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nized (nore or less fantastically clothed) in some of those systems of pagan mythology which were constructed in a darkness that scarcely received a single ray from the distant light of revelation. It is also highly improbable that these omissions should have been accidental; though, from what motives in the mind of the writer they arose, it is difficult perhaps to conjecture. With respect to the internal evidences of the antiquity and genuineness of this book, we think that nothing can be inferred from the similarity of its style to that of Moses. Men are such imitative animals, and have practised such successful frauds by means of this faculty, that we consess we assign no limits to the exercise of it, and consequently have but little faith in the species of evidence alluded to. We believe that the author of the “Rejected Addresses” could have produced an imitation of the style of the Pentateuch as close as any in the Book of Jasher. The most satisfactory evidence of an internal kind which has been suggested to our mind by the perusal of this work, arises out of the many inaccuracies and omissions—some of which we have been specifying—in connexion with the general congruity of the narrative with the inspired books. For, is this document be not what it purports to be, the only admissible alternative is, that it was written at a subsequent period, probably long after the date it professes to bear. Upon this supposition, the chief aim of the writer would obviously have been to adhere as closely as possible to the Mosaic record, in order to secure any degree of attention from the only class of persons who would be at all interested in his statement; namely, those who receive the Holy Scriptures as the Word of God; for the idea that the Book of Jasher was designed by its author to supersede or invalidate the testimony of the Bible is contradicted alike by the modesty of its pretensions (another evidence in favour of its authenticity) and by the uniform tenor of its contents. Such are the principal arguments that occur to us for the genuineness of this interesting volume, and we leave the question of their sufficieney to the decision of our readers. Although this article has already extended to a much greater length than we had anticipated, yet we cannot persuade ourselves to close it without quoting from it the singular description of the Creation with which it commences, and which cannot sail to be read with much interest. “Whilst it was the beginning, darkness overspread the face of nature; and the ether moved upon the surface of the chaos. And it came to pass that a great light shone forth from the firmament, and enlightened the abyss. And the abyss fled before the face of the light, and divided between the light and the darkness; so that the sace of nature was formed a second time. And, behold, there appeared in the firmament two great lights: the one to rule the light, and the other to rule the darkness. And the ground brought forth grass; the herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree aster its kind. And every beast aster its kind, and every thing that creepeth after their kind. And the water brought forth the moving creatures aster their kind. And the ether brought forth every winged fowl after its kind. And when all these things were finished, behold, Jehovah appeared in Eden, and created man, and made him to be an image of his own eternity. And to him was given power and lordship over all living creatures, and over every herb, and over every tree of the field.”
We shall linger yet longer around the cradle of the world's infancy. We have sundry rare additional fragments of yore with which to enliven and illume this far distant period of her story. We design before leaving it, to make it more full and satisfactory than any Antediluvian work extant. “Shadows, clouds, and darkness” overhang the days before the flood; which we shall endeavour, as far as possible, to disperse.
Next to Jupiter, SATuRN is the most stupendous planet of our SystEM, and, with the exception of Uranus, the most remote. In consequence of his great distance, he shines with a pale, feeble light, yet not one of the heavenly bodies presents more interesting phenomena when viewed through a good telescope. SATURN moves in an orbit the mean semi-diameter of which is 900,000,000 of miles, which is consequently his distance from the SUN. And as his motion in his orbit is only 22,100 miles an hour, he is 29 years, 174 days, 2 hours, in completing his annual revolution, so that his year is nearly thirty of ours. The diameter of Saturn is 79,600 miles, so that he is about one thousand times as large as the Earth; for globular bodies are to each other as the cubes of their diameters." The inclination of his axis to the plane of his orbit is very small, no doubt for the same wise reason which occasioned Jupiter's to be so, because, were it otherwise, each of Saturn's poles would be immersed alternately in fifteen years partial darkness; at least it would be that period without the influence and even the sight of the Sun. As SATURN is more than twice the distance of Jupiter from the Sun, the light he receives from him must be proportionably small; but this deficiency is amply made up by the goodness of the CREAtoR, who had surnished this mighty globe not only with an atmosphere resembling that of Jupiter, and with seven attendant satellites, but with two luminous rings, which encompass his body, at a considerable distance srom it, and shine with a reslected light. These rings present a different appearance at different times to the inhabitants of the earth, according to the relative position of the two planets. Sometimes Saturn is so situated as respects the Earth, that the two concentric rings can be distinctly seen, together with a void space between them, and that between the inner ring and the body of the planet. At other times the rings appear merely as a dark line across the planet's disc, extending beyond it at both ends, so as to resemble handles; in this position they are called Ansor. Many conjectures have been formed respecting the nature and uses of these rings; but from their immense magnitude, and their appearing to be opaque, shining only with reflected light, they are probably solid, inhabitable bodies; their dimensions have been calculated as follows:
* The Cube of the Earth's diameter is 500,944,540,888, and that of Saturn's 504,358,336,000,000, or rather more than one thousand umes as great.
are nearer to their primary than the other five, but were discovered much later, which accounts for the manner in which they are numbered. The first satellite is 170,000 miles distant from its primary, and revolves around him in 1 day, 21 hours, and 19 minutes; the second, 217,000 miles distant, in 2 days, 17 hours, 41 1-2 minutes; the third, 303,000 miles, in 4 days, 12 hours, 25 minutes; the fourth, 704,000 miles, in 15 days, 22 hours, 41 minutes; the fifth, 2,050,000 miles, in 79 days, 7 hours, 47 minutes; the sirth, being only 135,000 miles distant from the planet, and the seventh only 107,000, the time of their revolution in their orbit is exceedingly short. In consequence of the orbits of these satellites making a considerable angle with the orbit of their primary, they are very seldom eclipsed or occulted; and their smallness and vast distance rendering them invisible when the air is not clear, they are not so convenient for making observations on as those of Jupiter.
That the rings of Saturn are opaque substances is
proved, not by their appearing in certain positions as a dark streak across the body of the planet, but from their casting a shadow on him; yet these rings sometimes shine with greater splendour even than the planet himself.
Saturn turns on his axis in 10 hours, 16 minutes. At the rate of 22,400 miles per hour at his equator; belts similar to those of Jupiter are frequently seen on his surface, which probably proceed from the same causes. —Guide to Knowledge.
Such are the offices of respiration and the blood. We shall now proceed to consider some of the most important of the abdominal viscera. The ABDOMEN consists of all that portion of the trunk of the human body, situated below the thorax. It contains the liver, its gall-bladder, the stomach, the spleen, the pancreas, the intestines, the mesentery, the kidneys, the urinary bladder, the omentum, &c. It has also numerous blood vessels, nerves, and absorbents. The LIVER, which is the largest and most ponderous viscous in the abdomen, weighing in adults about three pounds, is of a deep red colour. It consists of a glandulous mass, interspersed with numerous blood vessels. It is situated under the diaphragm, inclining to the right side of the body, having the stomach beneath it; between which and the liver itself lies the gall-bladder, with which of course it is intimately connected. It is divided into two principal lobes, the right of which is by far the largest. Its shape approaches that of a circle; it is attached to the diaphragm by the suspensary and other ligaments. It is larger in young animals than in old ones. - The BILE is of a yellow green colour, about the consistence of oil; when much agitated, it froths like soap and water. Its smell is somewhat like musk: its taste is bitter. It is in fact a species of soap; and like other soap, it is successfully employed to remove grease from clothes, &c. The gall-bladder in the human body is shaped like a pear, and is generally capable of containing about an ounce. It is firmly connected to the liver. In the elephant, stag, all insects and worms, this reservoir is wanting, the bile which they secrete passing at once into the intestinal canal. The real use of the bile does not even now seem to be accurately ascertained. It appears, however, to assist in separating the chyle from the chyme, to excite the intestines to action, and to produce the healthy appearance of intestine evacuations. The SPLEEN or Milt is a spongy viscous of a livid colour, in form somewhat resembling a tongue, but its shape, situation, and size vary very much. It is, in a healthy subject, always on the left side, between the false ribs and the stomach. Its general length is six
inches, breadth three, and one thick. It is connected by the blood vessels to the stomach and lest kidney. It is larger when the stomach is empty, and smaller when compressed or evacuated by a full stomach. The uses of the spleen have, till lately, been considered as unknown; but by a paper of Sir E. Home, in the Philosophical Transactions, it appears probable that this viscous is a reservoir for the superabundant serum, lymph, globules, soluble mucous, and colored matter taken into the circulation immediately after digestion is completed. The STOMACII is a large receptacle, varying in its capacity from about five to ten pints. It is situated under the left side of the diaphragm, its left side touching the spleen, and its right covered by the thin edge of the liver; its figure nearly resembling the pouch of a bagpipe, its left edge being most capacious. The upper side is concave, the lower is convex. It has two orifices, both on its upper part; the left, through which the aliment passes from the mouth through the gullet or a sophagus to the stomach, is named cardia; the right, through which it is conveyed out of the stomach into the duodenum, is named pylorus, where there is a circular valve which hinders the return of the aliment from the gut, but does not at all times hinder the bile from flowing into the stomach. The stomach, like the intestinal canal, is composed of three coats or membranes. The uses of the stomach are, to excite hunger and partly thirst : to receive the food from the oesophagus, and to retain it till, by the motion of the stomach and the admixture of various fluids, and by many other changes not exactly understood, it is rendered fit to pass the right orifice of the stomach, and afford chyle to the intestines for the nutrition of the body; or, in other words, till the important process Of DIGESTION is completed. The chief agent in this process is, beyond question, the gastric juice, a fluid that is secreted from certain glands in the stomach, and which possess great solvent powers in regard to mumerous animal and vegetable substances. The sood being duly masticated, and blended with a considerable proportion of salivia, is propelled into the stomach, where it soon undergoes a remarkable change, being converted into a pulpy mass termed chyme; the chyme afterwards passes from the stomach into the small intestimes; here, it is mixed with bile, and separated into two portions, one of which is as white as milk, and called chyle; the other passes on to the larger intestines, and is voided as excrementitious matter. The chyle is absorbed by the 'acteals, which terminate in the trunk or tube called-thoracic duct: it is there mixed with variable proportions of lymph, and lastly with the blood, as stated under that article. The GASTRIC JUICE is said to be of so powerful a nature, that after death the stomach is occasionally eaten into holes by its action. And it is also said, that is exposed to a proper temperature, it will digest food in metal labes. The PANCREAS, or Sweet-erran, is a large giand of the salivary kind, of a long figure, compared to a dog's tongue. It lies across the upper and back part of the abdomen, under the stomach. Its use is to secrete a juice called the pancreatic juice, which appears to be similar in its properties to saliva, and, together with the bile, helps to complete the digestion of the aliment. It communicates with the duodenum. The INTESTINES consist of that convoluted tube beginning at the right orifice of the stomach called pylorus, and ending with the sphincter recti. The length of this canal is generally six times the length of the whole human subject. It is divided by nature into two parts. The small intestines begin from the stomach, and fill the middle or fore part of the abdomen; the o, intestines occupy the sides, and both the upper and lower parts of the same cavity. The KIDNEYS are shaped like a kidney-bean. They are situated on the lower part of the back, one on each | side. They are surrounded with more or less fat.
The cut before us is a representation of the ruins of St. Paul's church, as mentioned in our last. But enough of these ruins. We will now proceed to notice the effects of this great earthquake in other quarters. At Oporto, near the mouth of the river Duero, the earthquake was self at the same time as at Lisbon. The sky was very serene, when a dreadful hollow noise resembling thunder, or the rattling of coaches at a distance was heard, and almost at the same instant the earth began to quake. In the space of two minutes, the river rose and sell five or six seet, and continued to do so for four hours. At the commencement, it ran with so much violence as to break a ship's hawser. In some parts the river opened, and seemed to discharge vast quantities of air. The agitation of the sea was so great about a league beyond the bar, that air was supposed to have been discharged there also. During the first shock which was very terrible, the houses in the city were rocked, as is in a convulsion, and every thing within shook and rattled to such a degree, that the affrighted inhabitants ran into the streets, where the earth was evidently seen to heave up. At six o'clock in the evening, another violent shock was selt.— The only damage done was the overturning of a few pedestals from the tops of the churches, and the splitting of the walls of the decayed houses. SAINT UBE3, a sea-port town about twenty miles south of Lisbon, was entirely swallowed up by the repeated shocks, and the vast surf of the sea. Huge pieces of rock were detached at the same time from the promontory at the west end of the town, which consists of a chain of mountains containing sine jasper of different colours. At CAdiz, a sea-port of Spain, according to the report of Don Antonia d'Ulloa, the earthquake commenced at three minutes aster nine in the morning of the first of November, and continued five minutes, the weather being at the time remarkably fine. It was, he observes, not it, serior on violen a 2 to root which son”, “n” ... I : * ~
and Callao, in Peru, towards the end of October, 1746, and was nearly of twice the duration, the latter having been felt for three minutes only. That every thing here was not destroyed, appears to have been owing to the great solidity of the buildings. The water of the cisterms under ground was washed backward and sorward, and was covered with great froth. The inhabitants, who had quitted the houses and churches, seeking safety in the open air, had scarcely recovered from their first terror, when they were plunged into a new alarm. At ten minutes past eleven o'clock, a wave was seen coming srom the sea at the distance of eight miles, and at least sixty feet higher than usual. It dashed against the west part of the city, which is very rocky. Although its force was much broken by these rocks, it at length reached the walls, and beat in the breast-work, which was sixty feet above the ordinary level of the water, removing pieces of the fabric, of the weight of eight or ten tons, to the distance of sorty or fifty yards. At half past cleven came a second wave ; and this was followed by four others of equal magnitude. Others, but smaller, and gradually lessening, continued at uncertain intervals until the evening. A considerable part of the rampart was thrown down, and carried by the torrent above fifty paces. Several persons perished on the causeway leading to the Isle of Lesu. The accounts brought to Cadiz reported that Sevi LLF had been much damaged, and that a similar sate had attended St. LucAR and ChEREs. Con EL was said to have been destroyed; and, indeed, with the exception of the provinces of Catalonia, Aragon, and Valencia, the effects of this earthquake were felt throughout Spain. At Madrid the shock was very sensibly felt soon aster ten in the morning, and lasted five or six minutes. At first, the inhabitants sancied they were seized with a swimming in the head; and afterwards, that the houses were falling. In the churches the sensations were the
the towers were still more affrighted, fancying every instant while the shock lasted that they were falling to the ground. It was not sensible to those who were in carriages, and very little so to foot passengers. At Gibraltar, it was felt about the same time as at Madrid, and began with a tremulous motion of the earth, which lasted about half a minute. A violent shock succeeded; and this again was followed by a second tremulous motion, of the duration of five or six seconds. Another shock, not so violent as the first, subsided gradually; and the whole lasted about two minutes. Several of the guns on the batteries were seen to rise, and others to sink, while the earth had an undulating motion. The greater part of the garrison and inhabitants were seized with giddiness and sickness: several sell prostrate; others were stupified; and many who were walking or riding became sick, without being sensible of any motion of the earth. Every fisteen minutes the sea rose six feet, and then sell so low that the boats and small vessels near the shore were lest aground, as were also numbers of small fish. The flux and reflux lasted till next morning, having decreased gradually from two in the asternoon. In AFR1cA, this earthquake was felt almost as severely as it had been in Europe. A great part of the city of Algiers was destroyed. Many houses were thrown down at Fez and Mequinez, and multitudes were buried beneath their ruins. Similar effects were realized in Morocco. Its effects were likewise selt at Tangier, at Tetuan, at Funchal in the island of Madeira; and were it not that the barbarism of the African nations rendered it impossible to obtain insormation in relation to the subject, it is probable it would appear that all Africa was shaken by this tremendous convulsion. At the north, it extended to Norway and Sweden; Germany, Holland, France, Great Britain, and Ireland, were all more or less agitated by the same great and terrible commotion of the elements. At sea, the shocks of this earthquake were selt most violently. Off St. Lucar, the Captain of the Nancy frigate felt his ship so violently shaken, that he thought
she had struck the ground; but on heaving the lead, he sound she was in a great depth of water. Captain Clark, from Denia, in north latitue thirty-six degrees, twenty-sour minutes, between nine and ten in the morning, had his ship shaken and strained as if she had struck upon a rock, so that the seams opened, and the compass was overturned in the binnacle. The Master of a vessel bound to the American islands, being in north latitude twenty-five degrees, west longitude forty degrees, and writing in his cabin, heard a violent noise, as he imagined, in the steerage; and while he was asking what the matter was, the ship was put into a strange agitation, and seemed as if she had been suddenly jerked up and suspended by a rope fastened to the masthead. He immediately started up with great terror and astonishment, and looking out of the cabin window, saw land, as he took it to be, at the distance of about a mile. Coming upon the deck, the land was no more to be seen, but he saw a violent current cross the ship's way to the leeward. In about a minute, this current returned with great impetuosity; and at a league's distance, he saw three craggy-pointed rocks throwing up waters of various colours, resembling fire. This phenomenon, in about two minutes, ended in a black cloud, which had ascended very heavily. After it had risen above the horizon, no rocks were to be seen, though the cloud, still ascending, was long visible, the weather being extremely clear. Between nine and ten in the morning, another ship, forty leagues west of St. Vincent, was so strongly agitated, that the anchors, which were lashed, bounced up, and the men were thrown a foot and a half perpendicularly up from the deck. Immediately aster this, the ship sunk in the water as low as the main-chains. The lead showed a great depth of water, and the line was tinged of a yellow colour, and smelt of sulphur. The shock lasted about ten minutes; but they felt smaller ones for the space of twenty-four hours.
But long enough have we dwelt on this convulsion. We will now change the scene by bringing into view some additional ones.
seen opening and closing alternately; many persons were swallowed up in these, others crushed to death, with their bodies half out and half in them, and some, even aster being buried alive, were cast out again with torrents of water. Three-fourths of the buildings of Port Royal sank down with all their inhabitants under the water, and long after, the roofs and chimneys of many were perceivable at the distance of thirty and sorty feet below the surface. A space of ground about a thousand acres in extent sunk down during the first shock, the sea rolled over it, and a frigate then in one
many buildings. On the north of the island, the plantations, which covered upwards of a thousand acres, were swallowed up, and a lake appeared in their place; this afterwards dried up, leaving nothing but sand and gravel, without a trace of a house or tree having ever occupied the spot. The chain of mountains which traverses the island presented the most fearful signs of the violence of the convulsion; they were almost entirely stripped of their verdure and their woods, which were brought down the rivers in such quantities, that several hundred thousand tons of timbel were seen strewed on the face of the deep. Since the establishment of the Spaniards in Peru, the first earthquake in its capital happened in 1582; but the damage it did was much less considerable than that of some of those which succeeded. Six years after, Lima was again visited by an earthquake, the results of which were so dreadful, that it is still solemnly commemorated every year. In 1609, a third convulsion threw down many houses: and on the 27th of November, 1630, so much damage was done by an earthquake, that, in acknowledgement of the city not having been entirely demolished, a festival is also on that day annually celebrated. On the 3d of November, 1654, the most stately edifices in Lima, and a great number of houses, were destroyed by a similar event; but the inhabitants having had timely presages, withdrew themselves from their houses, insomuch that few perished. In 1678, another dreadsul concussion took place. Among the most tremendous earthquakes with which the Peruvian capital has been visited, may be reckoned that which happened on the 28th of October, 1687. The first shock was at four in the morning, when several of the finest public buildings and houses were destroyed, with the loss of many lives. This was, however, merely a prelude to what followed; for two hours aster, a second shock was felt, with such impetuous concussions, that all was laid in ruins, and every description of property lost. During this second shock, the sea retired considerably, and then returned in mountainous waves, entirely overwhelming Callao, the sea-port of Lima, distant five miles, as well as the adjacent country, together with the inhabitants. From that time, six other earthquakes were felt at Lima prior to that of 1746, which likewise happened on the 28th of October, at half past ten at night. The early concussions were so violent, that in the space of somewhat more than three minutes, the greater part, is not all, the buildings in the city were destroyed, burying under their ruins such of the inhabitants as had not made sufficient haste into the streets and squares, the only places of safety. At length the horrible effects of the first shock ceased ; but the tranquillity was of short duration, the concussions swiftly succeeding each other. The sort of Callao was dilapidated ; but what this building suffered from the earthquake was inconsiderable when compared with the dreadful catastrophe which followed. The sea, as is usual on such occasions, receding to a considerable distance, returned in mountainous waves, soaming with the violence of the agitation, and suddenly buried Callao and the neighbouring country in its slood. This however was not entirely effected by the first swell of the waves; for the sea retiring still further, returned with greater impetuosity, and covered not only the buildings, but also the losty walls of the sortress: so that what had even escaped the first inundation, was totally overwhelmed by these succeeding mountainous waves. Os twenty-three ships and vessels of light burden then in the harbour, nineteen were sunk; and the sour others, among which was a frigate named the San Firmin, were carried by the force of the waves to a considerable distance up the country. This terrible inundation extended, as well as the earthquake, to other parts of the coast, and several towns underwent the sate of Lima. The number of persons who perished in that capital within two weeks after the earthquake commenced, on an estimate of the bodies found, amounted to thirteen hun
My NHEER Wybrand LoLKEs was a native of Holland, and born at Jelst, in West Friezland, in the year 1730, of parents in but indifferent circumstances, his father being a fisherman, who, besides this most extraordinary little creature, had to support a family of seven other children, all of whom were of ordinary stature, as
were both the father and mother. Wybrand Lolkes at an early age exhibited proofs of a taste for mechanism; and when sufficiently grown up, was by the interest of some sriends placed with an eminent watch and clock maker at Amsterdam, to learn that business: he continued to serve this master for sour years after the expiration of his apprenticeship, and then removed to Rotterdam, where he carried on this trade on his own account, and where he first became acquainted with, and asterwards married, the person who accompanied him to England. His trade of a watch maker however sailing, he came to the resolution of exhibiting his person publicly as a show, and by attending the several Dutch fairs, obtained a handsome competency. Impelled by curiosity and in hopes of gain, he came to England, and was visited at Harwich (where he first landed) by crowds of people: encouraged by this early success, he proceeded to London, and on applying to the late Mr. Philip Astley, obtained an engagement at a weekly salary of five guineas . He first appeared at the Amphitheatre, Westminster Road, on Easter Monday, 1790, and continued to cxhibit every evening during the whole season. IIe always was accompanied by his wife, who came on the stage with him hand in hand; but though he elevated his arm, she was compelled to stoop considerably to meet the proffered honour.
Mynheer Lolkes was a sond husband; he well knew the value of his partner, and repaid her care of him with the most servent affection ; sor he was not one of those men who
are April when they woo, December when they wed.
He had by this wife three children, one of which, a