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MISSIONARY TRAVELLING IN RUPERT'S LAND. [JAN. up, and water was visible, at no great distance from us, advancing. We then determined to return as fast as possible, feeling ourselves in danger. We were, however, forcibly reminded of the truth of our supposition, when, in a moment or two, one of my companions struck a small stick, which he held in hand, directly through the ice. We at first thought this to be the crust-ice, and that the body-ice was underneath: a second blow, however, from the same stick, undeceived us, and showed us our true position, which was one of imminent danger. A momentary fear came over me, and a prayer ascended to the throne of grace for direction and assistance.

The ice in the bay had broken up, and the spaces between the heaps had been frozen by the coldness of the preceding night. Once, on returning, the hinder part of the sled, which was drawn by the dogs, went through the ice. God's mercy was our guardian; and it was not His will that we should then be called to close our days upon earth. One or two remarks of one of my Indians greatly comforted me: one was,“ Perhaps God is not pleased at your wishing to return so soon ;” and another, “The Indians will be very glad to see you again.” We arrived at the place whence we had departed in the morning, at near mid-day, and could then see how merciful the whole of God's dispensation had been. The threatening aspect of the heavens on the preceding evening bad, to all appearance, rescued us from certain death; and the cold of the present day had prevented the weak ice, over which we had passed, from thawing under the influence of the sun's rays. God had too clearly shown us that man's appointment, even when there is a good prospect of success, may be defeated by Him; for here we had travelled between sixty and seventy miles, and forty only remained, yet that short distance was impossible to us. God's ways are truly unsearchable. We arrived near the spot where yesterday we saw the Indians, at three P.M. As soon as they saw us they ran to meet us, one of thein immediately departing to let those at the tent know of our coming. When we arrived there, I saw that the women had done what they could. They had prepared a seat for me, placed clean brush in the tent, and kindled a fine fire in the middle. Having saluted them, I sat down, and took off my mocassins, which were saturated with water. They were instantly taken by one of the women, who took out the socks, and hung them up to dry: she then scraped and stretched my mocassins, and exposed them likewise to the warmth of the fire. In this tent three families resided, the men being brothers : all of them appeared to live in perfect harmony. The men had been out all day, sitting in their stands watching geese. As soon as they came home their gaine was delivered to their wives, whose duty it is to pluck it, and boil it. Their shoes and socks are likewise delivered to their wives, who subject them to the same process which mine underwent. While this is being done, the men take their pipes, and sit at their ease—an enjoyment, I thought, they richly deserve, after having been exposed during the whole day to a cutting north wind.

One of my Indians related to them what had happened to us; at the recital of which all were much affected. All knelt down, and I offered praise and thanksgiving to God for His unspeakable mercy towards us, and desired Him to continue His blessings. They responded with a hearty “ Amen ;” and by repeating, in a solemn tone, that beautiful exposition of our wants, the Lord's Prayer.

“ BLESSED ARE THE PEACEMAKERS." We regret to state that much disturbance exists at present in Yoruba. We could scarcely expect it otherwise. A serious aggression has been made in that quarter on the kingdom of darkness, and it is not surprising that "the god of this world” should attempt to meet and to



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[FEB. repel it. Nor are agents wanting for his purposes. The slave-trade has been put down, and the gains of many have been interfered with; and in secret they sorrow over the loss they have sustained, and would gladly welcome the revival of the old traffic in man. Hence Kosoko, the ex-chief of Lagos, who has his sympathizers in various quarters, has been emboldened to make an attack on that town, and, although defeated in that attempt, is still offering resistance to the boats of the squadron.

In the midst of much that causes anxiety, it is encouraging to find that our Missionaries have been enabled to terminate a war, of some standing, which has been carried on between Abbeokuta and the people of Ado, a border town between Dahomey and Yoruba, and on the direct road from Badagry to Abbeokuta.

The Egbas had now been encamped during a year against Ado, and much suffering had been inflicted both on the besiegers and the besieged. The Missionaries having been at length invited to interpose as peacemakers, Messrs. Townsend and Crowther proceeded to visit the camp. On their way they met with many disabled persons. , who were being removed home: some were borne on litters, and others had to halt on their wounded legs the whole distance of sixty miles, having no one to carry them.

The Missionaries were gladly welcomed by the Egbas, and the next step was to gain the confidence of the people of Ado, who knew very little of a disinterested European. In order to this, they pitched their tent midway between the camp and the town, that it might be understood they did not side with one party or the other, but desired to come between them to make peace. On the chiefs of Ado being informed of their arrival, four unarmed men were sent to salute them. These poor fellows came with trembling, as around the tent were collected many Egbas gazing significantly on these men, who for ten months had not dared to show themselves beyond their own walls, but now walked into the midst of them without danger of being molested.

After having heard the grievances of the Egbas, the Missionaries next entered the town, in order to have an interview with the chiefs. It witnessed to the miseries of war, that fearful scourge which the pride and ambition of man inflicts upon his fellows: it was in a pitiable state--only a few persons left, and those few the pictures of wretchedness: many houses were without inhabitants, and others had tumbled down. After some negotiation, the conditions of peace proposed by the Egbas were agreed to by the people of Ado, and the Missionaries, returning to the camp, announced the result to the basorun, or commander of the Egbas. Mr. Crowther thus describes, July 30, 1853, what followed

Scarcely half an hour afterwards the camp was set on fire, and a dense smoke ascended into the clouds, which hundreds of the poor, long-distressed Ado inhabitants beheld with mingled feelings of inexpressible joy and doubt, and scarcely could believe the sight 1854.] THE VALUE OF NATIVE HELPERS, &c.

15 to be real; while, on the other hand, the Egbas were shouting and amusing themselves by doing the work of destruction to their own, camp with their own hands, driving many loiterers out of their sheds with fire, as if they were smoking rabbits out of their burrows for their amusement. Some hastened with their little luggage to the bushes, others to our tents; and in about one hour nearly all the Egba soldiers had disappeared from the camp, leaving our solitary tent and three sheds erected by our people in the whole battle-field. We remained till Monday, because the next day was Sunday, in which we would not travel.

In the afternoon old Ikoko, the head of the Ado elders, accompanied by some others, and the messenger of the king of Porto Novo, came outside the walls to visit us. They could not express their gratitude enough in words. They moved about a little, and returned home toward evening. Many others from the town also visited the burnt camp, to pick up any thing the Egbas had left, as pots, millstones, wood, &c.

July 31 : Lord's-day- A great number of people came out from Ado, men and women, to carry what they found useful to them from the camp. They were not amply rewarded this time, as in 1845, when the camp was deserted from fear of the Dahomians: the Egbas were then regardless of property, escaping for their life and liberty, and then they had been about five or six years there, and were more settled. At this time nothing but what was of little or no use to them was left behind: they had removed their utensils away before this, and many hundreds of earthen pots and pitchers were maliciously smashed to pieces, as they could not carry them away, and that the Ados might not possess them; but some, better disposed, told me they would not do so : they left theirs as they were.

As the people came to our tent they prostrated, with expressions of unutterable gratitude to their deliverers from distresses and death. To some of these superstitious people we appear as gods" in the likeness of men;" but we took care to direct their minds to God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom alone we can be truly reconciled to God and our fellow-man.

"Blessed are the peacemakers !” It is indeed a blessed office. To do so is after the example of Him who made peace by the blood of His cross : and, as the apostle James writes, “the fruit of righteousness is sown in peace of them that make peace;" and so it bas proved in the present instance, for both the people of Ado and the chief of Okeodan desire to have Christian teachers sent to teach them.



THANKFUL we are for the native catechists and helpers whom God has raised up for us throughout the Missionary field, now increased to the goodly number of 1600. May they be multiplied manifold !

Nowhere are their services more valuable than in India. How otherwise, amidst so dense a population, should our few Missionaries carry on the work? Few they are indeed, compared with the wants of India, few compared with the capabilities of England. Of the



[FEB. number who go forth year by year from our Universities to various occupations and professions, how few there are disposed to enter on this service! How few Henry Martyns, prepared to give up prospects of advancement at home, because their Master's glory, and the necessities of their perishing fellow-men, require their presence abroad. We may not disguise from ourselves the very solemn fact, that, as a people, we are not coming forward to the Lord's work according to the measure of opportunity He has placed before us.

But in proportion to the difficulty of obtaining European labourers is the necessity for the native agent: the Missionary, who would otherwise have to deal single-handed with duties far too numerous, through their aid is enabled to multiply his labours. They have many admirable qualifications: more especially they understand the native mind, and know how, in their teaching, to adapt themselves to its peculiarities. Climate and language are no hindrances to them ; and, those particular points in which they are most likely to be deficient being supplied by the superintendence of the European Missionary, the work of the Lord prospers in their hands. The following extracts from the journal of the Rev. C. B. Leupolt will show their aptitude to teach, and the light in which they are regarded by their heathen fellow-countrymen.

Speaking of the manner in which they are met by the people when they go amongst them, teaching and preaching Jesus Christ, Mr. Leupolt says

Wherever we came this time in our visits we were received by the people with respect and kindness. They instantly supplied us with seats, and listened with attention. To show their goodwill towards us, they were always ready to supply us with plenty of milk. As far, therefore, as respect, attention, and good-will, go, we can have nothing to complain of. If we are very simple and plain, we are also understood; but we can never be too simple and too plain. This, however, is the case in cities also. For instance, I have often thought, How can I make the Hindus feel the absurdity of worshipping the creature instead of the Creator—the things of the world, such as trees, water, images, the sun, &c.-instead of the Lord of the world ? I have never succeeded so well by mere explanations as by a simple parable which I learnt from Mohan, and which I have since often used with good effect. I had been arguing on this subject, and shown their mistake in supposing that that which they called God was the same which we called God. I had pointed out that the Hindus worshipped the creature, and we the Creator. When I had finished, Mohan took up the thread of my address, and said, From what we have just heard, the difference of the Hindus and the Christians as to the knowledge of God is this-Both Hindus and Christians stand before the house of a great man. Both declare they know the master of the house, because he is their master, and they declare that they reverence him. The Hindus walk into the house, and at the entrance they

some water-pots filled with water (Ganges). Taking this for the master of the house, one walks up to it, exclaiming, “This is the master of the house. Another sees a light standing in a niche, and takes that for


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