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ed since the year 1780; and if further improvements

It would not be out of place to introduce here a de

should be made in the telescope, others may perhaps | scription of the wonderful instrument with which Her

be seen.

schel made his important astronomical discoveries.

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This celebrated “wonder of science” was constructed by Sir W. Herschel, in his grounds at Slough, near Windsor. Its proportions were prodigious:--The length of the tube is thirty-nine feet four inches, it measures four feet ten inches in diameter, and every part of it is of rolled or sheet iron, which has been joined together without rivets, by a kind of seaming well known to those who make iron funnels for stoves. The concave face of the great mirror is forty-eight inches of polished surface in diameter! The thickness, which is equal in every part of it, is about three inches and a half, and its weight when it came from the cast was 2,118 pounds, of which it must have lost a small part in polishing. The method of observing by the telescope is by what Herschel called the front view; the observer being placed in a seat suspended at the end of it, with his back towards the object he views. There is no small speculum; but the magnifiers are applied immediately to the first socal image. From the opening of the telescope near the place of the eye-glass, a speaking-pipe runs down to the bottom of the tube, where it goes into a turning-joint; and after several other inflexions. it at length divides into two branches, one going into the observatory, and the other into the work-room ; and thus the communications of the observer are conveyed to the assistant in the observatory, and the workman is directed to perform the required motions. The foundation of the apparatus by which the telescope is suspended and moved, consists of two concentric circular brick wells, the outermost of which is twenty-two seet in diameter, and the inside one twenty-one feet. They are two feet six inches deep under ground, two feet three inches broad at the bottom, and one foot two inches at the top, and are capped with paving stones, about three inches thick, and twelve and three quarters broad. The bottom frame of the whole rests upon these two walls by twentry concentric rollers, and is movable upon a pivot, which gives a horizontal motion to the whole apparatus, as well as to the telescope.— Cabinet of Curiosities.

We have already treated to some extent on the subject of Comets. Before leaving it, however, and stretch

ing off to the confines of the universe, it would be proper more fully to consider it. For Comets may be regarded as the connecting link between solar systems; hence it is in order to notice them before leaving our own. - The cut on the next page is a representation of the course of the Comet Biela, whose expected appearance not long since excited such intense interest. The part of the heavens in which it is here seen moving, is denominated the constellation Leo ; which leads us to a

particular description of it in this place. *.


The Lion is with the moderns, as with the ancients, a symbol of the month of July, and was placed among the Egyptian hieroglyphics to represent their hot season. The Greek poets tell us this sign was the Nemean Lion that dropped from the Moon, and was slain by IIERCULEs, and was asterwards elevated to the heavens by Ju No.

This constellation is remarkable for its many bright stars, and is easily discovered by its being seated south of the Great Bear.

In the western part of this constellation is a beautiful star of the first magnitude called Regulus or Kelb, near the heart of the Lion ; a little above this are four bright stars forming the neck and head; on the hind quarters are two stars of the third magnitude; and in the tail a star of the second magnitude, called Denebola, forming a triangle with the two former.

LEo contains one star of the first magnitude, two of the second, five of the third, eleven of the {"#. teen of the fifth, and forty-three of the sirth. Regulus is situated on the ecliptic. This star is sometimes called Cor Leonis (the Lion's Heart.)

The constellation LEö is chiefly situated north of the ecliptic, passing over the countries situated in the north part of the Torrid Zone, where this animal is generally found; in Zoology, it is a species of Felis, or cat kind, and considered the most ferocious of quadrupeds. Many extraordinary accounts are reported of the animal. (See plate.)

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THE above engraving represents the beautiful constcllation LEo, the Lion, and also shows a portion of the path of the periodical CoMET discovered on the 27th of February, 1826, by M. Biela, of Josephstadt. The above Comet performs its revolution round the Sun in about six years and three quarters. This is the Comet concerning which such dire forebodings were entertained on the continent, many individuals firmly believing that in 1832 it would come in contact with the EARTH, and prove its destruction. This alarm appears to have originated in Paris, which seems especially accessible to these terrific apprehensions. CoNJEctures And Conclusions REs proTING ComEts.—Of all the celestial bodies, there are none that have given rise to so many speculations and conjectures as the CoMEts. Their strange appearances, in all ages, have been matter of terror to the vulgar, who uniformly have looked upon them as bad omens, and forerunners of war, pestilence, &c. Others less superstitious supposed them to be meteors raised in the higher regions of the air. Some part of the modern doctrine concerning them, however, was received into the ancient Italic and Py

thagorean schools; for they held them to be so far of the nature of planets, that they had their periodical times of appearing; that they were out of sight for a long time, while they were carried aloft at an immense distance from the EARTH, but became visible when they descended into the lower regions of the air, and thus were nearer to us. AR1stotle, however, maintained, that they were nothing more than meteors, or exhalations raised into the upper regions of the atmosphere, where they blazed out for a while, and disappeared when the matter of which they were formed was consumed. SENEcA, on the contrary, strongly argued against those who supposed them meteors, and declared his belief that they were not fire suddenly kindled, but the eternal productions of NATURE. He points out, also, the only way to come at a certainty on this subject, viz. by collecting a number of observations concerning their appearance, in order to discover whether they return periodically or not. “For this purpose,” says he, “one age is not sufficient; but the time will come when the nature of Comets and their magnitudes will be demonstrated, and the routes they take, so different from the planets, explained. Posterity will then wonde, that the preceding ages should be ignorant of matters so plain and easy to be known. The prediction of SENEcA, however, seemed for a long time very unlikely to be fulfilled. The great authority which AR1stotle maintained for many ages, determined them to be nothing but meteors casually lighted up in the air; though they were manifestly at a great height, not only above the clouds, but subject to the diurnal revolution of the Earth. In the dark and superstitious ages, they were held to be the harbingers of every kind of calamity,” and were supposed to have different degrees of malignity according to the shape they assumed; from whence also they were differently denominated. Thus, some were said to be bearded, some haired ; some to represent a bean, a sword, or a spear; others a target, &c.; whereas, modern astronomers acknowledge only one species of Comets, and account for their different situations and distances from the Sun and Earth. Long did astronomers maintain many absurd opinions concerning them. The first astronomer who placed them in their true rank in the creation was Tycho BRAHE ; but the first who discovered their true motion was Sir Is AAc NEwton, from the observations he made on the great Comet of 1680. This descended almost perpendicularly towards the Sun with a prodigious velocity; ascending again with a motion retarded, as much as it had been before accelerated. It was seen in the morning by a great number of astronomers in disserent parts of Europe, from the 4th to the 25th of November, on its way towards the Sun; and in the evening, from the 12th of December to the 9th of March following. The many exact observations made on this Comet, enabled Sir Isaac Newton to determine that they are a kind of planets, which move in very eccentric ellipses: and this opinion is now considered as an established truth; and further, that they are opaque bodies, enlightened by the Sun. Comets are of very different magnitudes, which may be conjectured from their apparent diameter and bright. ness. The Tails of CoMETs have given rise to various conjectures; though it is acknowledged by all that they depend on the Sun in some way or other, as they are always turned srom him, but in what manner this is accomplished we cannot easily determine. Sir Isaac Newton was of opinion, that the tail of a Comet is a very thin vapour, which the head sends out by the reason of its heat. Bow RING objects to Newton's theory, from the great velocity of the Comet's motion: that of some of the Comets is said to be after the rate of no less than 880,000 miles an hour.; With respect to the use of the Comets in the uniYoe. it, is no more a question than that of any other Orb. They show, by their rapid motions, and the period of the revolutions of those which have been calculated, the vast extent of the starry firmament. With respect to their situation, whether belonging to the solar System, or as links that join Systems, thereby keeping up a harmony or union of Systems, it seems more a consideration, and is perfectly consistent with the analogy and connexion that are found among objects where the researches of human sagacity have been able to penetrate. ...A comet exhibits three varieties, according to its position, as seen from the Earth. I. Bearded, when eastward of the Sun, and its light marches before. ii. Tailed, when westward of the Sun, and the tail or train follows it. III. Haired, when diametrically opposite to the Sun, having the Earth between them, and all its tail hid except a few scattered rays. But of all the Comets on record, only four of their periods are known to any degree of certainty. The Jirst of these appeared in 1592, 1707, and 1682, making


This idea is noticed by Homer, Tasso, and Milton. *This is the same as Newton calculated the motion of the Comet of 1680 to be.

a period of seventy-five years. The second appeared in 1532 and 1661, being a revolution of one hnndred and twenty-nine years. The third, and most noted of all the Comets yet observed, is that before-mentioned, which appeared in 1680, and its period was calculated by Sir Isaac Newton to be 575 years; therefore it may be expected again in 2:255. This Comet, at its greatest distance from the Sun, is about 11,200,000,000 of miles; and at its least distance from the Sun's centre, it is only 49,000 miles, being only about one-third of the Sun's semi-diameter from his surface. In that part of its orbit nearest to the Sun, it flies at the amazing rate of 880,000 miles an hour, as observed above; and the Sun, as seen from it, appears thirty thousand times larger than he does to us. The astonishing length that this Comet runs out into empty space, suggests to our minds the vast distance of the fixed stars, and hence of the UNIv ERsk, where regions appear beyond regions. However difficult to narrow minds like ours to find out the destination of these orbs, this is an undoubted truth: that wherever the DEITY exerts his power, there he also manifests his wisdom and goodness. The first Comet on record was observed by Nicephorus Gregorius, of Constantinople, in June, 1337, whose course he describes very accurately. Comets do not all move from west to east, like the planets. Some have a direct and some a retrograde motion. Their orbits are not comprehended within a narrow zone of the heavens, like those of the principal planets; they vary through all degrees of inclination. There are some whose plane is nearly coincident with that of the ecliptic, and others have their planes perpendicular to it. Indeed, a slight inclination of the orbit is no longer deemed an essential characteristic even of the planets, for the small planets lately discovered have great inclinations. It may be remarked, also, in this connexion, that the orbits of the satellites co Uranus are nearly perpendicular to the ecliptic. It is further to be observed, that the Tails of CoMETs begin to appear as the bodies approach near the Sun:

their length increases with this proximity; and they do

not acquire their greatest extent till aster passing their perihelion. Their direction is always to the Sun.

OF THE STARRY FIRMAMENT, ITS CHIEF DIVISIONS AND CONSTELLATIONS. THE stars, on account of their apparent magnitudes, are distributed into several classes or orders. Those which appear largest to the eye are denominated stars of the first magnitude; the next to them in lustre. stars of the second magnitude ; and so in this progressive manner to those of the sirth magnitude, which are the smallest that are vissible to the naked eye. Those that are less than the sixth magnitude, are termed telescopic stars, because not visible without the aid of that instrument. The whole starry firmament contains ninety-four constellations, and is commonly divided into three chief parts, as follows:– I. The Zodiac, which contains twelve constellations, commonly called the twelve signs of the Zodiac. The Zodiac is sixteen degrees broad. II. All that space between the Zodiac and the north pole containing the thirty-five northern constellations. III. The regions south of the Zodiac, containing forty-seven constellations. A constellation is a convenient portion or number of stars which lie contiguous to one another, and for the purpose of distinction is named after some animal or object, which if there delineated would fill up that space, as it appears to the eye. By this decision, the stars are so distinguished from one another, that any particular star may be readily found in the heavens by means of a celestial globe or map, on which the constellations are so delineated that the most remarkable stars are placed in such parts of the figures as are most easily distinguished.

The magnitude of the stars in the constellation is || alphabet are introduced; and afterwards, if necessary,

distinguished chiefly by the letters of the Greek alphabet; that is, the first letter (a) is placed by the largest star in the constellation, whether of the first magnitude or not; the second letter (b) is placed by the second in lustre; in this manner to the least star in the constellation; and if there are more stars than there are letters in the Greek alphabet, the letters of the common

the numbers, 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. are added. Some of the stars have, besides their rays and Greek letters, also names; as Castor, &c.—and it is much to be regretted that astronomers have not given modern names to all the considerable stars; that being to students so much simpler, and more engaging than the Greek letters.-Guide to Knowledge.

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This vile impostor, who pretended she could live without food, was born at Royston, near Ashborn, in the county of Derby, in the year 1761. Her parents were poor, and of the name of Peg. At the age of twenty-seven, she married James Moore, a labourer, with whom she soon parted, after which she had two children by her master, a boy and a girl.—About the beginning of 1807, when residing at Tutbury, a village in Staffordshire, she first excited public attention by declaring she could live without food. An assertion so repugnant to reason and nature was of course rejected. She therefore offered to prove the truth of her assertion by submitting to be watched for a considerable time. In order to satisfy the public, she was removed from her home to the house of Mr. Jackson, grocer, of the same village, and all the inhabitants were invited to join in watching her. A Mr. Taylor, surgeon, superintended the watching, which continued sixteen days during which time she was allowed a little water, on the first three days. When the watch had ended, she was removed to her own house; and Mr. Taylor published an account, declaring that she had lived for thirteen days without taking any food, liquid or solid. This account, so attested, was believed by numbers, who flocked to see her, and few visited her without leaving some proof of their credulity or pity. By this means she collected about £250. Though the declaration of the persons who formerly watched her had obtained considerable credit, yet there were. many who thought her an impostor, and demanded that she should be again watched. A committee was formed of the neighboring clergymen and magistrates, who met on Tuesday, the 20th of April, 1813; and the time it was determined she should be watched was fixed at one month, to which she was at last obliged to assent. Her bed was filled with chaff, and the clothes examined in the presence of the committee. The watch entered on their office at two o'clock on Wednesday. She received the watchers with as much good manners as she was capable of, though she had been crying bitterly before they came. The first watch, which continued sour hours, was begun by Sir Oswald Mosley and the

Rev. Leigh Richmond, and followed by several other gentlemen. At the end of seven days, the public were informed that she had during that time taken no food whatever. Great confidence was now expressed by her advocates that she would endure the ordeal with credit. But when the machine for weighing her was put under the bed, it was found that she lost weight rapidly. At last, on the ninth day, she insisted upon the watchers quitting the room, declaring that she was very ill, and that her daughter must be sent sor. She was now greatly reduced, and the watchers who attended her were much alarmed lest she should expire; and apprehensive of being implicated in the charge of murder, they quitted the room and admitted the daughter, who administered what she thought proper, when the mother began to recover. One remarkable circumstance was, that on Friday, the 30th of April, after the watch broke up, she desired to take a solemn oath that she had not, during the time she was watched, taken any food whatever; which oath was administered to her. This she did in hope, notwithstanding all, still to impose upon the public. But as her clothes gave evidence against her, to her utter confusion she was brought at last to make the following confession: “I, Anne Moore, of Tutbury, humbly asking pardon of all persons whom I have attempted to deceive and impose upon, and above all, with the most unfeigned sorrow and contrition, imploring the divine mercy and forgiveness of that God whom I have greatly offended, do most solemnly declare, that I have occasionally taken sustenance for the last six years. “Witness my hand, this fourth day of May, 1813. “The mark 24 of ANNE Moore.” The above declaration of Anne Moore was made before me, one of his Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the county of Stafford, Thomas ListER. Witness of the above declaration and signature of my mother Anne Moore, MARY Moor E. This impostor was committed to prison, February, 1816, for falsely collecting money under the pretence of charity.—Cabinet of Curiosities.

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THE clouds of night come rolling down. Darkness rests on the steeps of Cromla. The stars of the north arise over the rolling of Erin's waves: they shew their heads of fire through the flying mist of heaven. A distant wind roars in the wood. Silent and dark is the plain of death! - Still on the dusky Lena arose in my ears the voice of Carril. He sung of the friends of our {. the days of former years, when we met on the

anks of Lego; when we sent round the joy of the shell. Cromla answered to his voice. The ghosts of those he sung came in their rustling winds. They were seen to bend with joy towards the sound of their praise!

Be thy soul blest, O Carrill in the midst of thy eddying winds.. O that thou wouldst come to my hall, when I am alone by night! And thou dost come, my friend. I hear often thy light hand on my harp, when it hangs on the distant wall; and the feeble sound touches my ear. Why dost thou not speak to me in my grief, and tell when I shall behold my friends? But thou passest away in thy murmuring blast; the winds whistle through the gray hairs of Ossian —Ossian.

Louis XV. when before the walls of Menin, in Flanders, was told that if he chose to risk an attack, the place would be taken four days sooner than it otherwise would be. “Let us take it then,” replied he, “four days later. I would rather loose these four days than loose one of my subjects.”

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The following extract of a letter of Ibrahim Pacha to the Turkish Sultan, will give our readers an idea of oriental style as

-8. “My sublime, magnanimous, awe-inspiring, mighty, great sovereign, our benefactor—the benefactor of ... “May God grant to your Sublimity a life without end, and make the august shadow of your Sublimity a protection for all men, and especially for my humble head. “Your inexhaustible goodness has induced you, most gracious sovereign, to grant me the government of Adano, as mahassilik, (in farm.)” A letter from Campeachy of July 27th says:—“The cholera rages here with such fury, that the whole population of the State of Yucatan may be said to have been destroyed; and there are towns where ten inhabitants have not survived.” The same letter also states that it is impossible to penetrate as far as Mexico, because the civil war rages to such an extent that the whole country is nothing but a vast field of battle.

A shock of an earthquake was felt on Tuesday morning of last week at Richmond, Fredericksburg, Alexandria, Washington, and Baltimore. At Richmond it lasted about six minutes.


Henry G. Woodhull, Rochester, N. Y. and vicinity.
Caleb Rice, jr. Orleans, Ontario Co. N. Y.
Joseph Painter, Westchester, Pa.
Editor of the Germantown Telegraph, Germantown, Pa.
D. A. M'Farlan, Plymouth, Wayne Co. M. T.
John A. Weed, Norwalk, Ct.

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