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well as the future-thus looking behind and before.The moral' attributes of Janus seem, however, to have been blended with those of his guest and benefactor, Saturn. He was admitted to the rank of a Roman divinity, when the Sabines or ancient inhabitants of Latium made a league with the Romans. Romulus and Tatius first founded his temple.
The most remarkable circumstance in connection with the mythology of Janus, was the custom of opening the brazen portals of his temple on the declaration of war, and of shutting it when the strife of arms had ceased. Virgil says,
“ Has ubi certa sedet patribus sententia pugnæ,
And in his robes the sounding gates unbars.
" Pause here! the far off world at last
Breathes free." Yet, so warlike were the Roman people, that during the space of seven hundred years the temple of Janus was shut only three times. It was closed by Augustus after the battle of Actium, just before the birth of Christ.
We will once more resume this interesting department of knowledge.
Our investigation thus far in relation to mankind, has resulted in the conclusion that all are of one race. We
have examined the theories of those who hold otherJANUS. wise, and have found them to be
absurd, extravagant, For the Family Magazine.
inconsistent, and contradictory. For while they make
the trilling difference which obtains in the complexion Janus, the king of Latium, who hospitably received and the cranium between the white man and the black Saturn after his expulsion from his own kingdom, was, an insurmountable barrier to their relationship, they it is said, endowed by his guest with such superpatural find it a very easy matter to class them both with beasts wisdom and power, that after his death he was regarded and shell-fishes ! On the other hand, we have found that as a god, and received worship accordingly,
their fancied chain from man downward is but a fancied represented as sitting on a throne at the portals of a gate, one; tbat there is a radical difference, both physically having two faces, and holding a rod in his left hand and and intellectually, between the human and the brute a key in his right. Medals struck in his honour always races; and that the stories respecting sylvan monsters bore the double face as their distinguishing characteris- retailed by these lovers of the marvellous, are but idle tic. He was called by Virgil Bifrons, (double front,) tales. We have seen, moreover, that the actual differand by Ovid Biceps, (double head.) Twelve altars, one ence existing between the various classes of mankind is for each month in the year, threw up the smoke of sac- by no means equal to what occurs in many other cases; rifice around him.
as for example in that of hornless oxen, broad-tailed His various names are descriptive of his actions or the sheep, solid-hoofed swine, &c. which are known to be qualities assigned him. He is called Janitor, because of the same species with those of an ordinary descriphe keeps the gates, and, as the month of January is na tion. We have further seen that there are causes ammed for him, he opens the year. He is called Claviger, ply adequate to the occasioning of the difference under (the club-bearer,) because he holds in his left hand the consideration. The influence of climate, the effects of club or rod which was his ensign of office, as guardian different kinds of food, of different manners and customs, of roads, paths, or ways. Gates and doors in the La- and of a morbid and hereditary affection, all come in for tin language were called janua. He is also called Ju- a share in this respect. We need not here repeat the nonius, because Juno having the government of the year, examples adduced in illustration of this, having already delegated it to him. He was called Patulacius and given them in the course of treating on the subject, on Clausius, (from Patulo to open, and Claudeo to shut,) pages 73, 74, and 81, to which the reader is referred. because his temple was opened in time of war, and shut Suffice it in this place to say, that those who make the in time of peace. The consuls of Rome were inaugu- objection in question, evince either a gross ignorance of rated in the temple of Janus, and thus opened their year the operations of nature, or else a disposition to raise of office under the auspices of this divinity. The offer- unfounded objections against theology. ings dedicated to him were bread, corn, and wine : no But long enough have we dwelt on this topic. We frankincense was ever offered.
will take our leave of it by remarking, that Moses, in reThe reason of his being represented with two faces, is presenting all mankind to be of one descent, has assertstated to have been on account of his great prudence, nothing inconsistent with scientific and philosophica) having had regard in all his transactions to the past as truth, but is in the most perfect accordance with both,
In pursuing this branch of science, we come next in longer found, and the quicksilver frozen in the thermoorder to the subject of animal heat, which applies equally meter; or to carry civilization and commercial enterprize to man and brute. The article below in relation to this into the equatorial regions. The sublime idea, too, that subject, we take from the Dublin Penny Journal. the starry host are filled with beings made to feel and to
enjoy, no matter whether we consider the burning MerANIMAL HEAT.
cury, or the remote and frigid Georgium Sidus, near AMONG the numberless instances of the wonderful two thousand millions of miles from the Sun, derives no adaptation of man and animals to the various circumstan- mean portion of its probability from this law of the ani ces in which they may be placed, there is nothing more mal economy. remarkable than the power with which they are endued of preserving a particular temperature or heat. By this
ASTRONOMY. power we are enabled to bear the extremes both of heat and cold without injury, at least for a time. For exam
MERCURY. ple: The heat of the human frame, as every one knows,
First verging on the lucid fount of day, is considerably higher than that of the bodies which com
Bright Mercury directs his circling way; monly surround us; it is estimated at about 98 degrees In three short months he rounds the circling sphere, of the thermometer, and this temperature it will preserve His seasons shift, and ends his transient year. under a heat which would roast it, or a cold that would MERCURY, the nearest planet to the sun, moves round more than suffice to freeze it, if it were a dead and not him in eighty-eight days of our time, which is the length a living substance. This wonderful power, then, is the of bis year. His distance from the sun is computed at result of life, and not of chemical composition.
37,000,000 of miles, and his diameter at 3000 miles. In Even in vegetables we observe the same power from his course round the sun, he is supposed to move with the fact, that the juices in the stems and branches are a velocity equal to 109,000 miles in one hour. But frozen with much greater difficulty than lifeless fluids. what is this in comparison to the velocity of the rays of Ice has been found to thaw where roots shoot into it, light, which dart at the rate of 180,000 miles in a seand it is a common observation, that after a fall of snow, cond? the thawing is first observed on the leaves or around the From the time of his superior* to his inferiort constems of trees. It is also found that eggs are cooled and junctionț he rises and sets after the sun, and then apfrozen with much more difficulty than equal masses of pears only in the evening; but from his inserior to his lifeless matter. Yet, after they are once frozen, and superior conjunction, he rises and sets before the sun, their life destroyed, they freeze with readiness; a clear and consequently is visible only in the morning. proof that the power of resisting cold is owing to the According to the most eminent astronomers, the light principle of life within them.
and heat of the sun on the surface of Mercury, are seven The most striking examples of the power of the living times more intense than on the Earth in the middle of body to resist heat are recorded by Sir Joseph Banks, summer. Such a degree of heal must therefore render and Sir Charles Blagden. They remained for some Mercury uninhabitable by beings of the same compositime in rooms heated to the temperature of boiling wa- tion with ourselves; but, as the Almighty can with the ter, yet the heat of their bodies was not increased, and utmost facility adapt bodies to the temperature of the the latter gentleman continued for eight minutes in an planets they inhabit, we must reasonably conclude that apartment heated to 260 degrees, or 48 degrees above Mercury is peopled as well as our earthly globe. the heat of boiling water, with scarcely any variation of Few observations can be inade on him with accuracy, the heat of the body. In these rooms, beef-stakes laid because, in consequence of his proximity to the sun, on a tin-plate were dressed in about half an hour, and if his feeble ray is almost lost in the superior splendour of the hot air was impelled on them in a stream, the cook- that great luminary. When at his greatest distance, he ing was completed in thirteen minutes ; and eggs were is only twenty-seven and a half degrees from the surr, roasted hard in twenty minutes. But even a higher tem- and at other times is so near as to rise and set almost at perature than this has been borne by two French phi- the same moment. The measure of a planet's distance losophers, who remained without much inconvenience from the sun is called its elongation. for five minutes, in a room heated to 78 degrees above The best time for making the most favourable obserthe heat of boiliug water.
vations on this planet is, when he passes before the sun, Some of the lower animals also are capable of hearing and is seen traversing his disc in the form of a black a high degree of heat-and indeed are intended for it spot. This passage of a planet over the face of the sun -as the beetles which are found in the boiling springs is called its transit. The colour of Mercury is like that of Albano, in Italy, and which die when thrown into cold of Venus, but much brighter. If at any time we see a water. If we examine the eggs of insects, we find that bright silvery-looking star near the place of the suy they are endued with a power of resisting great changes just before sunrise in the east, or in the west soon after of temperature. Lice have appeared on clothes which sunset, with a fine clear light and great lustre, it is Merhad been placed in boiling water, and it is stated on the
cury. highest authority that boiling the honey comb will not The great velocity with which Mercury moves in his destroy the eggs of the bees, while, on the other hand, orbit, probably induced the Greeks to give himn the name it is found that an exposure to a cold of 24 degrees be- of the Messenger of the Gods, who is aptly represented low zero, will not destroy the eggs of silk worms and with wings on his cap and sandals, emblematic of the butterflies.
swiftness with which he flew to execute their comThis wonderful property of living beings should excite mands. our deepest admiration of that Omniscience which has The last transit of Mercury happened on the 5th of planned the universe. By this, millions of beings are May, during the last year. Other transits will happen on annually preserved to fill their place in creation which the 7th of November, 1835 ; May 8th, 1845 ; May 9th, otherwise would be lost, and
1748; November 12th, 1861; November 5th, 1868; " -leave a gap
May 5th, 1878; November 8th, 1881 ; May 10th, 1891; That nature's self might rue."".
and November 10th, 1894. These are all which will
occur in the present century.-Guide to Knowledge. By this, the icy deserts of the Arctic circle and the paked plains of the Torrid Zone retain the germs of a luxuriant vegetation, which, when its appointed time comes,
Upper. springs rapidly into an unanticipated existence: and by
1 Lower. this is man enabled to subdue the earth over all its sur The meeting of the stars of planeta in the same degree of the face; to live with impunity where the polar bear is no zodiac.
spot passing over his disc, which is called a " Transit of Venus." This happens only twice in about a hundred years, * but the transits of Mercury happen much of
Venus from her singular beauty is, and ever was, the most admired of any star, both by land and sea; and such great veneration had the ancients for her, that they made her their favourite goddess, and gave her all that deity itself could claim, As Venus, like the rest of the planets, receives her light from the Sun, she has all the various appearances of the Moon, being gibbous, horned, and full, in rotation. The days and nights in the regions of Venus are nearly equal, except at her poles ; her axis being nearly at right angles with the plane of
her orbit. The heat on the surface of this planet must TELESCOPIC APPEARANCE OF VENUS.
be twice as great as with us, though far more moderate See Venus next reveals her pleasing ray,
than that on the surface of Mercury. As peither Venus Now leading on, now closing up the day,
nor Mercury has any attendant satellites, it is probable Term'd Phosphor, * when her morning beams she yields,
that the Sun, to which they are so near, supersedes And Hesper, t when her ray the ev'ning gilds.
the necessity of a secondary light. The inhabiVENUS, the second planet from the Sun, is the next tants of Venus will see the planet Mercury always acthat comes under our consideration. Of all the planets companying the Sun; and he will be to them by turns this is the most beautiful, and is distinguished from the an evening or a morning star, as Venus is to us. To the others by a superiority of lustre. She is distant from same inhabitants, the Sun will appear almost twice as the Sun not quite 69,000,000 of miles; she revolves large as he does to us. One would not imagine that round him in two hundred and and twenty-four days, this planet, which appears so much superior to Saturn seventeen hours, and turns on her axis in twenty-three in the Heavens, is so inconsiderable when compared to hours, twenty-two minutes ; so that her astronomical it: for the diameter of Saturn is 79,600 miles, while that day differs but little from that of the Earth. The diameter of Venus is 7743 miles: she is therefore duces these effects ; which gives and takes away the ap
of Venus is only 7743 miles. It is the distance that proabout nine-tenths of the bulk of the Earth. Her ve-parent magnitude of things. Now remember (which locity in her orbit is 80,295 miles per hour; her diur-has been observed before) ihat the apparent size of Venal rotation is at the rate of 1943 miles in the same time. nus varies with her distance; at some seasons she appears As Venus is an interior planet for the reason before nearly thirty-two times larger than at others. mentioned, she appears to change precisely in the same manner as the Moon and Mercury do. Her greatest distance from the sun never exceeds forty-eight degrees, so that she is never seen in the east when the Sun is in the west, nor in the west when the Sun is in the east.
Hence, according to her position in regard to the Sun, she is seen sometimes in the morning before his rising, when she is called Phosphorus, or Morning Star; and sometimes after the Sun's setting, when she obtains the name of Hesperus, or the Evening Star. Or, in other words, when Venus is west of the Sun, she rises before him, and is then called the Morning Star, and when she is east of him, she sets after him, and is denominated the Evening Star : this continues from one conjunction to another, a period of nearly 584 days.
It may seem extraordinary that, while Venus performs her revolution round the Sun in 224 days, she should require 584 to pass from one conjunction to another. But it must be remembered that the Earth revolves the same way, though not with such rapidity; so that Venus must make more than two revolutions before she can be in such a position with respect to the Earth and Sun as to be again in conjunction with the Earth.
All the planets vary in their apparents diameters according as they are nearer or further from the Earth. In Venus the difference is very great, no less than thirtytwo to one; that is, she appears thirty-two times larger at one particular period than at another particular period, and shines with a lustre that renders her visible many hours after the Sun has arisen upon the Earth.
Spots may be seen on the discß of Venus, which being permanent afford the means of ascertaining the time of her rotation on her axis : and, when viewed through a good telescope, she exhibits all the various phases ascribed to Mercury. She sometimes passes exactly between the Earth and Sun, and is seen like a round black
CORNWALL ROCKING STONE.
This celebrated pile of rocks is called the Cheese * Or Phosphorus. + Or Hesperus. These names are often used in poetry.
Ring. It stands near the top of a hill, and rises to the Being here applied to shape or form, apparent incans seeming, height of thirty-two feet. The stones are placed one in opposition to real.
The appearance of the body of the Sun or planets, which is di * One war secn in England in 1639, and two in the last century, vided by astronomers into twelve parts.
the one in 1761, and the other in 1769 There will not happen ano|| The several appearances of illumination observed in the pla- ther till December 9th, 1874, and the other on December 7th, 1882; nets. (Phasis singular, phaseo, plural, Gr.)
and these are the only ones thatwill happen in the present century
aoove another, and from the resemblance which some of top there is a bason hollowed out, three feet eleven them bear to large cheeses, the group obtained its name. inches in diameter at a medium, but wider at the brim, It consists of eight stones, the uppermost of which was and three feet deep. From the globular shape of this formerly a rocking stone ; but part of it having been upper stone, it is highly probable that it was rounded by broken off, it is now immovable. The great weight of human art, and perhaps even placed on its pedestal by the upper part, and the slender bearing between the human strength. third and fourth stones, have made it a subject of much In Sithney parish, near Helston, in Cornwall, stood the wonder that such a pile could have resisted the storms famous Logan, or rocking-stone, commonly called Men of so many ages.-Parley's Book of Curiosities.
Amber, Men-au-bar, or the top stone. It was eleven feet Now that we are on this subject, we will introduce to by six, and four high, and so nicely poised on another the notice of our readers, from the “Cabinet of Curiosi- stone that a little child could move it, and all travellers ties,” an account of several stones of a kindred descrip- who passed this way desired to see it. But Shrubsall, tion.
Cromwell's governor of Pendenis, with much ado caused Pliny tell us, that at Harpasa, a town of Asia, there it to be undermined, to the great grief of the country.was a rock of such a wonderful nature, that if touched There are some marks of the tool upon it, and by its with the finger it would shake, but could not be moved quadrangular shape, it was probably dedicated to Merfrom its place with the whole force of the body. Ptole- cury. my Hephestion mentions a stone near the ocean, which In the parish of Kirkmichael, in Scotland, there is a was agitated when struck by the stalk of an asphodel, very remarkable stone of this description. It stands on but could not be removed by a great exertion of force. a flat topped eminence, surrounded at some distance by
In Britain, there are many stones of this description. steep rocky hills. It rests on the plain surface of a rock, In the parish of St. Leven, Cornwall
, there is a promon-level with the ground. Its shape is quadrangular, aptory called Castle Treryn. On the western side of the proaching to the figure of a rhombus, of which the greatmiddle group, near the top, lies a very large stone so er diagonal is seven feet, and the lesser five. Its medium evenly poised, that any hand may move it from one side thickness is about two feet and a half; its solid contents to another ; yet it is so fixed on its base, that no lever, will therefore be about fifty-one cubical feet. As it is of por any mechanical force, can remove it from its pre- very hard and solid whinstone, its weight, reckoning the sent situation. It is called the Logan Stone, and is at cubical foot at eight stone three pounds, may be reckoned such a height from the ground, that no person can be- to be four hundred and eighteen stone five pounds, or lieve that it was raised to its present position by art. within thirty pounds of three tons. It touches the rock
Other rocking stones are so shaped, and so situated, on which it rests only in one line, which is in the same that there can be no doubt they were erected by human plane with the lesser diagonal, and its lower surface is strength. Of this kind, Borlase thinks the great Quoit, convex towards the extremities of the greater diagonal. or Karn-lehau, in the parish of Tywidpeck, to be. It is By pressing down either of the extreme corners, and thirty-nine feet in circumference, and four feet thick at withdrawing the pressure alternately, a rocking motion a médium, and stands on a single pedestal. There is is produced, which may be increased so much, that the also a remarkable stone of the same kind in the Island of distance between the lowest depression and highest eleSt. Agnes, in Scilly. It is poised on a mass of rock, vation is a full foot. When the pressure is wholly withwhich is ten feet six inches high, forty-seven feet round drawn, the stone will continue to rock till it bas made 26 the middle, and touches the ground with no more than or more vibrations from one side to the other, before it half its base. From this the rocking stone rises on one settles in its naturally horizontal position. Both the point only, and is so nicely balanced, that two or three lower side of the stone, and the surface of the rock on men with a pole can move it
. It is eight feet six inches which it rests, appear to be worn and roughened by muhigh, and forty-seven feet in circumference. On the tual friction.
CANNIBALS. Is almost every age of the world, there have been | Homer speaks of anthropophagy, or cannabalism, being hurbarous nations who have followed the horrible prac- frequent in the age immediately preceding his own; and tice of cannabalism, and
Herodotus relates, that the Essedonian Scythians mixed _" Devour'd each other like the beasts,
up the flesh of men who died with that of beasts, and Gorging on buman flesh.”
made a feast. The Messagetæ were still more ferocious
they did not wait until death did its office, but when any | Guipunavis, and the Caribbees, have always been more person grew old, they killed him and eat his flesh. If he powerful and more civilized than the other hordes of the died of sickness they buried him. The same historian Oronooko; and yet the former two are as much addicted relates, that several Indian nations killed all their old 10 anthropophagy, as the last are repugnant to it. We people and their sick, to feed on the flesh; and persons must carefully distinguish the different branches into in health were sometimes accused of being ill, in order which the great family of the Carribbee nation is divided. to afford a pretence for devouring them. The Greek These branches are as numerous as those of the Monwriters all represent cannibalism as universal before the guls, and the western Tartars or Turcomans. The Cartime of Orpheus; and according to Sextus Empiricus, ribbees of the continent, those who inhabit the plains bethe first laws that were made were for the prevention of tween the Lower Oronooko, the Rio Branco, the Essethis barbarous practice.
quibo, and the sources of the Oyapoc, hold in horror We have equally good evidence of the custom of eat- the practice of devouring their enemies. This barbaing human flesh in later times. All the Romish mis rous custom at the first discovery of America existed sionaries who visited the internal parts of Africa, and only among the Caribbees of the West Indies. some parts of Asia, speak of it as quite common. Herre The cannibalism of the nations of Guyana is never ra states, that there are great markets in China furnished caused by the want of subsistence, or by the superstiwholly with human flesh, for the higher orders of the tions of iheir religion, as in the islands of the South people; and other writers mention it as common to the Sea; but it is generally the effect of the vengeance of a inhabitants of Concha, Java, Siam, the islands in the conqueror, and (as the missionaries say) “of a vitiated gulf of Bengal, &c.
appetite." Victory over a hostile horde is celebrated by The philosophers Diogenes, Chrysippus, and Zeno, a repast, in which some parts of the body of a prisoner followed by the whole sect of Stoics, maintain that there are devoured. Sometimes a desenceless family is suris nothing unnatural in the eating of human flesh, and prised in the night, or an enemy who is met with by that it is very reasonable to use dead bodies for food, ra- chance in the woods is killed by a poisoned arrow. The ther than give them a prey to worms and putrefaction. body is cut in pieces, and carried as a trophy to the but.
In Egypt, in the thirteenth century, the habit of eat. It is civilization only that has made man feel the unity ing human flesh pervaded all classes of society, and ex- of the human race; which has revealed to him, as we traordinary snares were spread for physicians in particu- may say, the ties of consanguinity by which he is linked lar. They were called to attend persons who pretend to beings to whose language and manners he is a straned to be sick, but who were only hungry; and it was ger. Savages know only their own family; and a tribe not in order to consult, but to devour them. A bisto- appears to them but a numerous assemblage of relations. rian of great veracity, Abd-Allatif, has related how a When those who inhabit the missions see Indiaps of the practice which at first inspired dread and horror, soon forest who are unknown to them arrive, they make use occasioned not the slightest surprise. He says: of an expression which has struck us by its simple can
“When the poor began to eat human flesh, the hor- dour: “They are no doubt my relations ; I understand ror and astonishment caused by repasts so dreadful were them when they speak to me." But these very savages such, that these crimes furnished the never ceasing sub- detest all who are not of their family or their tribe, and ject of every conversation. But at length the people be- hunt the Indians of a neighbouring tribe, who live at came so much accustomed to it, and conceived such a war with their own, as we hunt game. They know the taste for this detestable food, that people of wealth and duties of family and of relationship, but not those of hurespectability were found to use it as their ordinary food, manity, which require the feeling of a common tie with to eat it by way of regale, and even to lay in a stock of beings framed like ourselves. No emotion of pity it. Thus flesh was prepared in different ways, and the prompts them to spare the wives or children of a hostile practice being once introduced, spread into ihe provin- race; and the latter are devoured in preference at the ces, so that examples of it were found in every part of repasts given at the conclusion of a battle, or of a warEgypt. It then no longer caused any surprise ; the like incursion. horror it had first inspired vanished, and it was mention The hatred which savages for the most part feel for ed as an indifferent and ordinary thing. This fury of men who speak another idiom, and appear to them to devouring one another became so common among the be barbarians of an inferior race, is sometimes rekindled poor, that the greater part perished in this manner. in the missions after having long slumbered. A short These wretches employed all sorts of artifices to seize time before our arrival at Esmeralda, says Humboldt, an men by surprise, or decoy them into their houses under Indian, born in the forest behind Duida, travelled alone false pretences. This happened to three physicians with another Indian, who, after having been made priamong those who visited me; and a bookseller who sold soner by the Spaniards on the banks of the Ventuario, me books, an old and very corpulent man, fell into their lived peaceably in the village, or as it is expressed here, snares, and escaped with great difficulty.
" within the sound of the bell,” debaxo de la campana. “ All the facts we relate as ocular witnesses, fell under | The latter could only walk slowly, because he laboured our observation accidentally, for we generally avoided under one of those fevers to which the natives are subseeing spectacles which inspired us with so much hor-ject when they arrive in the missions and abruptly
change their diet. Wearied of his delay, his fellow When America was discovered, cannibalism was found traveller killed him, and hid the body behind a copse of to be almost universal ; so much so that several authors thick trees, near Esmeralda. This crime, like many have supposed it to be occasioned through a want of others among the Indians, would have remained unfood, or through the indolence of the people to seek for known, if the murderer had not made preparations for a it, though others ascribe its origin to a spirit of revenge. feast on the following day. He tried to induce his chilBut although it is known that anthropophagy and the dren, born in the mission and become Christians, to go practice of human sacrifices with which it is often con with him for some parts of the dead body. They had nected are found in all parts of the globe, and among much difficulty in persuading him to desist from his people of very different races, yet what strikes us more purpose ; and the soldier who was posted at Esmeralda in the study of history is, to see human sacrifices retain- learned from the domestic squabble caused by this event ed in a state of civilization somewhat advanced, and that what the Indians would have hidden from his knowthe nations who hold it a point of honour to devour ledge. their prisoners, are not always the rudest and most fero In the island of Sumatra, human flesh is still eaten by cious. This observation, which has something in it dis- the Batta people, but by them only. "They do not tressing and painful, has not escaped such of the mis- eat human flesh,” says Mr. Marsden, “ as a means of sionaries as are sufficiently enlightened to reflect on the satisfying the cravings of nature, owing to a deficiency manners of the surrounding tribes. The Cabres, the of other food; nor is it sought after as a gluttonous de