, by the Rev.
Walter Farquhar Hook, M. X., Vicar, 669
Chapter of Canterbury. - London Uni-
versity. -- Church Rates.-Chaplains to
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tempore Prayer. Church Rates.-
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Lord Brougham's Charity and Educa-
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-Mr. Buller and the Bishops. - The
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– Vicarage of Leeds.- Ireland.- Edu-
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The Universities.—Clergy Aid Society.
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Church Rates. - Universities. Society
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ECCLESIASTICAL INTELLIGENCE :-
Ordinations, Clerical Appointments, Pre-
Operation of the Tithe Commutation Act 72
Society for Promoting Christian Know-
Foreign Translation Committee of the So-
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Incorporated Society for Promoting the
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Salisbury Diocesan Church Building As-
Convocation.--Petition of the Clergy re-
MEMORIALS &c. to H. M. Commissioners
appointed to consider the state of the
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Of the Dean & Chapter of Canterbury, 196
Of the Dean & Chapter of Exeter
Of the Dean & Chapter of Winchester, 315
Of the Dean & Chapter of Worcester... 441
Of the Dean & Chapter of Lincoln 568
Of the Dean & Canons Residentiary of
340, 463, 587, 699
UNIVERSITY News... 101, 224, 344, 467
BIRTHS AND MARRIAGES, 105, 227, 347, 471
EVENTS OF THE MONTH, 106, 228, 348, 472
New Books ... 114, 238, 358, 483, 602, 723
Funds, &c. 114, 239, 359, 484, 603, 724
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS, 115, 240, 360
484, 604, 724
of the Diocese of Canterbury ... 682
the Lord Archbishop of Dublin 208
JAN. 1, 1837.
COMMERCE OF THE JESUITS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY,
THE HISTORY OF FATHER DE LA VALETTE.
The commerce of the Jesuits is a subject which deserves more consideration than it has usually met with in this country. It illustrates, by very plain facts, at once the wonderful power possessed by this extraordinary order of men and the means by which it was acquired and kept. The following narrative, it is hoped, will not be found wanting in interest of another kind, as the history of a man of great enterprise and talent, while the facts which it unfolds serve more than any general statements could do to lay open the muscles and sinews,. hy which this vast frame was moved.
In the year 1743, Father de la Valette, a member of the Society of Jesus, landed on the Island of Martinique, then occupied by the French, in the character of priest of the small parish of Carbet, situated a mile or two from St. Pierre. The Jesuits at that time bad but a slender footing in the West Indies, but Father de la Valette was destined to change the face of affairs within a very few years. His superiors, although he was nominally attached to the cure of Carbet, considered him too valuable a man to waste his energies in evangelizing a small village, and we find accordingly that ere long his operations extended from one hemisphere to the other, and the streams that issued from the fountain head in the West Indies, spread in Europe into a thousand fertilizing rills. To descend, however, from metaphor to plain matter of fact, we find that he almost immediately engaged in the most extensive commercial transactions.
In order to understand the nature of his dealings, we must explain the condition of things at that time, with regard to Martinique and France. French money bore so high a premium at Martinique, that the French crown, of six livres, was worth nine of Martinique currency ; so that, in transmitting money to France, the colonists would lose one
VOL. XI.-Jan. 1837.
third of their fortunes. They did not, therefore, transmit silver ; and paper was not usual, because bills can only be drawn upon debtors, and the mother country would naturally be the creditor of the colony. The plan usually adopted was, to send home colonial produce instead of money, and in this they only incurred a loss of about twenty per cent.
Father de la Valette undertakes to remedy this inconvenience, and offers to transmit money to Paris without any loss—in fact, to receive 1000 crowns at Martinique, and to pay for them 9000 livres at Paris ; or, in other words, to receive 1000 and to pay 1500! This appears, at first sight, something like madness, and very unlike the sort of craft which is commonly attributed to the order of Jesuits. We must look, therefore, to the means which the priest of Carbet proposed to use in order to perform his engagements.
1. He takes a long credit, giving bills, in some cases, of thirty, and in some, of thirty-six months.
2. There is a certain gold coin of Portugal (cailed in French, moëtte,) which was worth, in France, forty-two livres, and in Martinique, sixty-six livres.
He, therefore, first converted the money into colonial produce, on which he lost only twenty per cent., and after selling it in France, his agents had orders to transmit the proceeds to Martinique in these Portuguese coins. To take a simple example—he would receive 6000 livres at Martinique which were worth in France only 1000, but by converting it into coffee and sugar, which were sold in France, he obtained 4800 livres, his loss being only twenty per cent.* These would buy him 114 Portuguese pieces, and twelve livres over. These were worth at Martinique 7524 livres, so that, during one voyage, he would gain at Martinique about 1524 livres on 6000. Now the passage might be made three times in the course of the year, so that a profit of about 4574 would accrue on this sum, without supposing any use to be made of the interest on the first two voyages. He would thus, in one year, have more than double the sum required to pay the loss on a transfer.
Even allowing six months for a voyage and return, the profit would be in one year 3048, (without counting the twelve livres over,) which is more than 1000 livres clear above the loss incurred by exchange. In three years, of course, this would be tripled, and he would gain considerably more than 100 per cent., without supposing the first profits to be employed in further trading.
These preliminary statements were necessary to render what follows intelligible; but we may now proceed at once to the eventful drama,
I must here observe, that the French authority from which this statement is taken, calculates the interest differently. They say, 6000 at Martinique=4800 in France, if converted into produce. They add, that these 4800 would buy 117 Portuguese coins at forty-two livres cach, with three livres over; and that at Martinique these 117 pieces were worth 7722 livres, which, with the three above mentioned, nake 7725, and that his profit was, therefore, 1725 livres on a single voyage. This appears to the writer an erroneous statement; he has therefore made his own, without inquiring what the origin of the error may be.