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LE AN ING TOWER S.

THE LEANING TOWERS OF BOLOGNA.

These curious specimens of architecture "afford, vitation, “that a body will be supported, or will stand,

perhaps, the most striking and remarkable examples in provided that its line of direction full within its base;"

existence of that important principle of the laws of gra- that is to say, in common phrase, provided it keeps its - - -

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balance. It is almost superfluous to observe, that the converse of this principle is equally true, that a body will fall if its line of direction fall without its base;” in other words, if it lose its balance. In order to understand the meaning and the reason of this, it will be necessary to remember, that the attraction of gravitation, or tendency to fall towards the centre of the earth, acts equally on all parts of the same body around which, in every direction, it acts equally. On this point the body may be said to be balanced; this is the centre of gravity, a fig. 1; and a line drawn from it towards the centre of the earth, passing through the base, or lowest side of the body, is the line of direction a r. fig, 1 ; if, therefore, this line fall within the base, the centre of gravity is supported by the base, and the body is balanced, for the attraction of the dark part, B D E, which is supported by the base, has more tendency to keep the body standing than that of the light part b c E, which is unsupported by the base, has to incline, or pull it down; but is, as as in fig. 2, the line of direction fall without the base, where a is the centre of gravity, and a F the line of direction, it is clear that there being more parts of the body

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unsupported by the base than those which are supported, or b c E being larger than B D E, the attraction of the greater part will overcome that of the lesser, and that the body will not be balanced, but have a greater tendency to fall than to stand. Perhaps the following explanation may make this important rule more intelligible. '?'he power of all the forces of the attraction of gravitation acting on different parts of a body, is exactly equal to that of one force acting on the centre of gravity only. Is, therefore, this point be supported, the whole body will be supported, and this can only be the case when the line of direction falls within the base. It has been sound by experiment, that most lofty buildings of any antiquity are slightly inclined from the per

pendicular; the Monument near London Bridge is one

of many instances; but the Towers at Bologna and Pisa in Italy, and at Caerphilly, Bridgenorth, and Corfe Castle, in our own country,” are the most remarkable. We are indebted to that elegant periodical work, the Landscape Annual, for a beautiful view of these at Bologna. They were probably erected by private families, for the purposes of defence in the desperate feuds and civil wars which so long desolated Italy, and rendered buildings such as these of the utmost importance to their possessors. The small republics of Lombardy were continually at war with each other, or with the Emperors of Germany; every city was divided into the two furious sactions of Guelfs and Ghibellines, (or the parties of the Pope and the Emperor:) and every street (frequently every family) was “divided against itself” by the quarress of the nobles,—the Montagues and Capulets of their day:-and every man's house was indeed his castle, but in a very different sense from that which these words now convey to English cars. The taller of the two, that of the Asinelli, was built A. D. 1109; its height has been variously stated at 350, 377, and 307 feet, and its inclination at a sew inches, and at 3 feet and a half. It has no external beauty, but rewards the traveller for a tedious ascent of 500 steps, by an extensive view, which includes the neighbouring cities of Imola, Ferrara, and Modena. The tower of the Garisendi or Garissuidi, is immortalized by Dante's simile, who compares it to the

* England.

stooping Giant Antaeus; its height is 140 or 150 feet, and it deviates 7 or 8 feet from the perpendicular. The woodwork and masonry incline from the horizon, which fact strongly corroborates the opinion of Montfaucon, the Antiquary, of the correctness of which there can hardly be a doubt; he says its inclination was “caused by the slipping of the earth; some went to ruin when it slipped, as the ground on the inclined side was not so firm as may be said of the other towers that lean; that for the bells of St. Mary Zibenica, at Venice, leans; and at Ravenna, and between Ferrara and Venice, and in other places, numerous instances may be sound.” Of the leaning towers of Italy, this tower is second only to that of Pisa (of which we shall speak in a future number) in the greatness of its deviation from the perpendicular, but is inferior in this point to that of Caerphilly Castle, which will also be described in a future number, whilst in height the tower of Asinelli soars far above its competitors in Italy and England.—Saturday Magazine.

THE BOTTLE CONJURER.

The following hoax was played off upon the inhabitants of London in 1749, by the facetious Duke of Montague. o #. nobleman being in company with some friends, the conversation turned on public curiosity, when the Duke said it went so far, that is a person advertised that he would creep into a quart bottle, he would get an audience. Some of the company could not believe this possible, a wager was the result, and the Duke, in order to decide it, caused the following advertisement to be put in all the papers. “AT the New Theatre in the Hay Market, on Monday next, the 16th inst. to be seen a person who performs the several most surprising things following, viz. first, he takes a common walking-cane from any of the spectators, and thereon plays the music of every instrument now in use, and likewise sings to surprising persection. Secondly, he presents you with a common wine-bottle, which any of the spectators may first examine; this bottle is placed on a table in the middle of the stage, and he (without any equivocation) goes into it in sight of all . the spectators, and sings in it; during his stay in the bottle, any person may handle it, and see plainly that it does not exceed a common tavern bottle. Those on the stage or in the boxes may come in masked habits (if agreeable to them) and the performer (if desired) will inform them who they are. Stage, 7s.6d. Boxes, 5s. Pit,3s. Gallery, 2s. To begin at half an hour after six o'clock.

Tickets to be had at the theatre.

*...* The performance continues about two hours and and a half.

N.B. If any gentleman or lady, aster the above performances (either singly or in company, in or out of mask) desirous of seeing a representation of any deceased person, such as husband or wise, sister or brother, or any intimate friend of either sex (upon making a gratuity to the performer) shall be gratified by seeing and conversing with them for some minutes as if alive: likewise (if desired) he will tell you the most secret thoughts in your past life, and give you a full view of persons who have injured you, whether dead or alive. For those gentlemen and ladies who are desirous of seeing this last part, there is a private room provided. These performances have been seen by most of the crowned heads of Asia, Africa, and Europe, and never appeared public any where but once ; but will wait on . any at their houses and perform as above for five pounds each time. + *...* There will be a proper guard to keep the house in due decorum.” The following advertisement was also published at the same time, which one would have thought sufficient to prevent the former from having any effect.

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“Lately arrived from Italy,

Signor Capitello Jumpedo, a surprising dwarf, no taller than a common tavern tobacco pipe, who can perform many wonderful equilibres on the slack or tight rope: likewise he'll transform his body into above ten thousand different shapes and postures; and after he has diverted the spectators two hours and a half, he will open his mouth wide, and jump down his own throat. He being the most wonderful wonder of wonders that ever the world wondered at, would be willing to join in performance with that surprising musician on Monday next, in the Hay Market.

He is to be spoken with at the Black Raven in Goldenlane every day from seven till twelve, and from twelve all day long.”

#. bait however took even better than could have been expected. The playhouse was crowded with dukes, duchesses, lords, ladies, and all ranks and degrees, to witness the bottle-conjurer. Of the result, we quote the following account from the journals of the time.

“Last night (viz. Monday the 16th) the much expected drama of the bottle-conjurer of the New Theatre in the Hay Market, ended in the tragic comical manner following. Curiosity had drawn together prodigious numbers. About seven, the theatre being lighted up, but without so much as a single fiddle to keep the audience in good humour, many grew impatient. Immediately followed a chorus of catcalls, heightened by loud vociferations, and beating of sticks; when a sellow came from behind the curtain, and bowing, said, that if the performer did not appear, the money should be returned. At the same time a wag crying out from the pit, that if the ladies and gentlemen would give double prices, the conjurer would get into a pint bottle, presently a young gentleman in one of the boxes seized a lighted candle, and threw it on the stage. This served as the charge for sounding to battle Upon this, the greater part of the audience made the best of their way out of the theatre; some losing a cloak, others a hat, others a wig, and others hat, wig, and swords also. One party however staid in the house, in order to demolish the inside, when the mob breaking in, they tore up the benches, broke to pieces the scenes, pulled down the boxes, in short dismantled the theatre entirely, carrying away the particulars abovementioned into the street, where they made a mighty bonfire; the curtain being hoisted on a pole, by way of a flag. A large party of guards were sent for, but came time enough only to warm themselves round the fire. We hear of no other disaster than a young nobleman's chin being hurt, occasioned by his fall into the pit, with part of one of the boxes, which he had forced out with his foot. "Tis thought the conjurer vanished away with the bank. Many enemies to a late celebrated book concerning the ceasing of miracles, are greatly disappointed by the conjurer's non-appearance in the bottle, they imagining that his jumping into it would have been the most convincing proof possible, that miracles are not yet ceased.”

Several advertisements were printed afterwards, some serious, others comical, relating to this whimsical asfair; among the rest was the following, which, we hope, may be the means of curing this humour for the suture.

“This is to inform the Public,

That notwithstanding the great abuse that has been put upon the gentry, there is now in town a man who, instead of creeping into a quart or pint bottle, will change himself into a rattle, which he hopes will please both young and old. If this person meets with encouragement to this advertisement, he will then acquaint the gentry where and when he performs.”

The reason assigned, in another humorous advertisement, for the conjurer's not going into the quart bottle, was, that after searching all the taverns, not one could be sound due measure.—Cabinet of Curiosities.

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Alas! and is domestic strife, That sorest ill of human lif A plague so little to be o, As to be wantonly incurr'd, To gratify a fretful passion, On every trivial provocation ? f The kindest and the happiest pair Will find occasion to forbear; And something, every day they live, To pity, and, perhaps, forgive. But if infirmities that fall In common to the lot of all— A blemish or a sense impair’d— Are crimes so little to be spar'd, Then farewell all that must create The comfort of the wedded state; Instead of harmony, 'tis jar And tumult, and intestine war.

The love that cheers life’s latest stage, Proof against sickness and old age, i’resorv'd by virtue from declension, Becomes not weary of attention; But lives, when that exterior grace Which first inspir'd the flame decays. 'Tis gentle, delicate, and kind, To faults compassionate or blind, And will with sympathy endure Those evils it would gladly cure : \ But angry, coarse, and harsh expression Shows love to be a mere profession; Proves that the heart is none of his, Or soon expels him if it is.

Cowper.

MISC E L L A NY.

Society, like a shaded silk, must be viewed in all situations, or its colours will deceive us. Goldsmith observed, that one man who travels through Europe on foot, and who, like Scriblerus, makes his legs his compasses, and another who is whisked through it in a chaise and four, will form very different conclusions at the end of their journey. The philosopher, therefore, will draw his estimate of human nature, by varying as much as possible his own situation, to multiply the points of view under which he observes her. Uncircumscribed by lines of latitude or of longitude, he will examine her “buttoned up and laced in the forms and ceremonies of civilization, and at her ease and unrestrained in the light and feathered costume of the savage.” He will also associate with the highest without servility, and the lowest without vulgarity. In short, in the grand theatre of human life, he will visit the pit and the gallery as well as the boxes, but he will not inform the boxes that he comes amongst them from the pit, nor the pit that he visits them from the gallery.—Lacon.

There are three kinds of praise; that which we yield, that which we lend, and that which we pay. We yield it to the powerful from fear, we lend it to the weak from interest, and we pay it to the deserving from gratitude. —Ibid.

We generally most covet that particalar trust which we are least likely to keep. He that thoroughly knows his friends, might perhaps with safety conside his wife to the care of one, his purse to another, and his secrets to a third; when, to permit them to make their own choice, would be his ruin.—Ibid.

Eloquence is the language of nature, and cannot be learned in the schools; the passions are powerful pleaders, and their very silence, like that of Garrick, goes directly to the soul; but rhetoric is the creature of art, which he who feels least will most excel in; it is the quackery of eloquence, and deals in nostrums, not in cures.—Ibid.

There is this difference between happiness and wisdom; he that thinks himself the happiest man really is so; but he that thinks himself the wisest is generally the greatest fool.—Ibid.

A GIFTED FAMILY.

There at present resides near Versailles a retired subaltern officer, who accompanied Napoleon in most of his wars, who is the father of nine children, and whose nine children, born in nine different countries, speak nearly as many different languages or idioms. His wife was an Italian, whom he married in Italy on the first invasion of that country by the French His first child (Marie) was born at Milan, and speaks Italian, the language of her mother. His second (Guillaume) saw the light in Switzerland. His third, called Ali, came into the world in Egypt, and speaks on occasion a kind of Coptic. His fourth child was born at Boulogne-sur-Mer, when Bonaparte threatened a descent on England from that port. His fifth child was born in Germany, and speaks German. His sixth is a Neapolitan, and conse

quently is called Genaro (or Januarius.) His seventh.

is a little Spaniard, called Diego, who has not forgotten the language of his infancy. His eighth is a little Prussian, of the name of Frederick; and his ninth, Mademoiselle Nicholina, saw the light in Elba. The eldest of these children is said to be twenty-eight, the youngest eight. The mother is dead. These nine children still reside under the paternal roof, and render the house something like the tower of Babel.—Cabinet of Curiosities.

MIDNIGHT TERRORS.

Some years since, a person carrying from the east coast of Fife a hundred rabbits, to occupy a warren in the western islands, hired a room for them for the night at an inn, at Cupar, and putting them into it, and giving them greens and food, he shut the door; and having refreshed himself, went to bed. A gentleman arrived just afterwards, who had supper, and went to bed, which happened to be in the room contiguous to the rabbits, but he knew nothing of their being there. About the middle of the night, and in the midst of his sleep, the door between his room and the rabbits not being locked, a gale of wind arising, the door suddenly opened, and the whole of the rabbits rushing from their own room, ran into the gentleman's, some running over his face,

hands, and other parts of the body, both above and below the bed, and many of them seeking for shelter under the blankets. The gentleman awaking suddenly, was much alarmed, and roared out for help, but none appeared. Their keeper was asleep, as well as every one else in the house. Thinking himself surrounded by a thousand evil spirits, which he sound before, behind and round him, he at length sound the door, and ran down stairs naked in the dark. The rabbits, as much afraid as the gentleman, following him, were down stairs before him; and it was not many minutes before the whole house was in an uproar. When the candle was lighted, nothing appeared. The rabbits had dispersed, and hid themselves in different parts of the house. Hungary waters, spirits, &c. were brought to recover the gentleman; and it was not till the rabbit man appeared, and sound his rabbits gone, that he could comprehend what had happened.—Cabinet of Curiosities.

The great rule which the masters of rhetoric press much, can never be enough remembered, that to make a man speak well and pronounce with a right emphasis, he ought thoroughly to understand all that he says, be fully persuaded of it, and bring himself to have those affections which he desires to infuse into others. He that is persuaded of the truth of what he says, and has a concern about it in his mind, will pronounce with a natural vehemence that is far more lively than all the strains that art can lead him to. An orator must be an honest man, and speak always on the side of truth, and study to feel all that he says; and then he will speak it so as to make others feel it likewise.—Cambray's Dialogues on Eloquence.

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NATURAL HISTORY.

(From Good's Book of Nature.—Continued.)

on zoological systEMs, AND THE DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERS OF AN1 MALS.

The second order, bruta, or BRUTE-BEAsts, is distinguished by having no fore-teeth in either jaw. It includes the nine following kinds: rhinoceros, suckotyro, elephant, trichecus, the morse, walrus, manate or lamantin, the dolphin of the poets of Greece and Rome, by whom it has been celebrated for its love of music, and perhaps not altogether without foundation;—the bradypus or sloth, the myrmecophagus or ant-eater, the manis or pangolin, the dasypus or armadillo, and the platypus or duck-bill, the ornithorhynchus paradorus of Blumenbach, that curious little quadruped which has hitherto only been discovered in Australia, or the regions in and about New South Wales, and which seems to be a quadruped by its feet, a water-fowl by its bill, and an amphibial by its fondness for water. It is not yet quite certain whether this singular animal suckles its young, or has a mammary organ for this purpose; and if not, it must be discarded from its present situation, though we should be at no small loss to know where else to place it.

The Third class of MAMMALs is denominated FERAE or sAvAGE BEAsts, and is distinguished by having, in every instance, fore-teeth, above and below, the number varying in different kinds, from two to ten; and in possessing a solitary tusk. . The order comprises, eleven kinds, the names of which are as follows: the phoca or seal, a water quadruped, whose skin is so useful to us for various purposes, and which, like the stag, is found to shed tears when in trouble: the canis or dog-kind, including the numerous families of wolf, fox, jackal, hyaena; the felis or cat-kind, including a variety of tribes of a somewhat similar appearance, but far mightier, and nobler in their powers, as the lynx, the leopard, the panther, the tiger, and the lion, all of which have a power of climbing trees, though the weight of the larger species makes them do it very awkwardly, and only to a short height; all of which pitch on their feet in falling; and all of which see better in the night than by day; the viverra, including the ichneumon and several of the weasels; the mustela, including other species of the weasels, the stoat, polecat, otter, ferret, sable, and ermine, to the last two of which we are indebted for the luxurious dresses that pass under their name. Almost all of the mustelas have a power of secreting and discharging a most fetid and intolerable stench at their will; and many of them do it as a means of defence; and often so effectually that the very beast that pursues them is compelled to relinquish the chase, so completely is he overpowered by its noisome vapour. The remainder of this order are the ursus or bear; the didelphis or opossum; the marcopius or kangaroo, which is now naturalising in the royal parks of our own country; the talpa or mole; the sorex or shrew; and the erinaceus or hedgehog; which last is capable of being tamed, and is actually tamed by the Calmucs, and made a very useful domestic servant in destroying mice, toads, beetles, and other vermin.

The Fourth ord ER of mammalian animals is denominated GL1REs, for which we may use the words HIBER.

NATERs or BURRow ERs. They are distinguished by having two sore-teeth in each jaw, close to each other, but remote from the grinders; and by being without tusks. They all, in a greater or less degree, burrow in the earth, and almost all of them sleep through the whole or a great part of the winter. To this order, therefore, we can all of us, of our own accord, refer the ten following kinds, which are the whole that are included under it. The hystrix or porcupine; the cavia or cavy; the castor or beaver; the mus genus, comprehending the numerous families of the mouse and rat; the arctomys or marmot; the sciurus or squirrel, some of which have a long flying membrane that enables them to vault from tree to tree, like some species of the lemur; the myoxus or dormouse; the dipus or jerboa, whose form resembles the kangaroo, but whose habits the dormouse; the lepus, comprising the hare and rabbit tribes; and the hyrax or daman: with most of which we are too well acquainted to require any detailed account in so cursory a survey as the present. The PEcoRA or cATTLE kinds form the next or FIFTH or DER, and comprehend those horned quadrupeds which are most familiar and most useful to us. To this division, therefore, necessarily belong the bos, ovis, capra, and cervus kinds; or, in our own language, the ox, sheep, goat, and deer; and as connected with these, in habits as well as in external appearance, the moschus, antilope, camelus—the musk,antelope, camel, and cameleopard, or giraffe. They are ordinally distinguished by being without upper fore-teeth, but having six or eight in the lower jaw, remote from the grinders. They have all four stomachs, are hoofed, and have the hoof divided in the middle; and, except the camel, have two false hoofs, which in walking do not touch the ground. Such as have horns have no tusks, and such as have tusks have no horns; they ruminate or chew the cud: and from the torpid action of their multifid digestive canal, are apt to have balls form in disserent parts of it. owing to the frequent concretion of their food, occasionally intermixed, but more usually covered with a quantity of hair, which they lick srom their bodies.— Some of these balls are of a whitish hue, and will bear a fine polish, and are known by the name of bezoards. These are chiefly the production of the antelope kind, and were formerly in very high estimation as amulets and febrifuges. The sixth order of mammals embraces the BELLUE or warrior KINDs, possessing both upper and lower fore-teeth, and hoofed feet. The order consists of only four genera: the equus or horse, mule, and ass tribes; the hippopotamus or river-horse; the tapir, which in appearance and habits makes an approach to the river-horse, but is smaller in size; and the numerous families of the sus or swine kind. The LAST or per under the mammalian class consists of the cFTE or whale KINDs, and embraces the monodon, sea-unicorn or narwahl; balaena, common whale; physeter, cachalot, or sperfaceti whale; and delphinus or dolphin, including, as two of its species, the phocoena or porpoise, the orca or grampus, and the dugong. There is some force in introducing these sea-monsters into the same class with quadrupeds; but they are still continued here by M. Cuvier. They have a general concurrence of structure in the heart, lungs, back

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