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licacy, as it would seem among the New Zealanders.-The Battas eat it as a species of ceremony; as a mode of showing their detestation of crimes by an ignominious punishment, and as a horrid indication of revenge and insult to their unfortunate enemies. The objects of this barbarous repast, are the prisoners taken in war, and offenders convicted and condemned for capital crimes. Persons of the former description may be ransomed or exchanged, for which they often wait a considerable time; and the latter suffer only when their friends cannot redeem them by the customary fine of twenty beenchangs, or eighty dollars. These are tried by the people of the tribe where the act was committed, but cannot be executed till their own particular raja or chief has been acquainted with the sentence; who, when he acknowledges the justice of the intended punishment, sends a cloth to put over the delinquent's head, together with a large dish of salt and lemons.— The unhappy object, whether prisoner of war or malefactor, is then tied to a stake; the people assembled throw their lances at him from a certain distance, and, when mortally wounded, they run up to him, as if in a transport of passion, cut pieces from the body with their knives, dip them in the dish of salt and lemon-juice, slightly broil them over a fire prepared for the purpose, and swallow the morsels with a degree of savage enthusiasm. Sometimes, (I presume according to the degree of their animosity and resentment,) the whole is devoured; and instances have been known where, with barbarity still aggravated, they tear the flesh from the carcase with their mouths. To such a depth of depravity may man be plunged, when neither religion nor philosophy enlighten his steps ' All that can be said in extenuation of the horror of this diabolical ceremony is, that no view appears to be entertained of torturing the sufferers; of increasing or lengthening out the pangs of death : the whole fury is directed against the corpse, warm indeed with the remains of life, but past the sensation of pain. I have found a difference of opinion in regard to their eating the bodies of their enemies slain in battle. Some persons long resident there, and acquainted with their proceedings, assert that it is not customary ; but as one or two particular instances have been given by other people, it is just to conclude that it sometimes takes place, though not generally. It was supposed to be with this intent that Raja Neabin maintained a long conflict for the body of Mr. Nairne, a most respectable gentleman and valuable servant of the India Company, who fell in an attack upon the campong of that chief, in the year 1755.”—Cabinet of Curiosities.

ADAM'S PEAK.

ADAM's Peak is the highest mountain in Ceylon, about 8,000 feet above the level of the sea, and has seldom been ascended, not so much from its height, as from the difficulty of the latter part of the ascent, which is quite perpendicular: two ladies, however, have been among the few adventurers, and got up by means of chains and pullies. The Mussulmans have a tradition that Adam, when driven out of Paradise, alighted upon the Peak; and a mark which bears a resemblance to a human foot, is supposed to be the impression made by him while expiating his crime, by standing on one foot till his sins were forgiven.—Ib.

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B I O GRAPHY.

MULLED SACK. John CottingtoN, better known by the name of Mulled Sack, was one of the most notorious highwaymen this country has produced. He was the son of a haberdasher in Cheapside, who having exhausted his property died poor, and was buried by the parish, leaving fifteen daughters and four sons, of whom our hero was the youngest. At eight years of age, he was put apprentice to a chimney-sweeper of St. Mary-le-bow, with whom he remained about five years: as soon as he entered his teens he ran away; and soon afterwards received the name (by which he was best known) of Mulled Sack, from his drinking sack mulled, morning, noon, and night. To support a life of dissipation, he turned pickpocket; and one of his first robberies of this sort was committed on Lady Fairfax, from whom he got a rich gold watch : and his depredations were asterwards so numerous, that his biographers state “the many various tricks Mulled Sack played upon Ludgate-hill, by making stops of coaches and carts; and the money that he and his consorts got there by picking pockets, would have been almost enough to have built St. Paul's Cathedral.” Mulled Sack was detected in picking the pocket of Oliver Cromwell as he came out of the Parliament House, but escaped hanging by the political changes of the times. He next turned highwayman, and was so audacious as to rob Colonel Hewson when marching over Hounslow at the head of his regiment, in company with one Tom Cheney: They were pursued by a body of troopers: Mulled Sack escaped, but his companion, after defending himself against eighteen horsemen, was overpowered and taken: he was tried at Old Bailey, convicted, and executed at Tyburn. Mulled Sack asterwards, along with several other of his companions, waylaid a waggon which was conveying £4,000 to Oxford and Gloucester, and seized the money, which they soon spent: he also robbed the house of the Receiver-General of Reading of £6,000, which he was preparing to send up to town. For this offence, Mulled Sack, who was taken, was tried at Reading, but acquitted—it is said, by bribing the jury. He had not been long at liberty before he killed one John Bridges, for which he was

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obliged to quit the kingdom, and went to Cologne, where he robbed King Charles II. then in exile, of as much plate as was valued at £1,500. On returning to England, he promised to give Oliver Cromwell some of his Majesty's papers, but, says his biographer, “not making good his promise, he was sent to Newgate, and, receiving sentence of death, was hanged in Smithfield rounds in April 1659, aged fifty-five years.” Our engraving is copied from an old print, beneath which is the following inscription:— “I walke the Strand and Westminister and scorne To march t” the cittie ; though I beare the horne, My feather and my yellow band accord To prove me courtier, my boots, spur, and sword, My smoking pipe, scarf, garter, rose on shoe Showe my brave mind, to affect what gallants do, I *i. dance, drinke, and merrily pass the day,

And like a chimncy sweep all care away.”

Cabinet of Curiosities.

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Throw up the window ! 'Tis a morn for life In its most subtle luxury. The air Is like a breathing from a rarer world; And the south wind seems liquid—it o'ersteals My bosom and my brow so bathingly. It has come over gardens, and the flowers That kissed it are betrayed; for as it parts, With its invisible fingers, my loose hair, I know it has been trifling with the rose, And stooping to the violet. There is joy For all God's creatures in it. The wet leaves Are stirring at its touch, and birds are singing As if to breathe were music; and the grass Sends up its modest odour with the dew, Like the small tribute of humility. Lovely indeed is morning ! I have drank Its fragrance and its freshness, and have felt Its delicate touch ; and 'tis a kindlier thing Than music, or a feast, or medicine.

I had awoke from an unpleasant dream, And light was welcome to me. I looked out To j the common air, and when the breath Of the delicious morning met my brow, Cooling its sever, and the pleasant sun Shone on familiar objects, it was like The feeling of the captive who comes forth From darkness to the cheerful light of day. Oh! could we wake from sorrow; were it all A troubled dream like this, to cast aside Like an untimely garment with the morn; Could the long fever of the heart be cooled By a sweet breath from nature; or the gloom Of a bereaved affection pass away With looking on the lively tint of flowers— How lightly were the spirit reconciled To make this beautiful, bright world its home !—Willis.

THE INSOLVENT NEGRO.

A NEGRO of one of the kingdoms on the African coast who had become insolvent, surrendered himself to his creditors; who, accoording to the established custom of the country, sold him to the Danes. This affected his son so much, that he came and reproached his father for not rather selling his children to pay his debts; and aster much entreaty, he prevailed on the captain to accept him, and liberate his father. The son was put in chains, and on the point of sailing to the West Indies; when the circumstance coming to the knowledge of the governor, through the means of Mr. Isert, he sent for the owner of the slaves, paid ii- money that he had given for the old man, and restorwu he son to his father.

A MISTAKE IN LEARNING.

A BARoS Et, who must be nameless, proposed to visit Rome, and previously to learn the language; but by some strange mistake or imposition, engaged a German who taught only his own language, and proceeded in the study of it vigorously for three months, before he discovered his error. This fact Horace Walpole related at Mrs. Vesey's, in the hearing of the veracious Bennet Langton.

ITEMs of News.

The late news from England is not very important.— The Bank of England will no doubt be re-chartered.— The compromise by which it will be effected is said to have been definitively settled in committee. There have been disturbances in Ireland, and some bloodshed between the mob and the soldiery.

The news from Portugal remains of the usual complexion. Don Pedro stays in Oporto, either because he likes the place, or cannot stay any where else; he and his hopeful brother, Don Miguel, have been near enough to him to take a look through their telescopes at each other. Don Pedro remarked that Miguel was the same looking scamp as ever, and Miguel on his part said to those around him that Pedro had the same intriguing, gallows look as usual. This was brotherly love .

It is rumoured in the political circles in Europe, that a vast storm seems to be organizing in some of the despotic governments. Italy is in fact heaving with hardly suppressed revolution.

Joel Clough, the murderer of Mrs. Hamilton, and who was sentenced to be hung yesterday, escaped from the jail at Mount Holly, N. J. last Saturday evening, or rather about break of day on Sunday morning. The alarm was soon given, and the country scoured by hundreds of the inhabitants. A piece of woodland towards which he was tracked, and which he was seen to enter by a coloured woman, was repeatedly searched with dogs and men—yet he was not found until Sunday evening, when he had left his lurking place to proceed on his flight. Although armed with an axe he made no resistance to the two men who discovered him : at first he denied that his name was Clough, and after he found that he was known, he begged piteously for his life. He had escaped by filing off his chain with which he was fastened to the floor, and then with his candle burning away some wood-work, and thus loosening the stones of the prison wall. In all probability he was yesterday launched into eternity. *****-i-o

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EARTHQUAKES. [Continued.]

He says that the surface of the ground is prepared by this dry and warm weather for that kind of electrical vibration in which earthquakes consist ; while, at the same time, in several places where they have occurred, the internal parts, at a small depth beneath the surface, were moist and boggy. Hence he insers, that they reach very little beneath the surface. That the southern re". are more subject to earthquakes than the northern, e thinks is owing to the greater warmth and dryness of the earth and air, which are qualities so necessary to electricity. It may here be noticed, that, before the earthquakes of London, in 1749, all vegetation was remarkably forward; and it is well known that electricity quickens vegetation. The frequent and singular appearance of boreal and austral aurorae, and the variety of meteors by which earthquakes are preceded, indicate an electrical state of the atmosphere ; and the Doctor apprehends that, in this state of the earth and air, nothing more is necessary to produce these phenomena, than the approach of a non-electric cloud and the discharge of its contents on any part of the earth, when in a highly electrified state. In the same way as the discharge from an excited tube occasions a commotion in the human body, so the shock produced by the discharge between the cloud and many miles in compass of solid earth, must be an earthquake, and the snap from the contact the noise attending it. The theory of M. de St. Lazare differs from the above hypothesis, as the electrical cause. It ascribes the production of earthquakes to the interruption of the equilibrium between the electrical matter diffused in the atmosphere, and that which belongs to the mass of our globe and pervades its bowels. If the electrical fluid should be superabundant, as may happen from a variety of causes, its current, by the laws of motion peculiar to fluids, is carried towards those places where it is in a similar quantity: and thus it will sometimes pass from the internal parts of the globe into the atmosphere. This happening if the equilibrium be re-established without difficulty, the current merely produces the effect of what M. de St. Lazare calls ascending thunder: but if this re-establishment be oppsed by considerable and multiplied obstacles, the consequence is then an earthquake, the violence and extent of which are in exact proportion to the degree of interruption of the equilibrium, the depth of the electric matter, and the obstacles which are to be surmounted. If the electric furnace be sufficiently large and deep to give rise to the formation of a conduit or issue, the production of a volcano will follow, its successive eruptions being, according to him, nothing more in reality than electric repulsions of the substances contained in the bowels of the earth. From this reasoning, he endeavours to deduce the practicability of forming a counter-earthquake, and a counter-volcano, by means of certain electrical conductors, which he describes, so as to prevent these convulsions in the bowels of the earth. The opinion of Signior Beccaria is nearly similar: and from his hypothesis and that of Dr. Stukely, the celebrated Priestly has endeavored to form one still more general and more feasible. He supposes the electric fluid to be in some mode or other accumulated on one part of the surface of the earth, and, on account of the

NEW YORK, SATURDAY, AUGUST 3, 1833.

NO. 16.

dryness of the season, not to diffuse itself readily: it may, thus, as Beccaria conjectures, force its way into the higher regions of the air, forming clouds out of the vapours which float in the atmosphere, and may occasion a sudden shower, which may further promote its progress. The whole surface being thus unloaded, will, like any other conducting substance, receive a concussion, either on parting with, or on receiving any quantity of the electric fluid. The rushing noise will likewise sweep over the whole extent of the country; and, on this supposition also, the fluid, in its discharge from the surface of the earth, will naturally follow the course of the rivers, and will take the advantage of any eminences to facilitate its ascent into its higher regions of the air. Such are the arguments in favour of the electrical hypothesis; but since it has been supported with so much ability, an ingenious writer, Whitehurst, in his Inquiry into the original State and Formation of the Earth, contends that subterraneous fire, and the steam generated from it, are the true and real causes of earthquakes. When, he observes, it is considered that the expansive force of steam is to that of gunpowder as twenty-eight to one, it may be conceded that this expansive force, and the elasticity of steam, are in every way capable of producing the stupendous effects attributed to these phenomena. Among the most striking phenomena of earthquakes which present a fearful assemblage of the combined effects of air, earth, fire and water in a state of unrestrained contention, may be noticed the following:— Before the percussion, a rumbling sound is heard, proceeding either from the air, or from fire, or, perhaps, from both in conjunction, forcing their way through the chasms of the earth, and endeavoring to liberate them. selves: this, as has been seen, likewise happens in volcanic eruptions. Secondly, a violent agitation or heaving of the sea sometimes following the shock: this is also a volcanic effect. Thirdly, a spouting up of the waters to a great height—a phenomenon which is com

mon to earthquakes and volcanoes, and which cannot be

readily accounted for. Fourthly, a rocking of the earth, and occasionally, what may be termed a perpendicular rebounding: this diversity has been supposed by some naturalists to arise chiefly from the situation of the place, relatively to the subterraneous fire, which when immediately beneath, causes the earth to rise, and when at a distance, to rock. Fifthly, earthquakes are sometimes observed to travel onward, so as to be selt in different countries at different hours of the same day. This may be accounted for by the violent shock given to the earth at one place, and communicated progressively by an undulatory motion, successively affecting different regions as it passes along, in the same way as the blow given by a stone thrown into a lake is not perceived at the shore until some time after the first concussion. Sixthly, the shock is sometimes instantaneous, like the explosion of gunpowder, and sometimes tremendous, lasting for several minutes. The nearer to the observer the place where the shock is first given, the more instaneous and simple it appears; while, at a greater distance, the earth seems to redouble the first blow, with a sort of vibratory continuation. Lastly, as the waters have in general so great a share in the production of earthquakes, it is not surprising that they should gene. rally follow the breaches made by the force of fire, and appear in the great chasms opened by the earth.The most remarkable earthquakes of ancient times are described by Pliny in his Natural History. Among the most extensive and destructive of these, was the one already noticed, by which thirteen cities in Asia Minor were swallowed up in one night. Another which succeeded shook the greater part of Italy. But the most extraordinary one described by him happened during the consulate of Lucius Marcus and Sextus Julius, in the Roman province of Mutina. He relates, that two mountains felt so tremendous a shock, that they seemed to approach and retire with a most dreadful noise. They at the same time, and in the middle of the day, cast forth fire and smoke, to the dismay of the astonished spectator. By this shock several towns were destroyed, and all the animals in their vicinity killed. During the reign of Trajan, the city of Antioch was, together with a great part of the adjacent country, destroyed by an earthquake; and about three hundred years after, during the reign of Justinian, it was again destroyed, with the loss of forty thousand of its inhabitants. Lastly, after an interval of sixty years, that ill-fated city was a third time overwhelmed, with a loss of sixty thousand souls. The earthquake which happened at Rhodes, upwards of two hundred years before the Christian era, threw down the famous Colossus, together with the arsenal, and a great part of the walls of the city. In the year 1182, the greater part of the cities of Syria, and of the kingdom of Jerusalem, were destroyed by a similar catastrophe; and in 1594, the Italian writers describe an earthquake at Puteoli, which occasioned the sea to retire two hundred yards from its former bed.

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when of old, as mystic bards presume, Huge Cyclops dwelt in Etna's rocky womb, On thundering anvils rung their loud alarms, And leagued with vulcan, forged immortal arms Descending Venus sought the dark abode And soothed the labours of the grisly God. With radiant eye she viewed i. boiling ore, Heard undismay'd the breathing bellows roar, Admired their sinewy arms and shoulders bare, And ponderous hammers lifted high in air: With smiles celestial blessed their dazzled sight, And beauty blazed amid infernal night.” But notwithstanding all her beauty, she proved unfaithful to her husband. He desired to marry Minerva, and Jupiter consented, if he could overcome her diffidence; for Jupiter had given him leave, when he made arms for the gods, to choose a wife from among the goddesses. But upon his choosing Minerva, Jupiter admonished her to refuse him, which she accordingly did. “His most celebrated works are the famous palace of the sun ; the armor of Achilles and Æneas; the beautiful necklace of Hermione, and the crown of Ariadne. According to Homer, the shield of Achilles was enamelled with metals of various colors, and contained twelve historical designs, with groupes of figures of great beauty; the seats which Vulcan constructed for the gods were so contrived, that they came self-moved from the sides of the apartment to the place where each god seated himself at the table when a council was to be held. “Vulcan wrought a helmet for Pluto, which rendered him invisible ; a trident for Neptune, which shook both land and sea ; and a dog of brass for Jupiter. “Vulcan also fabricated palaces of gold for the celestial deities. “At Rome were celebrated the Vulcania, feasts in honor of Vulcan ; at which they threw animals into the fire to be burnt to death. The Athenians instituted other feasts to his honor called Chalsea. A temple besides was dedicated to him upon the mountain AEtna, from which he was sometimes called Ætnaus. This temple was guarded by dogs, whose sense of smelling was so exquisite, that they could discern whether the person that came thither were chaste and religious, or wicked. They used to meet, and flatter and follow the good, esteeming them the acquaintance and friends of Vulcan their master. “It is feigned that the first woman was fashioned by the hammer of Vulcan, and that every god gave her some present, whence she was called Pandora. Pallas gave her wisdom, Apollo the art of music, Mercury the art of eloquence, Venus gave her beauty, and the rest of the gods gave her other accomplishments. They say also, that when Prometheus stole fire from heaven to animate the man which he had made, Jupiter was incensed, and sent Pandora to Prometheus with a sealed box, but Prometheus would not receive it. He sent her with the same box again to the wife of Epimetheus, the brother of Prometheus; and she, out of a curiosity natural to her sex, opened it, which as soon as she had done, all sorts of diseases and evils, with which it was filled flew among mankind, and have infested them ever since. And nothing was left in the bottom of the box but Hope.

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TEETH, a set of bones, situated in the upper and lower jaws, for the purpose of mastication. In adults, they are 32 in number, or 16 in each jaw-bone, consisting of 4 cutting, 2 canine, and 10 grinders.

The teeth are of various sizes, being arranged in the following order: four in front, termed cutting teeth, on each side of which is a sharp pointed canine or eyetooth: adjoining to these are five grinders on each side, the last of which is denominated the tooth of wisdom, because it seldom appears before the 25th year. The front and eye-teeth are surnished with only one root each; the two first grinders with two ; and the hindermost generally with three or four ; which may in most persons be ascertained by the number of small tubercles on the crowns. The tooth is divided into two principal parts; viz. the crown, which projects above the gums, and the root, that is enclosed within the sockets. The crown is a hard, fine, glossy white enamel, serving to defend the substance against external injury. The root is open at the bottom, where it is connected with vessels and nerves, by which it receives nourishment, life and sensation.

MUSCLES, of which it is said there are 446 in the human body, dissectable and describable, are parts of the animal body destined to move some other parts, and hence are termed the organs or instruments of motion. They are composed of flesh and tendinous fibres, and contain vessels of all kinds.

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body. It is black in the negro; white, brown, or yellowish in the European. The true skin is a very sensible membrane extended over all parts of the body, and has nerves terminaitng so plentifully on its surface, that the finest needle cannot prick it without touchong some of them.

ABSORBENTS are a set of small colorless vessels, which pervade the whole surface of the body both externally and internally. Their office is to take up what ever fluids are effused into the different cavities, and to pour out their contents for particular uses. For the purpose of absorption, they are highly irritable at their extremities, and are very replete with valves, to prevent the escape or return of their contents. Their number, when compared with other vessels, is four times greater; and they are divided into lymphatics and lacteals, according to their respective offices, the former conveying lymph, the latter chyle.

CARTILAGES, or gristles, are smooth, solid, flexible, elastic parts, softer than bone, and seem to be of the same nature; some even become bones by time: some again are much softer, and partake of the nature of ligaments. They terminate those bones that form moveable joints, and in some instances serve to connect o together. In the nose, ears, and eyelids are cartiages.

A MEMBRANE is a thin, white, flexible, expanded skin, formed of several sorts of fibres interwoven together. The use of membranes is to cover and wrap up the parts of the body; to strengthen them, and save them from external injuries; to preserve the natural heat ; to join one part to another; to sustain small vessels, &c,

A, GLAND is an organic part of the body, destined for the secretion or alteration of some peculiar fluid, and composed of blood-vessels, nerves and absorbents. The glands, are designated either according to the peculiar fluids which they contain, as mucous, sebaceous, lymphatic, salival, and lachrymal glands; or their structure, as simple, compound, conglobate, and conglomerate glands. The vessels and nerves of glands always come from the neighbouring parts, and the arteries appear to possess a higher degree of irritability. Glands appear to the eye as whitish membranous masses.

The BRAIN consists of the whole of that mass which, with its surrounding membranes and vessels, fills the greater part of the skull. It is said to be larger in man, in proportion to the nerves belonging to it, than in any other animal. It consists of the cerebrum, cerebellum, tuber annulare, and medulla oblongata; the whole weighs usually about forty-eight or fifty ounces; but its weight varies in different subjects.

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