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effects than such inconsiderable ones as had been felt at Madeira; but in a moment I was roused from my dream, being instantly stunned with a most horrid crash, as if every edifice in the city had tumbled down at once. The house I was in shook with such violence that the upper stories immediately fell, and though my apartment (which was the first floor) did not then share the same fate, yet every thing was thrown out of its place in such a manner, that it was with no small difficulty I kept my feet, and expected nothing less than to be soon crushed to death, as the walls continued rocking to and fro in the frightfullest manner, opening in several places; large stones falling down on every side from the cracks, and the ends of most of the rafters starting out from the roof. To add to this terrifying scene, the sky in a moment became so gloomy that I could now distinguish no particular object; it was an Egyptian darkness indeed, such as might be felt: owing, no doubt, to the prodigious clouds of dust and lime raised from so violent a concussion, and, as some reported, to sulphureous exhalations, but this I cannot affirm; however, it is certain I found myself almost choked for near ten minutes. Our author then proceeds to describe his escape from his place of residence through a long narrow street, exposed to the most imminent perils from the falling fragments of shattered buildings. He continues thus:– I proceeded on as fast as I conveniently could, though "with the utmost caution, and having at length got clear of this horrid passage, I sound myself safe and unhurt in the large open space before St. Paul's church, which had been thrown down a few minutes before, and buried a great part of the congregation, that was generally pretty numerous, this being reckoned one of the most populous parishes in Lisbon. Here I stood some time considering what I should do, and not thinking myself safe in this situation, I came to the resolution of climbing over the ruins of the west end of the church, in order to get to the river's side, that I might be removed as far as possible from the tottering houses, in case of a second shock.
This with some difficulty I accomplished, and here I found a prodigious concourse of people of both sexes, and of all ranks and conditions, among whom I observed some of the principal canons of the patriarchal church in their purple robes and rochets, as these all go in the habit of bishops; several priests who had run from the altars in their sacerdotal vestments in the midst of their celebrating mass; ladies half dressed, and some without shoes; all these, whom their mutual dangers had here assembled as to a place of safety, were on their knees at prayers, with the terrors of death in their countenances, every one striking his breast and crying out incessantly Miserecordia meu Dios.
After some further description of this multitude, he proceeds thus:—
As I thought it would be the height of rashness to venture back through the same narrow street I had so providentially escaped from, I judged it safest to return over the ruins of St. Paul's to the river side, as the water now seemed little agitated. From hence I proceeded with some hazard to the large space before the Irish convent of Corpo Santo, which had been thrown down, and buried a great number of people who were hearing mass, besides some of the friars; the rest of the community were standing in the area, looking with dejected countenances towards the ruins: from this place I took my way to the back street leading to the Palace, having the ship yard on one side, but found the further passage, opening into the principal street, stopped up by the ruins of the Opera-house, one of the solidest and most magnificent buildings of the kind in Europe, and just finished at a prodigious expense; a vast heap of stones, each o several tons weight, had entirely blocked up the front of Mr. Bristow's house, which was opposite to it, and Mr. Ward, his partner, told me the next day that he was just that instant going out at the door, and had actually set one foot over the threshold, when the west end of the Opera-house fell down, and had he not in a moment started back, he should have been crushed into a thou sand pieces.
and many years ago was the scene of a desperate con
flict between the Pottawattomies, and one band of the Illinois Indians. The latter fled to this place for refuge from the fury of their enemies. The post could not be carried by assault, and tradition says that the besieged let down vessels attached to ropes of bark, from a part of the precipice which overhangs the river, but their enemies succeded in cutting off these ropes as often as they were let down. The consequence was a surrender, which was followed by a total extirpation of the band.*
On gaining the top of this rock, we found, says Schoolcraft, a regular entrenchment, corresponding to the edge of the precipice, and within this other excavations, which, from the thick growth of brush and trees, could not be satisfactorily examined. The labor of many hands was manifest, and a degree of industry which the Indians have not usually bestowed upon works of defence. We found upon this elevation broken muscle shells, fragments of antique pottery, and stones which had been subject to the action of heat, resembling certain lavas.
From this elevated spot an extensive and diversified view of prairie scenery is presented, and the objects about our encampment appeared reduced to a diminutive size.
The crows and choughs, that wing the midway air, Show scarce so gross as beetles.”
The soil which results from the gradual disintegration of this rock, is nearly a pure sand. On descending, we found the prickly pear (cactus) covering a considerable portion of this soil, where scarcely any other plant is hardy enough to vegetate.
Of the height of this cliff, the estimate which we have given is merely conjectural. The effect upon the observer is striking and imposing. But we are disposed to think the effect of loftiness produced by objects of this nature is not so much the result of the actual, as of the comparative height. We have often felt, as we have on the present occasion, an impression of grandeur produced by a solitary precipice two or three hundred feet high, rising abruptly above a flat alluvial country or lake, more striking and imposing than at other times in traversing a region more elevated, and where “Alps on Alps arise.” In the latter case, the eye constantly measures one elevation by another: in the former we
have no standard of this kind, and hence undoubtedly
overrate. Philosophically considered, the height of prominent points of a country is estimated above the level of the nearest sea. But the effect produced on the eye or the imagination begins to be felt only from that part of a mountain where it first makes a striking angle with the plain. The annexed view of this modern Oxus is taken from a position on the opposite side of the river, directly in front of the most precipitous face of the rock.
from the impossibility of holding it upright, as the pas
wanderings in these interminable passages (for such in their fatigue of body and mind they deemed them) seemed to be endless. Their alarm was very great. and their patience already exhausted, when the headmost of the party cried out, that he could discern the light at the exit of the passage, at a considerable distance ahead, but that he could advance no further, and that in his efforts to press on, in hopes to surmount the obstacle without complaining, he had squeezed himself so far into the reduced opening, that he had now no longer sufficient strength even to recede The situation of the whole party may be imagined: their terror was beyond the power of direction or advice; while the wretched leader, whether from terror, or the natural efsect of his situation, swelled so that, if it was before disficult, it was now impossible for him to stir from the spot he thus miserably occupied. One of the party, at this dreadful and critical moment, proposed, in the intense selfishness to which the feeling of vital danger reduces all, as the only means of escape from this horrible confinement, this living grave, to cut in pieces the wretched being who formed the obstruction, and clear it by dragging the dismembered carcass piecemeal past them! He heard this dreadful proposal, and contracting himself in agony at the idea of this death, was reduced by a strong muscular spasm to his usual dimensions, and was dragged out, affording room for the party to squeeze themselves by over his prostrate body. This unhappy creature was suffocated in the effort, and was left behind a corpse.—Cabinet of Curiosities.
A SENSIBLE HORSE.
We do not think the records of Instinct ever contained a more extraordinary instance than we are now about to relate. and for the truth whereof we pledge ourselves. A few days since, Mr. J. Lane of Fascombe, in the parish of Ashelworth, in Gloucestershire, on his return home, turned his horse into a field in which it had been accustomed to graze. A few days before this, the horse had been shod, all-sours, but unluckily had been pinched in the shoeing of one foot. In the morning Mr. Lane missed the horse, and caused an active search to be made in the vicinity, when the following singular circumstances transpired:—The animal, as it may be supposed, feeling lame, made his way out of the field by unhanging the gate with his mouth, and went straight to the same farrier's shop, a distance of a mile and a half; the sarrier had no sooner opened his shed, than the horse, which had evidently been standing there some time, advanced to the forge and held up the ailing foot. The Farrier instantly began to examine the hoof, discovered the injury, took off the shoe, and replaced it more carefully—on which the horse immediately turned about, and ot, off as a merry pace for his well-known pasture.— Whilst Mr. Lane's servants were on the search, they chanced to pass by the forge, and on mentioning their supposed loss, the farrier replied, “Oh, he has been here, and shod, and gone home again!!" which on their returning they found to be actually the case.—Ib.
THE POISONED WALLEY OF JAVA.
It is known by the name of Guevo Upas, or poisoned Valley; and following a path which had been made for the purpose, the party shortly reached it with a couple of dogs and some fowls, for the purpose of making some experiments. On arriving at the mountain, the part dismounted, and scrambled up the side of the hill, a distance of a quarter of a mile, with the assistance of the branches of trees and projecting roots.
When a few yards from the valley, a strong, nauseous, and suffocating smell was experienced; but on approachlog the margin; this inconvenience was no longer found.
sage diminished its height. Both its height and width The valley is about half a mile in circumference, of an
at length, however, became so much contracted, that the oval shape, and about thirty feet in length. The bottom
party were compelled to crawl on their bellies. Their of it appeared to be flat, without any vegetation, and a
few large stones scattered here and thore. Skeletons of human beings, tigers, bears, deer, and all sorts of birds and wild animals, lay about in profusion. The ground on which they lay at the bottom of the valley appeared to be a hard, sandy substance, and no vapour was perceived. The sides were covered with vegetation. It was now proposed to enter it; and each of the party, having lit a cigar, managed to get within twenty feet of the bottom, where a sickening, nauseous smell was experienced, without any difficulty of breathing. A dog was now fastened at the end of a bamboo, and thrust to the bottom of the valley, while some of the party, with their watches in their hands, observed the effects. At the expiration of fourteen seconds the dog fell off his legs, without moving or looking round, and continued alive only eighteen minutes. The other dog now left
the party, and went to his companion; on reaching him he was observed to stand quite motionless, and at the end of ten seconds fell down; he never moved his limbs after, and lived only seven minutes. A fowl was now thrown in, which died in a minute and a half, and another which was thrown in after, died in the space of a minute and a half. A heavy shower fell during the time that these experiments were going forward, which, from the interesting nature of the experiments, was quite disregarded. On the opposite side of the valley to that which was visited, lay a human skeleton, the head resting on the right arm. The effect of the weather had bleached the bones as white as ivory. This was probably the remains of some wretched rebel, hunted towards
the valley, and taking shelter there unconscious of its character.—Jamaica Watchman.
In Henderson's Biblical Researches in Russia, we find the following description of the monument, erected over the remains of How ARD, the Philanthropist.
At the distance of five versts" to the North of Kherson, stands the original monument of the prince of Christian philanthropists, the illustrious Howard, who, after travelling fifty thousand British miles, to investigate and relieve the sufferings of humanity, fell a victim, near this place, to his unremitting exertions in this benevolent cause. It is situate a little east of the public road leading from Nikslaies to Kherson, near the southern bank of a small stream, which here diffuses a partial verdure across the steppe. On the opposite bank are a few straggling and ruinous huts, and close by is a large garden, sheltered by fine lofty trees which have been planted to beautify the villa once connected with it, but now no more. The spot itself is sandy, with a scanty sprinkling of vegetation, and is only distinguishable from the rest of the steppe by two brick pyramids, and a few graves in which the neighboring peasantry have interred their dead—attracted, no doubt, by the report of the singular worth of the soreign friend whose ashes are here deposited. One of the pyramids
* A verst is about one mile and a half English, * A steppe is a high, uncultivated plain, and for the most part, destitute of inhabitants.
is erected over the dust of the Philanthropist, and the other over the grave of a French gentleman who revered his memory, and wished to be buried by his side.
The genuine humility of Howard prompted him to choose this sequestered spot, and it was his anxious desire that neither monument nor inscription, but simply a sun dial, should be placed over his grave. This cenotaph is erected at a short distance from the Russian cemetery, and close to the public road. It is built of a compact white freestone, found at some distance, and is about thirty feet in height, surrounded by a wall of the same stone, seven feet high, by two hundred in circumference. Within this wall, in which is a beautiful cast iron gate, a fine row of Lombardy poplars has been planted, which, when fully grown, will greatly adorn the monument. On the pedestal is a Russian inscription of the following purport:
Died, Jan. 28, 1790, aged 65, HowARd.
The sun dial is represented near the summit of the pillar, but with this remarkable circumstance—that the only divisions of time it exhibits are the hours from X to II, as if to intimate that a considerable portion of the morning of life is past ere we enter on the discharge of its active duties, and that, with many, the performance of them is closed, even at an early hour after the meridian of their days.
To public are cautioned against purchasing a note signed by the Editor and endorsed by G. V. H. Forbes, amounting to One Hundred Dollars. Said note was intended for discount at the Brooklyn Bank; but inasmuch as it has not been discounted there, and has not been returned, and no clue can be obtained whereby it can be found, the Editor has reason to suspect that some fraud is in the wind. Said note was due to no one, but ran ayable to the endorser, after the usual mode of drawing notes intended for discount. This is therefore to give timely notice, that the public may be on their guard against purchasing it, and that the holder, whoever he may be, may be induced to look to the matter without delay.
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- [Concluded.] I made him a present of a wedge of gold, in value fifty pounds, and begged him to allow me to see the volume. He conducted me to a room where was the chest in which it was contained, but informed me that the key was in the hands of the city treasurer. To the latter, however, he introduced me, and told him the substance of my request. The treasurer smiled, and said he was not then at leisure, but would consider of it. The next morning I sent John of Huntingdon to him with a wedge of gold, of the value of one hundred pounds, by way of a present; and he sent word back that he would meet me in the library at the ninth hour. The time being come, the treasurer, the custos, and I, met at the library, where the treasurer having unlocked the chest, gave me the book, then locked the chest and gave the key to the custos, saying that I was at liberty to read the volume as osten as I would, in the presence of the custos and in the library. Aster this, I had free access to the Book of Jasher. It is a large scroll, in width two feet three inches, and in length nine feet. It is written in large characters, and exceeding beautiful. The paper on which it is written is, sor thickness, the eighth of an inch. To the touch it seemcd as soft as velvet, and to the eye as white as snow. The first thing that commanded my attention was a little scroll, entitled the Story of the Volume of Jasher. This informed me that Jasher was born in Goshen, in the land of Egypt; that he was the son of the mighty Caleb, who was general to the Hebrews while Moses was with Jethro, in Midian; that on the embassy to Pharaoh, Jasher was appointed verger to Moses and Aaron, to bear the rod before them ; that, as he always accompanied Moses, Jasher must have had the greatest opportunities of knowing the facts he hath recorded ; that, from his great attachment to truth and uprightness, he early received his name; that Jasher wrote the volume which bears his name ; that the ark in which it was contained was made in his lifetime; that he put the volume therein with his own hands; that Jazer, the eldest son of Jasher, kept it during his life; that the princes of Judah were successively the keepers of it; that the ark and book, in the last Babylonish captivity, was taken from the Jews, and so sell into the hands of the Persian monarchs; and that the city of Gazna had been the place of its residence for some hundreds of years. After reading the volume through, I conceived a great desire of returning to England with a transcript of it and the notes. In this wish we met with the strong opposition of the Treasurer; with whom, and with the recorder of the city, we eventually succeeded by presents of gold, and so obtained permission to make a translation in the library and in the presence of the cus19s. This was conducted in the following manner:— the manuscript was laid on the table, round which the custos and we sat. The custos opened the volume, and
we read the first chapter, which we were permitted to set down in the original, from whence we made each a translation, and then the custos burnt the part we had transcribed. In this way we proceeded to the end of the volume, and aster much difficulty obtained leave to depart with it to England, after a solemn promise not to let any person take a copy of it in any place we passed through on our return. Such is Alcuin's account of the volume before us, and it embodies all the external evidence respecting it which we are able to furnish. Its subsequent history is more obscurely stated by the Editor. “The following translation,” he says in his advertisement, “was discovered by a gentleman in a journey through the North of England, in 1721. It lay by him several years, until, in 1750, there was a rumour of a new translation of the Bible, when he laid it before a noble earl. Since 1751, the manuscript has been preserved with great care by a gentleman who lived to a very advanced age, and died some time since. On the event of his death, a friend, to whom he had presented it, gave it to the present Editor,” &c. Now, what can be the Editor's motive for withholding the names of the parties alluded to above, and so breaking the continuity of a simple and satisfactory account, we cannot divine. Whatever it be, we esteem the omission as more strongly invalidating the authenticity of the document than any other fact it presents. But it is time to bring our readers acquainted with the subjectmatter of this volume, and the evidences as to its genu ineness suggested by its contents. And the first circumstance to be noticed is, that it makes no pretcnsions to inspiration, but most modestly purports to be a mere chronicle of traditions. In the last verse of his sourth chapter, Jasher informs us that he received all the insormation he communicates from his grandfather Hezron, his sather Caleb, and his mother Azuba. In the almost total absence, however, of other books, it appears to have been well known and credited among the Jews, from the kind of reference made to it in the sacred wri. tings: “Behold, it is written in the Book of Jasher,” 2 Sam. i. 18; and more especially in Joshua x. 13, “Is not this written in the Book of Jasher!” Here the sentence being framed with an appeal, clearly indicates the notoriety and credence generally attaching to the volume. The greater part of it is a history of the events recorded in the Pentateuch, with some inaccuracies, and some remarkable omissions. Among the first may be mentioned the account of the birth and preservation of Moses. On this point Jasher appears to have been misinformed, as he says nothing of his concealment by his parents, but simply states that, on the is suing of Pharaoh's barbarous edict, he was taken by his mother to the princess, who compassionated and adopted him. “And Pharaoh's daughter said, Give unto me the child. And they did so. And she said, This shall be my son. A.' it came to pass that the wrath of Pharaoh was turned away srom slaying the males of the Hebrews. And the child Moses grew and increased in stature, and was learned in all the magic of the Egyptians.”—(Chap. v. ver. 12–14.) Of the omissions of Jasher, the most singular are the murder of Abel, and the Deluge. It seems impossible to suppose that these events should not have been known to him, especially as the story of them may be recog