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HAving seen from circumstances that history cannot be of very ancient date, we will now examine the subject in relation to its direct evidences on this point.
All historical records agree in this one great particular: that man first existed in the East. "Twas there those gods and demi-gods of heathen story, those fabled beings of primeval times, when the universe was in its infancy, are said to have been cradled. And although some have held, that the matter of which the world is composed is eternal, they have nevertheless admitted that it has not always existed in its present state.
It would be proper in this place to introduce the various systems of cosmogony, or world making, which have been holden in different ages by different nations and individuals.
With the cosmogony of the Jews, every one who has read the first chapter of Genesis is acquainted. It needs not, therefore, to be repeated here. Suffice it to say, that Moses, the author of that account, represents the Deity as creating the world and all that it contains by his almighty fiat, some five or six thousand years ago. It is observable that the term create, as used in this instance, must be understood to signify, not the reducing of matter already in existence to order, but the originating of matter itself from non-entity. This will appear when it is considered, that, after God is said, in the first verse, to have created the heavens and the earth, the latter is said, in the second, to have been without form and void or empty. Had the term created, meant the arranging of matter into order, it could not have been said, after that, that the earth was without form or order. Thus we perceive, that Moses taught the non-eternity of matter, and its consequent origination from non-entity.
#he Phoenicians, a very ancient nation, held, that the principle of the universe was an opaque air, a dark, perturbed chaos, pervaded by an impetuous spirit, which reduced it to order.
The Egyptians held to an original chaos, but substituted the principle of motion for that of spirit, thus leaving out of their system the idea of intelligence. This principle of motion, as they believed, brought the chaotic mass of matter into order, by throwing the fiery particles upwards, thus separating them from the gross and slimy particles of matter, the latter falling downwards in consequence of their condensed gravity. . From the fiery particles were produced the heavenly bodies; from the other, the earth. The latter, self-pressed by their own gravity, exuded their aqueous particles from every pore, which, collecting, formed the seas. Into these pores penetrated the rays of the sun, whereby a fermentation took place, which gave birth to the animal world. But the earth at length becoming dry and hard, it was no longer affected internally by celestial heat, and consequently ceased to produce animals as before.
The Chaldeans and Babylonians believed, that the first inhabitants of the earth were monsters produced by a hideous chaos; that Bel destroyed them; that he completed the sun, the moon, and the five planets, which were before in an unfinished state; and that he created man from the dust of the earth, infusing into him divine reason.
Orpheus, the father of pagan theology, as well as of
poetry, represents Æther, or the heavens, as having been created by a being whom he denominates the Counselling Light and Source of Life, and to whom he attributes invisibility and incomprehensibility. This being he makes the creator of all things, man excepted, whom he represents as having been hatched from an egg which came into existence by chance. This egg is placed by Hesiod in the capacious bosom of Chaos, where, bein warmed, it produced Beneficent Love, furnished wit golden wings, and impetuous as the hurricane. From these two, viz. Love and Chaos, sprang man and other animals. Anaximines and Anaximander held, that origination and decay arose from a circular motion impressed on the world from eternity. This hypothesis was improved by Anaxagoras and Diogenes of Apollonia, two disciples of Anaximines, by their admission of an intelligent being distinct from matter, who impressed this motion upon it. Leucippus supposed atoms to have originally existed, and that, by chance, they were set in motion, and were thus commingled without any determinate direction. Epicurus held that they moved obliquely. Democritus made them animated existences. Descartes held the doctrine of a plenum, which supposes every portion of space to be filled with matter: but instead of atoms, he substituted a subtil fluid, which he supposed to whirl in vortices, under the direction of an intelligent being, who was the architect of the world. Hippasus and Heraclitus taught, that fire is the principle of all things, and that this fire is God. The Stoics, with Zeno at their head, behieved in two principles, spirit and matter, the former active, the latter passive, and both material, there being no immaterial entity. Spirit they made to pervade and animate the universe, as the spirit of man pervades his body. Thus, the universe as a whole constituted the Deity, and was incorruptible. Spinosa revived this system; and it is still in repute among the Hindoos and Chinese, and even the Cabalistic Jews. Pythagoras, Aristotle, Socrates, Plato, Empedocles, Plutarch, and others, as well as some heretical Christian sects, held to two distinct principles, independent of each other. Pythagoras considered numbers as the principle of things: hence his numerical system of the monad, dyad, and triad; and hence his sacred quaternary, by means of which he elucidated the formation of the world, and the secrets of nature. Others adhered to the system of squares and triangles; the cube, the pyramid, the sphere, &c., “Others maintained the great elementary theory, which refers the construction of our globe, and all it contains, to the combinations of the four material elements, air, earth, fire, and water, with the assistance of a fifth. an immaterial and vivifying principle.” The Persians held that God created the world at sir different times. The Hindoos represented the world as enveloped in darkness, when the sole, self-existent power, himself invisible, made the world discernible. With a thought he created the waters, which are called Nara, or the Spirit of God; and since they were his first Ayana, or place of motion, he is thence called Narayana, or moving on the waters. “It is recorded by the Brahmins, in the pages of their inspired Shastah, that the angel Bistmoo, transforming himself into a great boar, plunged into the watery abyss, and brought up the earth on his tusks. Then issued from him a mighty tortoise and snake; and Bistmoo placed the snake erect upon the back of the tortoise, and he placed the earth upon the head of the snake.” The Chinese in their ancient traditions say, the heavens were first formed; the foundations of the earth were next laid; the atmosphere was then diffused round the habitable globe; and last of all, man was created. Our Gothic ancestors had a tradition of the formation of the world srom chaos. The Etrurians, or ancient Tuscans, the Gauls and their Druids, the Japanese and others, believed the world to have had a beginning; that it was created out of nothing by the supreme power of God; and consequently, that from its own nature, it is subject to dissolution. And when America was discovered, it was found that the natives held traditions strongly resembling the Mosaic history of the creation. “The negroes of Congo affirm, that the world was made by the hands of angels, excepting their own country, which the Supreme Being constructed himself; that he took great pains with the inhabitants, and made them very black and beautiful; and when he had finished the first man, he was well pleased with him, and smoothed him over the face; and hence his nose, and the noses of all his descendants, became flat. “Buffon, a modern infidel philosopher, conjectures that this earth was originally a globe of liquid fire, struck srom the body of the sun by means of a comet, as a spark is produced by the collision of slint and steel; that at first it was surrounded by gross vapours, which, cooling and condensing in process of time, constituted, according to their densities, earth, water, and air; which gradually arranged themselves, according to their respective gravities, round the burning mass that formed their centre. “Darwin, an infidel also, in accounting for the origin of the world, supposes that the mass of chaos suddenly exploded, like a barrel of gunpowder, and in that act exploded the sun, which, in its slight, by a similar convulsion, exploded the earth, which in like manner exploded the moon; and thus, by a chain of explosions, the whole solar system was produced, and set in regular motion.”
A few suggestions very naturally arise, in view of the foregoing.
1st. In every instance, we find that attempts are made to account for the origin of things; so that it seems to be universally conceded, that, whatever may be the fact with regard to the eternity or non-eternity of the essence wof matter itself, it has not always existed in its present modifications.
2d. In all cases where men have speculated on the
subject, instead of regarding history and tradition, we .
find them running into the most crude and visionary motions conceivable—and at the same time, the most contradictory to one another. 3d. We find those who attribute their opinions on this subject to history or tradition, agreeing in the great leading particulars, and agreeing in the main with the Mosaic account of the creation, notwithstanding the corruptions which, during a lapse of so many ages, must necessarily intermingle with mere tradition. 4th. The attentive observer cannot fail to be struck with the immense superiority of the Mosaic cosmogony over those of the philosophic speculators which have been brought into view. While they involve us in a labyrinth, by referring us from cause to cause, without progressing a single step towards a satisfactory solution of the great question of all—the cause of their first cause— Moses comes directly to the point. “In the beginning,” says he, “God created the heavens and the earth.”— “And God said, Let there be light, and there was light.” Ile does not, like the Indian philosopher, tell us that the world stands on the back of an elephant, and the clephant on that of a turtle, and the turtle on—he knows not what.
He does not, to avoid difficulty, fly from :
cause to cause, and leave it the same as at the first. His system has no occasion for the intervention of a chain of causes between the Cause of causes and the ultimate result; but, basing it on the broad and undeniable fact, that, as no effect can be produced without a cause, some Cause uncaused must have existed from eternity, or nothing would be in existence now, he tells us at once, that this uncreated, eternally existent, almighty Cause, bade into being from non-entity this stupendous, this glorious universe. Taking for granted what must be admitted, that, in a universe of results, there must, however complicated the machinery, be some self-moving Principle unmoved by anything else, to impart motion to the rest, he conducts us in the outset to this Principle, and refers all results to that. The conclusions to be deduced srom the foregoing considerations are, that the existing state of things has not been eternal, and consequently, that we are to look for a beginning to history; that the general agreement subsisting between the Mosaic cosmogony and those of the various nations of the world, some of whom, from time immemorial have had no communication with one another, shows, that one has not copied from another, but that they must have derived their ideas from one common, ancestral source: that the superiority of the Mosaic account to the traditions which have a general agreement with it, shows the former to be the uncorrupted one; that its immense superiority to those of the wisest philosophers of antiquity, gives it a decided preference as a system, to theirs; and that its agreement with reason and philosophy, relative to the great particular of the direct origination of things by an omnipotent Being, without the intervention of a chain of intermediate causes, entitles it to credence on its own intrinsic merits, independent of its superiority to others. To sum up the whole in a single sentence, there is reason to believe: that the Mosaic account of the creation of the universe, contained in the first chapter of Genesis, is authentic. As we said in our prospectus, we do not intend to meddle with theology any further than it is absolutely unavoidable from the nature of the case. But there are some branches of general knowledge that involve theological considerations to a certain extent; insomuch that we should be faithless to the work we have undertaken, were we to shun them. And this is particularly the case as regards history. We cannot move a single step in this department, without infringing on the views of some in relation to religion. But to omit history in a work devoted to the dissemination of general knowledge, were unpardonable indeed. And yet, if we insert it at all, we must give it as it is—give it according to evidence;—sor, to go counter to this were not to furnish the reader with knowledge, but with imagination. With this remark, we dismiss the subject till our next.
WE have already seen in our introduction, that Jupiter at his birth was secreted in Mount Ida, to save him from the devouring jaws of his father. To prevent his infant cries from reaching his father's ears, the priestesses of his mother Cybele were accustomed to drown them by the beating of drums and cymbals. By the same means also, Neptune and Pluto were kept secreted. Mythologists do not agree with regard to the education of Jupiter, some asserting that he was educated by these priestesses, some by the Nymphs, some by Amalthea, the daughter of Melissus, king of Crete. Some say the bees fed him with honey; others, that a goat nourished him with milk; others, that he was fed by doves; others, by an eagle; and others again by a bear. And moreover, some opine that Amalthea was not the daughter of Melissus, but the very goat that suckled Jupiter, whose horn he afterwards gave to his nurses, converting it at the same time into “the horn of plenty,” by making it the lot of any one that possessed it to obtain whatever he might desire. It is added, that, after the death of this goat, Jupiter made a shield of its skin, with which he combatted the giants single-handed. This shield was denominated the AEgis, from a Greek term signifying a she-goat. This goat he at length restored to life, and giving her a new skin, placed her among the constellations. We have already alluded to his war with the giants. We will be more particular. When Titan. Saturn's brother, saw that Jupiter was preserved, contrary to agreement, he mustered his brothers, the Titans, and made war upon Saturn, whom, with his wife, he made prisoner, and binding them both, shut them up in hell. But no sooner was Jupiter a year old, than he found himself sufficiently strong to make war alone upon the Titans, whom he conquered and slew: upon which he immediately liberated his father and mother. Saturn, however, having been informed by an oracle that he would be deposed by a son, conspired against the life of Jupiter, to prevent the accomplishment of the prediction; which conspiracy proved the very means of its accomplishment. For Jupiter, roused by this treachery of his father, deposed him from the government, and banished him from heaven; having first, however, on finding him intoxicated, bound and maimed him, as Saturn had before maimed his own father Coelum with his scythe. Jupiter being now firmly seated on the throne, divided his empire with his brothers, Neptune and Pluto, giving to the former the dominion of the seas, and to the latter that of the insermal regions, reserving to himself the government of heaven and earth. Scarcely was he established in his government, when the Giants, those famed sons of Earth so conspicuous in Mythology, rose in rebellion against their new sovereign, in revenge for the death of their relatives, the Titans. In them, Jupiter found quite another enem than the one he had recently vanquished by the o of his own arm. Some of those Giants are said to have had fifty heads and one hundred arms, with serpents instead of legs. One of them, Tityus by name, covered nine acres when stretched upon the earth. At the breaking forth of such a rebellion, Jupiter himself was alarmed, and summoned all the gods to his aid. The dread conflict at length began. The giants hurled at their celestial opponents huge rocks, mighty oaks, and blazing woods; and, to scale with the greater facility the battlements of heaven, piled Mount Ossa on Pelion. Appalled at the sight of adversaries so terrible, the gods fled into Egypt, where they assumed the forms of various animals, to elude the search of their pursuers; under which forms they were afterwards worshipped by the Egyptians. Jupiter being thus left to wage the war alone, and recollecting that his adversaries were not invincible provided he were to obtain the assistance of a mortal, took counsel of Pallas, and armed his demi-god son, Hercules, for the encounter. Thus reinforced, he soon overthrew the rebel hosts. Some were crushed beneath mountains, others whelmed in the sea; some were flayed alive, and others beaten to death with clubs. In short, the victory was complete, and the government of Jove established on an immoveable basis.
It should be observed before we proceed further, that those versed in Mythology speak of three Jupiters. Two of them were born at Arcadia. The father of the one was Æther, of the other, Coelus. The third was the one which we have been describing. He was a Cretan, the son of Saturn, whose tomb still exists in the isle of Crete. Varro reckons three hundred Jupiters; others a much greater number. Almost every nation had a Jupiter of their own, which they supposed to have been born among themselves. But the most famous of them all was the one under consideration, to whom, therefore, the exploits of all the rest are usually attributed.
The worship of Jupiter was universal. He was the Ammon or Hammon of the Africans, which signifies sandy. He was the Belus or Bel of the Babylonians;
and, on account of the uncertainty of his descent, they believed he had neither father nor mother, and consequently regarded him as the first of the gods. The Egyptians worshipped him by the name of Osiris. In different places and languages, he was denominated Baal, Beel, Beelphegor, Beelzebub, and Beelzemen; all which appellations are mentioned in scripture. His surnames were very numerous. He was called Capitolinus, from the Capitoline hill in Rome, on the sum:mit of which stood his temple. He was called Tarpeius, sron the Tarpeian rock, on which this temple was founded. He was styled Optimus Maximus (Greatest and Best from his great power and goodness. He was calle Custos. In Nero's coins is an image of Jupiter seated on a throne, holding in one hand thunder, and in the other a spear, with the inscription, Jupiter Custos. In some forms of oaths, he was called Diespiter (the father of light.) The Cretans in their oaths called him Dies. He was denominated Dodonaeus, from the city of Dodona in Chatonia, which derived its name from Dodona, a nymph of the sea. Near this city was a grove of oaks consecrated to Jupiter, famed as the most ancient oracle of Greece. According to some, two doves delivered responses to those who consulted this oracle: according to others, the very leaves of the oaks themselves uttered oracles. Again. To use the words of the poet: “Jove can't resist the just man's cries,
They bring him down, 'en from the skies, Hence he's Elicius called.”
He is denominated Feretrius, because he smote his enemies, or because he was the giver of peace, or because, after victory, the spolia opima (grand spoils) were carried to his temple. He was called Fulminator, or Ceraunius, from his hurling of thunder. The Lycians worshipped him under the title of Gragus and Genitor. In AEgium, about the sea coast, he is said to have been denominated Homogynus. At Praeneste he was called Imperator (Emperor.) He was called Latialis, because he was worshipped in Latium, a country of Italy. Lapis or Lapideus was a title given to him by the Romans, who held that an oath taken in the name of Jupiter Lapis, was the most solemn of all oaths. This title was derived either from the stone which Saturn ate by mistake for Jupiter, or from the flint stone which the swearer held in his hand when making bargains. The Campanians called him Lucetius, from lur (light;) the Latins Diespiter, from dies (day.) The Elians called him Martius. He was called Muscarius, because, at the offering of a sacrifice by Hercules, he drove away the flies which interrupted his religious exercises. He was called Nicephorus, which signifies bearing victory. He was styled Opitulus, or Opitulator, the Helper; Centipeda, from his stability; Stabilitor and Tigellus, from his supporting the world; and Almus and Alumnus, from his cherishing all things. He was called Olympius, from Olympus, the name of the master who taught him, and of the mountain on which he resided, or from a city near Mount Olympus, where was a temple dedicated to him, and where, once in five years, were celebrated the Olympic games. He was styled Jupitor Pistor, because he put it into the minds of the Romans, when the Gauls besieged the capitol, to throw loaves of bread into their camp, which induced them to raise the siege. The Athenians called him Pluvius. He was called Praedator, because a portion of booty taken in war was dedicated to him. He was styled Quirinus, Rex, Regnator, and Stator. The Greeks called him Soter, because he delivered them from the Medes. He was likewise called Conservator. The Augurs denominated him Tonans and Fulgens; Orpheus called him Bron: ' taios; Apuleius, Tonitrualis. He was denominated Trioculus [Triopthalmos] by the Grecians, who sup: posed he had three eyes, with one of which he o') served the affairs of heaven, with another those of earth, with the third those of the sea. He was called Vejovis, or Vejupiter, and Vedius, when described without his thun
der, angrily looking at short spears in his hand. The Romans considered him a noxious deity, and worshipped him through fear. He was called Jupiter Ultor, the Avenger. He was likewise called Xenius, or Hospitalis, because he was considered the author of the laws and customs of hospitality. His proper name is Zeus, because he gives life to animals. Jove was his principal title, signifying the King and Father of gods and men. Some of his additional titles were Inventor, Sponsor, Herceus, Anxurus, Victor, &c. But enough of these. The worship of Jupiter surpassed that of the other gods in point of solemnity; nor was it, like that of some of them, stained with human blood. To him were sacrificed sheep, goats, and white bulls with gilded horns. In these sacrifices were used flour, salt, and incense. The oak and the olive were sacred to him—the former, because he taught mankind to live on acorns; the latter, because of his pacific disposition towards them. He is usually represented by the ancients as governing the world by his Providence, beholding from an eminence the pursuits and contentions of mankind, and weighing in his scales their merits and their destinies. Beside him are placed two urns, the one of good, the other of evil, srom which he distributes among them benefits or afflictions. He is sometimes represented naked from the waist upward, and covered below, signifying that he is visible to the gods above, but concealed from mortals below. The Cretans represented him without ears, to signify that he ought not to give a partial hearing to any one. The Lacedemonians gave him four heads, that he might hear with the greater readiness the petitions which were continually offered to him from the four quarters of the earth. He was the moderator of the contentions of the ods. Every thing was subject to him except the Fates. t was his custom, when the gods asked of him a favour, to signify his assent with a nod, which was expressive of his irrevocable will. Homer describes him in all his majesty and terror in strains so sublime, that we feel unwilling to omit them. They follow. “He whose all conscious eyes the world behold, Th’ eternal Thundercr; sits enthroned in gold; High heaven the footstool for his throne he makes, And wide beneath him all Olympus shakes; He speaks, and awful bends }. sable brows, Shakes his ambrosial curls, and gives the nod, The stamp of fate, and sanction of the god:
High heaven with trembling the dread signal takes, And all Olympus to the centre shakes.”
And again, in granting a favour, the same awful majesty is preserved, though softened by the circumstances of the case. Thus:“Depart in peace; secure thy prayer is sped; Witness the sacred honours .Pour head, y %. %} ratifies the will §. aithful, fired, irrevocable si This seals thy suit, and this jiào, vows. —He spoke, and awful bends his sable brows, Shakes his ambrosial curls, and gives the nod, The stamp of fate, and sanction of the god: High heaven with trembling the dread signal took, And all Olympus to the centre shook.”
Many exploits of Jupiter are recorded in Mythology, to which we shall very briefly advert.
A report having reached him concerning the great wickedness of men, he descended to the earth to see if it were true. Entering the habitation of Lycaon, king of Arcadia, he announced his Divinity; but Lycaon derided him, and, to aggravate the insult, killed and cooked one of his servants, and had him served up as a banquet for Jupiter. The god in vengeance for this impious act, let play his lightnings, and, reducing the palace of Lycaon to ashes, turned him into a wolf. Some of his other exploits are far less honourable to his character. He wooed his own sister, Juno, in the form of a crow. He corrupted Danae, the daughter of Acrisius, king of the Argives, by transforming himself into a shower of gold, and falling into her lap. He seduced Leda, the wife of Tyndarus, king of Sparta, and mother of Helen, Clytemnestra, Castor, and Pollux, by assuming the form
of a beautiful swan, and flying into her arms. In the form of a satyr, he violated Antiope, the wife of Lycus. king of Thebes. He imposed on Alcmena, by assuming the sorm of her husband, Amphitryon. By transsorming himself into a flame of fire, he won the affections of AEgina, the daughter of Asopus, king of Boetia. By counterfeiting Diana, he deceived Calisto, and afterwards abandoned her to the persecution of Juno, who changed her into a bear. But Jupiter, compassionating her condition, placed her and her son Arcas in the heavens; Calisto being denominated the great bear, and Arcas the little one. He transformed himself into an eagle, and seizing in his talons Ganymede, the son of Tros, as he was hunting on Mount Ida, conveyed him to heaven. In the same manner, he carried off Asteria, the daughter of Coeus. Semele, the daughter of Cadmus, king of Thebes, one of Jupiter's mistresses, entreated him to appear to her as he did to Juno. Jupiter having previously sworn by the Styx to grant her whatsover she asked, was necessitated to comply with her request. and entered her apartment enveloped in clouds and lightning, which caused her immediate death. Lastly. He became enamoured of Europa, the daughter of Agenor, king of Phoenicia, as he saw her in the meadows, surrounded by her maids, gathering flowers. He instantly transformed himself into a beautiful white bull, and mingled with the herds of her father. Europa admiring his beauty, approached him, and began to play with him as with a great dog; whereupon he lay down at her feet, and she sprung upon his back. Upon this, he began to move slowly off with his fair burthen till he reached the shore of the Mediterranean, when he plunged in, and swam to the island of Crete. Europa afterwards married the king of Crete; and her name is now borne by one quarter of the globe. It is our intention to give one mythological character in each number of the Magazine, together with the likeness; and we had Apollo prepared for this number: but so long has been the story of Jupiter, that we must defer the former till our next. The history of no other heathen deity will be of equal length; so that we shall hereafter be able to insert one character entire at a time.
THE WORLD AS IT I S.
FALLs of the CLYDE.
The river Clyde in the neighbourhood of the town of Lanark, presents, according to the testimony of all travellers, some of the most romantic and picturesque scenery in the world. We shall confine ourselves at present to a short notice of the Linns or Falls which have been so much celebrated. The word Linn, we may remark, is the Gaelic Leum, and signifies merely a fall or leap". Its application to a cataract, or sall of water, is general throughout Scotland. Burns has introduced the word with very happy effect in his humorous and well known song of Duncan Grey, where, in describing the perplexity and despair of the rejected suitor, he says—
“Duncan sighed baith out and in,
Grat his een baith bleer'd and blin,’
Spak o' loupin' owre a linn;
Ha, ha, the wooin' o't.”
“Spak o' loupin' owre a linn,” writes one of his correspondents, the Honorable A. Erskine, to the poet, “is a line of itself that should make you immortal.” But to return to the linns on the Clyde. The first precipice over which the river rushes, on its way from the hills, is situated about two miles above Lanark—and is known by the name of Böhnington Linn. It is a perpendicular rock of about twenty, or, as some authorities state, thirty feet in height, over which the water, after having approached its brink in a broad sheet, smooth as a mirror, and reflecting the forests that clothe its margin, tumbles impetuously into a deep hollow or basin, where it is instantly ground into froth. A dense mist continually hovers over this boiling cauldron. From this point downwards, the channel of the river assumes a chaotic appearance: instead of the quiet and outspread waters above the fall, we have now a confined and angry torrent forcing its way with the noise of thunder between steep
*The word has also been derived from the Welsh Linn, signify ing “a lake” or “water.”, This root is likewise sound in the Greek language, and its proper signification seems to be, “water.”
- * .
and meeting rocks, and over incessant impediments. The scenery on both sides, however, is exquisitely rich and beautiful. A walk of about half a mile, which may be said almost to overhang the river, leads to the second and most famous of the falls, that called Corra Linn, from the castle of Corra, now in ruins, which stands in its neighbourhood.
View of CoRRA LINN.
“The tremendous rocks around,” says Sir John Siuclair in his Statistical Account of Scotland, “the old castle upon the opposite bank, a corn-mill on the rock below, the furious and impatient stream soaming over the rock, the horrid chasm and abyss underneath your feet, heightened by the hollow murmur of the water, and the screams of wild birds, form a spectacle at once tremendous and pleasing. A summer-house, or pavilion, is situated on a high rocky bank, that overlooks the linn, built by Sir James Carmichael, of Bonnington, in 1708. Frem its uppermost room it affords a very striking prospect of the fall; for all at once, on throwing your eyes towards a mirror on the opposite side of the room from the fall, you see the whole tremendous cataract pouring as it were upon your head. The Corra Linn, by measurement, is eighty-four feet in height. The river does not rush over it in one uniform sheet, like Bonnington Linn, but in three different, though almost imperceptible, precipitate leaps. On the southern bank, and when the sun shines, a rainbow is perpetually seen forming itself upon the mist and fogs, arising from the violent dashing of the waters.”—Penny Magazine.
BEARs AND BEEs.
M. M. M. a traveller in Russia, communicates, through the Gentleman's Magazine of 1785, a remarkable method of cultivating bees, and preserving them from their housebreakers, the bears. The Russians of Borodskoe, on the banks of the river Ufa, deposit the hives within excavations that they form in the hardest, strongest, and lostiest trees of the forest, at about five-and-twenty or thirty feet high from the ground, and even higher, if the height of the trunk allows it. They hollow out the
holes lengthways, with small narrow hatchets, and with chisels and gouges complete their work. The longitudinal aperture of the hive is stopped by a cover of two or more pieces exactly fitted to it, and pierced with small holes, to give ingress and egress to the bees. No means can be devised more ingenious or more convenient for climbing the highest and the smoothest trees, than those practised by this people for the construction and visitation of these hives. For this purpose, they use nothing but a very sharp axe, a leathern strap, or a common rope. The man places himself against the trunk of t and passes the cord round his body and round
just leaving it stifficient play for casting it hig higher, by jerks, towards the elevation he desires to
tain, and there to place his body, bent as in a swing, his?"
feet resting against the tree, and preserving the free use of his hands. This done, he takes his axe, and, at about the height of his body, makes the first notch or step in the tree; then he takes his rope, the two ends whereos he takes care to have tied very fast, and throws it towards the top of the trunk. Placed thus in his rope by the middle of his body, and resting his feet against the tree he ascends by two steps, and easily enables himself to put one of his feet in the notch. #. now makes a new step, and continues to Inount in this manner till he has reached the intended height. He performs all this with incredible speed and agility. Being mounted to the place where he is to make the hive, he cuts more convenient steps, and, by the help of the rope, which his body keeps in distension, he performs his necessary work with the above-mentioned tools, which are stuck in his girdle. He also carefully cuts away all boughs and protuberances beneath the #. to render access as difficult