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licacy, as it would seem among the New Zealanders.

BIOGRAPHY. The Battas eat it as a species of ceremony; as a mode of showing their detestation of crimes by an ignominious punishment, and as a horrid indication

of revenge and insult to their unfortunate enemies. The objects of this barbarous repast, are the prisoners taken in war, and offenders convicted and condemned for capital crimes. Persons of the former description may be ransomed or exchanged, for which they often wait a considerable time; and the latter suffer only when their friends cannot redeem them by the customary fine of twenty beenchangs, or eighty dollars. These are tried by the people of the tribe where the act was commit. ted, but cannot be executed till their own particular raja or chief has been acquainted with the sentence; who, when he acknowledges the justice of the intended punishment, sends a cloth to put over the delinquent's head, together with a large dish of salt and lemons.-The unhappy object, whether prisoner of war or malefactor, is then tied to a stake; the people assembled throw their lances at him from a certain distance, and, when mortally wounded, they run up to him, as if in a transport of passion, cut pieces from the body with their knives, dip them in the dish of salt and lemon-juice, slightly broil them over a fire prepared for the purpose, and swallow the morsels with a degree of savage enthusiasm. Sometimes, (1 presume according to the degree of their animosity and resentment,) the whole is devoured ; and instances have been known where, with barbarity still aggravated, they tear the flesh from the carcase with their mouths. To such a depth of depravity may man be plunged, when neither religion nor philosophy enlighten his steps! All that can be said in extenuation of the horror of this diabolical ceremony is, that no view

MULLED SACK. appears to be entertained of torturing the sufferers ; of increasing or lengthening out the pangs of death : the John Cottington, better known by the name of whole fury is directed against the corpse, warm indeed Mulled Sack, was one of the most notorious highwaywith the remains of life, but past the sensation of pain. men this country has produced. He was the sou of a I have found a difference of opinion in regard to their haberdasher in Cheapside, who haring exhausted his proeating the bodies of their enemies slain in battle. Some perty died poor, and was buried by the parish, leaving persons long resident there, and acquainted with their fifteen daughters and four sons, of whom our hero was proceedings, assert that it is not customary ; but as one the youngest. At eight years of age, he was put apor two particular instances have been given by other prentice to a chimney-sweeper of St. Mary-le-bow, with people, it is just to conclude that it sometimes takes whom he remained about five years: as soon as he enplace, though not generally. It was supposed to be with tered his teens he ran away; and soon afterwards receivthis intent that Raja Neabin maintained a long conflicted the name (by which he was best known) of Mulled for the body of Mr. Nairne, a most respectable gentle- Sack, from his drinking sack mulled, morning, noon, and man and valuable servant of the India Company, who night. To support a life of dissipation, he turned pickfell in an attack upon the campong of that chief, in the pocket; and one of his first robberies of this sort was year 1755."-Cabinet of Curiosities.

committed on Lady Fairfax, from whom he got a rich gold watch : and his depredations were afterwards so

numerous, that his biographers state "the many variADAM'S PEAK.

ous tricks Mulled Sack played upon Ludgate-hill, by Adam's Peak is the highest mountain in Ceylon, making stops of coaches and carts; and the money that about 8,000 feet above the level of the sea, and has sel- he and his consorts got there by picking pockets, would dom been ascended, not so much from its height, as from have been almost enough to have built St. Paul's Cathe difficulty of the latter part of the ascent, which is thedral.” quite perpendicular: two ladies, however, have been Mulled Sack was detected in picking the pocket of among the few adventurers, and got up by means of Oliver Cromwell as he came out of the Parliament chains and pullies. The Mussulmans have a tradition House, but escaped hanging by the political changes of that Adam, when driven out of Paradise, alighted upon the times. He next turned highwayman, and was so the Peak ; and a mark which bears a resemblance to a audacious as to rob Colonel Hewson when marching human foot, is supposed to be the impression made by over Hounslow at the head of his regiment, in company him while expiating his crime, by standing on one foot with one Tom Cheney. They were pursued by a body till his sins were forgiven.—Ib.

of troopers : Mulled Sack escaped, but his companion,

after defending himself against eighteen horsemen, was SINGULAR DENTITION.

overpowered and taken: he was tried at Old Bailey, conA FEMALE of the name of Mary Thompson, residing wards, along with several other of his companions, way,

victed, and executed at Tyburn. Mulled Sack afterat Little Smeaton, near Pontefract

, at the advanced age laid a waggon which was conveying £4,000 to Oxford of ninety-six years, has, within a few months back, cut and Gloucester, and seized the money, which they soon four new teeth. The last tooth perforated the gum spent: he also robbed the house of the Receiver-Genabout six weeks ago. Ib.

eral of Reading of £6,000, which he was preparing to

send up to town. For this offence, Mulled Sack, who Mental pleasures never cloy; unlike those of the body, was taken, was tried at Reading, but acquitted—it is said, they are increased by repetition, approved of by reflec-by bribing the jury. He had not been long at liberty tion, and strengthened by enjoyment.-Lacon.

before he killed one John Bridges, for which he was

[graphic]

obliged to quit the kingdom, and went to Cologne, where

I'TEMS OF NEWS. he robbed King Charles II. then in exile, of as much plate as was valued at £1,500. On returning to Eng

The late news from England is not very important.. jand, he promised to give Oliver Cromwell some of his The Bank of England will no doubt be re-chartered. Majesty's papers, but, says his biographer, “ pot making The compromise by which it will be effected is said to good his promise, he was sent to Newgate, and, receiv- have been definitively settled in committee. There have ing sentence of death, was hanged in Smithfield rounds been disturbances in Ireland, and some bloodshed bein April 1659, aged fifty-five years."

tween the mob and the soldiery. Our engraving is copied from an old print, beneath The news from Portugal remains of the usual comwhich is the following inscription :

plexion. Don Pedro stays in Oporto, either because he “ I walke the Strand and Westminister and scorne

likes the place, or cannot stay any where else; he and To march t' the cittie; though I beare the horne,

his hopeful brother, Don Miguel, have been near enough My feather and my yellow band accord To prove me courtier, my boots, spur, and sword,

to him to take a look through their telescopes at each My smoking pipe, scarf, garter, rose on shoe

other. Don Pedro remarked that Miguel was the same Showe my brave mind, i' affect what gallants do,

looking scamp as ever, and Miguel on his part said to I singe, dance, drinke, and merrily pass the day,

those around him that Pedro had the same intriguing, And like a chimncy sweep all care away.”.

Cabinet of Curiosities.

gallows look as usual. This was brotherly love!

It is rumoured in the political circles in Europe, that POETRY.

a vast storm seems to be organizing in some of the des.

potic governments. Italy is in fact heaving with hardly DAWN.

suppressed revolution.

Joel Clough, the murderer of Mrs. Hamilton, and who Throw up the window! 'Tis a morn for life In its most subtle luxury. The air

was sentenced to be hung yesterday, escaped from the Is like a breathing from a rarer world;

jail at Mount Holly, N. J. last Saturday evening, or raAnd the south wind seems liquid-it o'ersteals

ther about break of day on Sunday morning. The alarm My bosom and my brow so bathingly. It has come over gardens, and the flowers

was soon given, and the country scoured by hundreds of That kissed it are betrayed; for as it parts,

the inhabitants. A piece of woodland towards which he With its invisible fingers, my loose hair,

was tracked, and which he was seen to enter by a coI know it has been trifling with the rose,

loured woman, was repeatedly searched with dogs and And stooping to the violet. There is joy For all God's creatures in it. The wet leaves

men-yet he was not found until Sunday evening, when Are stirring at its touch, and birds are singing

he had left his lurking place to proceed on his flight. As if to breathe were music; and the grass

Although armed with an axe he made no resistance to Sends up its modest odour with the dew,

the two men who discovered him: at first he denied Like the small tribute of humility.

that his name was Clough, and after he found that he Lovely indeed is morning! I have drank Its fragrance and its freshness, and have felt

was known, he begged piteously for bis life. He had es. Its delicate touch; and 'uis a kindlicr thing

caped by filing off his chain with which he was fastened Than music, or a feast, or medicine.

to the floor, and then with his candle burning away some I had awoke from an unpleasant dream,

wood-work, and thus loosening the stones of the prison And light was welcome to me. I looked out To feel the common air, and when the breath

wall. In all probability he was yesterday launched Of the delicious morning met my brow,

into eternity.
Cooling its fever, and the pleasant sun
Shone on familiar objects, it was like

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Book and Job Printing at Mrs. Vesey's, in the hearing of the veracious Bennet EXECUTED WITH NEATNESS AND DESPATCH Langton.

AT THIS OFFICE.

OR

WEEKLY ABSTRACT OF GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.

VOL. I.

NEW YORK, SATURDAY, AUGUST 3, 1833.

NO. 16.

EARTHQUAKES.

dryness of the season, not to diffuse itself readily: it (Continued.]

may thus, as Beccaria conjectures, force its way into He says that the surface of the ground is prepared by the higher regions of the air, forming clouds out of the this dry and warm weather for that kind of electrical vapours which float in the atmosphere, and may occavibration in which earthquakes consist; while, at the sion a sudden shower, which may further promote its same time, in several places where they have occurred, progress. The whole surface being thus unloaded, will, the internal parts, at a small depth beneath the surface, like any other conducting substance, receive a concuswere moist and boggy. Hence he infers, that they reach sion, either on parting with, or on receiving any quantity very little beneath the surface. That the southern re- of the electric fluid. The rushing noise will likewise gions are more subject to earthquakes than the northern, sweep over the whole extent of the country; and, on he thinks is owing to the greater warmth and dryness of this supposition also, the fluid, in its discharge from the the earth and air, which are qualities so necessary to

surface of the earth, will naturally follow the course of electricity. It may here be noticed, that, before the the rivers, and will take the advantage of any eminences earthquakes of London, in 1749, all vegetation was

to facilitate its ascent into its higher regions of the air. remarkably forward ; and it is well known that electri Such are the arguments in favour of the electrical city quickens vegetation. The frequent and singular hypothesis; but since it has been supported with so appearance of boreal and austral aurora, and the variety i much ability, an ingenious writer, Whitehurst, in his of meteors by which earthquakes are preceded, indicate Inquiry into the original State and Formation of the an electrical state of the atmosphere; and the Doctor Earth, contends that subterraneous fire, and the steam apprehends that, in this state of the earth and air, nothing generated from it, are the true and real causes of earthmore is necessary to produce these phenomena, than quakes. When, he observes, it is considered that the the approach of a non-electric cloud and the discharge expansive force of sieam is to that of gunpowder as of its contents on any part of the earth, when in a twenty-eight to one, it may be conceded that this exhighly electrified state. In the same way as the dis- pansive force, and the elasticity of steam, are in every charge from an excited tube occasions a commotion in way capable of producing the stupendous effects attrithe human body, so the shock produced by the discharge buted to these phenomena. between the cloud and many miles in compass of solid

Among the most striking phenomena of earthquakes earth, must be an earthquake, and the snap from the which present a fearful assemblage of the combined contact the noise attending it.

effects of air, earth, fire and water in a state of unreThe theory of M. de St. Lazare differs from the strained contention, may be noticed the following :above hypothesis, as the electrical cause. It ascribes Before the percussion, a rumbling sound is heard, prothe production of earthquakes to the interruption of the ceeding either from the air, or from fire, or, perhaps, equilibrium between the electrical matter diffused in the from both in conjunction, forcing their way through the atmosphere, and that which belongs to the mass of our chasms of the earth, and endeavoring to liberate them. globe and pervades its bowels. If the electrical fluid selves: this, as has been seen, likewise happens in volshould be superabundant, as may happen from a variety canic eruptions. Secondly, a violent agitation or of causes, its current, by the laws of motion peculiar to heaving of the sea sometimes following the shock : this fluids, is carried towards those places where it is in a is also a volcanic effect. Thirdly, a spouting up of the similar quantity: and thus it will sometimes pass from waters to a great height-a phenomenon which is comthe internal parts of the globe into the atmosphere. mon to earthquakes and volcanoes, and which cannot be This happening if the equilibrium be re-established readily accounted for. Fourtbly, a rocking of the earth, without difficulty, the current merely produces the and occasionally, what may be termed a perpendicular effect of what M.'de St. Lazare calls ascending thunder; rebounding : this diversity has been supposed by some but if this re-establishment be oppsed by considerable naturalists to arise chiefly from the situation of the and multiplied obstacles, the consequence is then an place, relatively to the subterraneous fire, which when earthquake, the violence and extent of which are in immediately beneath, causes the earth to rise, and when exact proportion to the degree of interruption of the at a distance, to rock. Fifthly, earthquakes are someequilibriumn, the depth of the electric matter, and the times observed to travel onward, so as io be felt in diffeobstacles which are to be surmounted. If the electric rent countries at different hours of the same day. This furnace be sufficiently large and deep to give rise to the may be accounted for by the violent shock given to the formation of a conduit or issue, the production of a earth at one place, and communicated progressively by volcano will follow, its successive eruptions being, ac

an undulatory motion, successively affecting different cording to him, nothing more in reality than electric regions as it passes along, in the same way as the blow repulsions of the substances contained in the bowels of given by a stone thrown into a lake is not perceived at the earth. From this reasoning, he endeavours to

the shore until some time after the first concussion. deduce the practicability of forming a counter-earth- Sixthly, the shock is sometimes instantaneous, like the quake, and a counter-volcano, by means of certain explosion of gunpowder, and sometimes tremendous, electrical conductors, which he describes, so as to pre- lasting for several minutes. The nearer to the observer vent these convulsions in the bowels of the earth.

the place wbere the shock is first given, the more inThe opinion of Signior Beccaria is nearly similar; staneous and simple it appears; while, at a greater disand from his hypothesis and that or Dr. Stukely, the tance, the earth seems to redouble the first blow, with a celebrated Priestly has endeavored to form one still more

sort of vibratory coutinuation. Lastly, as the waters general and more feasible. He supposes the electric have in general so great a share in the production of fluid to be in some mode or other accumulated on one earthquakes, it is not surprising that they should gene.. part of the surface of the earth, and, on account of the rally follow the breaches made by the force of fire, and

appear in the great chasms opened by the earth.-- | them the various uses of fire and iron. From softening

The most remarkable earthquakes of ancient times and polishing iron, he received the name of Mulciber, are described by Pliny in his Natural History. Among or Mulcifer; and from being cast into Lemnos, he was the most extensive and destructive of these, was the one called Lemnius. He asterwards removed to the volcanic already noticed, by which thirteen cities in Asia Minor islands of Lipari, near Sicily, where he forged the were swallowed up in one night. Another which suc- thunder bolts of Jupiter. ceeded shook the greater part of Italy. But the most

* Nor was his name unheard or unadorned extraordinary one described by him happened during

In ancient Greece: and in Ausonian land the consulate of Lucius Marcus and Sextus Julius, in

Men call him Mulciber; and how he fell

From heaven they fabled, thrown by angry Jove the Roman province of Mutiva. He relates, that two

From morn mountains felt so tremendous a shock, that they seemed To noon hc fell, from noon to dewy evc, to approach and retire with a most dreadful noise. They A summer's, day; and, with the setting sun, at the same time, and in the middle of the day, cast

Drops from the zenith like a falling star forth fire and smoke, to the dismay of the astonished

On Lemnos, the Ægean isle."

MILTON. spectator. By this shock several towns were destroyed, The beautiful Venus, strange to say! was the wife of and the animals in their vicinity killed. During the Vulcan. reign of Trajan, the city of Antioch was, together with

when of old, as mystic bards presume, a great part of the adjacent country, destroyed by an

Huge Cyclops dwelt in Etna's rocky womb,

On thundering anvils rung their loud alarms, earthquake; and about three hundred years after, dur

And leagued with vulcan, forged immortal arms ing the reign of Justinian, it was again destroyed, with Descending Venus sought the dark abode, the loss of forty thousand of its inhabitants. Lastly, af And soothed the labours of the grisly God. ter an interval of sixty years, that ill-fated city was a

With radiant eye she viewed the boiling ore, third time overwhelmed, with a loss of sixty thousand

Heard undismay'd the breathing bellows roar,

Admired their sinewy arms and shoulders bare, souls.

And ponderous hammers lifted high in air : The earthquake which happened at Rhodes, upwards With smiles celestial blessed their dazzled siglit, of two hundred years before the Christian era, threw

And beauty blazed amid infernal night." down the famous Colossus, together with the arsenal, But notwithstanding all her beauty, she proved unfaithand a great part of the walls of the city. In the year ful to her husband. He desired to marry Minerva, and 1182, the greater part of the cities of Syria, and of the Jupiter consented, if he could overcome her diffidence ; kingdom of Jerusalem, were destroyed by a similar cata- for Jupiter had given him leave, when he made arms for strophe; and in 1594, the Italian writers describe an the gods, to choose a wife from among the goddesses. earthquake at Puteoli, which occasioned the sea to retire But upon his choosing Minerva, Jupiter admonished her iwo hundred yards from its former bed.

to refuse him, which she accordingly did.

“ His most celebrated works are the famous palace of MYTHOLOGY.

the sun; the armor of Achilles and Æneas; the beautiful necklace of Hermione, and the crown of Ariadne. According to Homer, the shield of Achilles was enamelled with metals of various colors, and contained twelve historical designs, with groupes of figures of great beauty; the seats which Vulcan constructed for the gods were so contrived, that they came self-moved from the sides of the apartment to the place where each god seated himself at the table when a council was to be held.

“Vulcan wrought a helmet for Pluto, which rendered him invisible; a trident for Neptune, which shook both land and sea ; and a dog of brass for Jupiter.

“Vulcan also fabricated palaces of gold for the celestial deities.

“ Ac Rome were celebrated the Vulcania, feasts in honor of Vulcan; at which they threw animals into the fire to be burnt to death. The Athenians instituted other feasts to his honor called Chalsea. A temple besides was dedicated to him upon the mountain Ætna, from which he was sometimes called Ætnæus. This temple was guarded by dogs, whose sense of smelling was so exquisite, that they could discern whether the person that came thither were chaste and religious, or wicked. They used to meet, and flatter and follow the good, esteeming them the acquaintance and friends of Vulcan their master.

“ It is feigned that the first woman was fashioped by the hammer of Vulcan, and that every god gave her some present, whence she was called Pandora. Pallas gave her wisdom, Apollo the art of music, Mercury the art of eloquence, Venus gave her beauty, and the rest

of the gods gave her other accomplishments. They say VULCAN.

also, that when Prometheus stole fire from heaven to “Vulcan was the god of fire, of smiths, and of metals, animate the man which he had made, Jupiter was inand the armourer of the gods. He was born of Jupiter censed, and sent Pandora to Prometheus with a and Juno, though, as some say, of Juno only. He was sealed box, but Prometheus would not receive it. He so deformed, that Jupiter kicked him out of heaven; sent her with the same box again to the wife of Epiinewhence he fell into the island of Lemnos, and, as might theus, the brother of Prometheus ; and she, out of a be expected, was not a little larned by his fall, having one curiosity natural to her sex, opened it, which as soon as of his legs broken ; and had he noi been caught, as he she had done, all sorts of diseases and evils, with which fell, by the Lemnian he would have broken his neck. it was filled flew among mankind, and have infested As a requital of their kindness, he took up his residence them ever since. And nothing was left in the bottom among them for a time, and built his forges, teaching of the box but llope.

“Vulcan's servants were called Cyclops, because they body. It is black in the negro ; wbite, brown, or yelhad but one eye, which was in the middle of their fore- lowish in the European. The true skin is a very heads, of a circular figure : Neptune and Amphitrite sensible membrane extended over all parts of the body, were their parents. The names of three of them were and has nerves terminaitng so plentifully on its surface, Brontes, Steropes, and Pyracion: besides these, there that the finest needle cannot prick it without touching were many more, all of whom exercised the art of some of them. smithery under Vulcan, as we are taught by Virgil.Æn. 8.

ABSORBENTS are a set of small colorless vessels, which pervade the whole surface of the body both ex

ternally and internally. Their office is to take up what NATURAL HISTORY.

ever fuids are effused into the different cavities, and to

pour out their contents for particular uses. For the PHYSIOLOGY.

purpose of absorption, they are highly irritable at their Pursuing the subject of natural history in regular order, extremities, and are very replete with valves, to prevent we come next to the structure of the human frame, the escape or return of their contents. Their number, together with the functions of its various parts. We when compared with other vessels, is four times greater; copy the following from the Family Encyclopedia, aud they are divided into lymphatics and lacteals, accordor Compendium of Universal Knowledge,” by Charles ing to their respective offices, the former conveying A. Goodrich.

lymph, the latter chyle. HUMAN STRUCTURE.-The animal frame is

CARTILAGES, or gristles, are smooth, solid, flexicomposed of bones, muscles, brain, nerves, arteries, ble, elastic parts, softer than bone, and seem to be of veins, cartilages, inembranes, glands,-also of chyle, the same nature; some even become bones by time; blood, milk, &c.

some again are much softer, and partake of the nature BONES are white, hard, brittle, and almost insen- of ligaments. They terminate those bones that form sible; they support and form the stature of the body, moveable joints, and in some instances serve to connect defend its viscera, and give power to the various mus bones together. In the nose, ears, and eyelids are carti- . cles. The number of bones in the human body is ge- | lages. nerally 240: but in some individuals, who have two additional bones in each thumb and great toe, they

A MEMBRANE is a thin, white, flexible, expanded amount to 218.

skin, formed of several sorts of fibres interwoven toTEETH, a set of bones, situated in the upper and gether. The use of membranes is to cover and wrap

up In adults,

the parts of the body; to strengthen them, and save lower jaws, for the purpose of mastication. they are 32 in number, or 16 in each jaw-bone, consist- heat ; to join one part to another ; to sustain small ves

them from external injuries ; to preserve the natural ing of 4 cutting, 2 canine, and 10 grinders.

sels, &c, The teeth are of various sizes, being arranged in the following order; four in front, termed cutting teeth, on A GLAND is an organic part of the body, destined each side of which is a sharp pointed canine or eyetooth: for the secretion or alteration of some peculiar fluid, and adjoining to these are five grinders on each side, the last composed of blood-vessels, nerves and absorbents. of which is denominated the tooth of wisdom, because The glands are designated either according to the it seldom appears before the 25th year. The front and peculiar fluids which they contain, as mucous, sebaceeye-teeth are furnished with only one root each; the two

ous, lymphatic, salival, and lachrymal glands; or their first grinders with two ; and the hindermost generally structure, as simple, compound, conglobate, and conwith three or four; which may in most persons be as-glomerate glands. The vessels and nerves of glands certained by the number of small tubercles on the always come from the neighbouring parts, and the ar

The tooth is divided into two principal parts; teries appear to possess a higher degree of irritability. viz. the crown, which projects above the gums, and the Glands appear to the eye as whitish membranous masses. root, that is enclosed within the sockets. The crown is a hard, fine, glossy white enamel, serving to defend the

The BRAIN consists of the whole of that mass substance against external injury. The root is open at which, with its surrounding membranes and vessels, fills the bottom, where it is connected with vessels and the greater part of the skull. It is said to be larger in nerves, by which it receives nourishment, life and sen man, in proportion to the nerves helonging to it, than sation.

in any other animal. It consists of the cerebrum, cereMUSCLES, of which it is said there are 446 in the bellum, tuber annulare, and medulla oblongata; the human body, dissectable and describable, are parts of whole weighs usually about forty-eight or fifty ounces ; the animal body destined to move some other parts, but its weight varies in different subjects. and hence are termed the organs or instruments of

The CEREBRUM, which is by far the largest pormotion. They are composed of flesh and tendinous tion, is contained in all the upper part of the skull; it fibres, and contain vessels of all kinds.

is divided into a right and left hemisphere by a memFLESI is the fibrous or muscular part of the ani- brane termed falx. Each hemisphere is also again submal body : muscular flesh is composed of a great num- divided into three lobes, the two lying in the front porber of fibres or threads; it is commonly of a reddish ortion of the skull being the largest. It is surrounded whitish color. The ancients distinguished five different with membranes, and accompanied with blood-vessels. kinds of nesh, but the moderns admit one only, fleshy and muscular parts being with them the same.

The CEREBELLUM, or little brain, is situated in SKIN is the general covering of the body. Though the back part of the skull beneath the posterior lobes apparently a simple membrane, it consists of several of the cerebrum, from wbich it is separated by a mem

brane called the tentorium. It is divided by the falx parts. The outermost is the scarf-skin: it has no nerves, and is extended over every part of the true skin, minor into two hemispheres, which are again subdivided except where the nails are ; it is this skin which is into lobules.

The Tuber annulare is of a roundish form, about ar raised by the application of a blister; it is the thickest in those parts accustomed to labor or pressure, as the inch in length, and of the same width. From the tuber hand and foot. The rate mucosum is a web-like mucous andulare arises the medulla oblongata, which forms the substance, lying between the scarf and true skin, which beginning of the spinal marrow. chicsy gives the color to the exterior of the human

To b. Continued.]

crowns.

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