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Section III. New states may be admitted by the congress into this union but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state ; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of states, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned, as well as of the congress.
The congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claim of the United States, or of any particular state.
Section IV. The United States shall guarantee to every state in the union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion: and on application of the legislature, or of the executive, (when the legislature cannot be convened,) against domestic violence.
The congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this constiution, or, on the application of the legislatures of twothirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may.be proposed by congress: provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.
ARTICLE VI. All debts contracted and engagements entered into be
* fore the adoption of this constitution, shall be as valid
against the United States under this constitution, as under the confederation.
This constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof, and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding.
The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this constitution: but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.
The ratification of the conventions of nine states shall be sufficient for the establishment of this constitution between the states so ratifying the same.
Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present, the seventeenth day of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven, and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have hereunto subscribed our names. GEORGE WASHINGTON, President, and deputy from Virginia. Attest, William Jackson, Secretary. New Hampshire—John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman.— Massachusetts—Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King. Connecticut—Wm. Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman. NewYork-Alexander Hamilton. New Jersey—Wil, Livingston, David Brearly, Wm. Patterson, Jona. Dayton.— Pennsylvania—B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt. Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos. Fitzsimons, Jared Ingersoll, James Wilson, Gouv, Morris. Delaware—George Read, Gunning Bedford jun. John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco.
Broom. Maryland—James M'Henry, Dan. of St. Thos Jenifer, Danl. Carroll. Virginia—John Blair, James Madison jun. North Carolina—William Blount, Richard Dobbs Spaight, Hugh Williamson. South Carolina —J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler. Georgia—William Few, Abr. Baldwin.
ITEMS OF NEWS.
Capt. Ross, who has been so long missing in the northern regions, and in search of whom Capt. Back is now on a tour, has returned to England. He has ascertained that there is no Northwest passage south of 74 degrees North latitude, although the two seas are divided by an isthmus only fifteen miles wide. He has likewise discovered the true position of the Magnetic pole. . An express has been ordered aster Capt. Back with the news, who is to complete the survey of the so coast of this continent, of which but little more than one hundred and fifty miles remains to be explored.
An insurrection has broken out in Spain, on the death of Ferdinand, in favour of Don Carlos, as was anticipated; but it is said to be not sufficiently formidable to excite much apprehension for the cause of the young Queen.
A treaty has been made between Russia aud Turkey calculated to induce the interference of other powers. One of its provisions is, that Turkey, whenever required by Russia, shall close the Dar danelles against the vessels of every other power.
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Dr. Gall, whose physiological theory has excited so much attention of late years on the Continent, has endeavoured to account for all these varieties of feeling, and indeed for all the animal senses of every kind, both external and internal, by supposing some particular part of the brain to be allotted to each, and that the general character and temperament of the individual is the result of the different roportions which these different parts or chambers of the [. bear to one another. He supposes, also, that this organ is possessed of two distinct sets of nervous fibres— a secernent and an absorbent; both directly connected with what is called the cineritious or ash-coloured part of the brain; the former issuing from it and secreting the fluid of the will, or that by which the mind operates on the muscles; and the latter terminating in it, and conveying to it the fluid of the external senses, secreted by those senses themselves, and communicating to the mind a knowledge of the presence and degree of power of external objects. This elaborate theory, and the facts to which it appeals, were very minutely investigated a few years ago by a very excellent committee of the physical class of the French National Institute, assisted by Mr. (now Dr.) Spurzheim, the intimate friend and coadjutor of its inventor, and who is well known to have contributed quite as much to the establishment of this speculation as himself. This committee, after a very minute and cautious research, gave it as a part of their report, that the doctrine of the origin and action of the nerves is probably correct; but that this doctrine does not appear to have any immediate or necessary connexion with that part of Dr. Gall's theory which relates to distinct functions possessed by distinct parts of the brain.” The origin, and distribution, and action, however, of the nervous trunks, have since been far more accurately traced out by Mr. Charles Bell, M. Magendie, and various other physiologists; while, in refutation of the doctrine that ascribes distinct functions to distinct parts of the brain, it may be sufficient to observe for the present, that many of the nerves productive of different functions originate in the same part, while others productive of the same function originate in different parts.f There is no animal whose brain is a precise counterpart to that of man; and it has hence been conceived, that by attending to the distinctions between the human brain and that of other animals, we might be able to account for their different degrees of intelligence. But the varieties are so numerous, and the parts which are deficient in one animal are found connected with such new combinations, modifications, and deficiencies in others, that it is impossible to avail ourselves of any such diversities. Aristotle endeavoured to establish a distinction by laying it down as a maxim that man has the largest brain of all animals in proportion to the size of his body; a maxim which has been almost universally received from his own time to the present period. But it has of late years, and
* For an examination of the general subject of craniology and physiognomy, see Series 111. Lecture xiii.
t It does not follow, however, from this interweaving of the nerves of the brain, that the phrenological view of this subject is erroneous; for the main branches of the nerves devoted to different functions may be located in those portions of the brain assigned to them byphrenologists, how of:soever the connecting nerves may "> Maced.— .*. Mag.
upon a more extensive cultivation of comparative anatomy, . been found to fail in various instances: for while the brain of several species of the ape kind bears as large a proportion to the body as that of man, the brain of several kinds of birds bears a proportion still larger. Mr. Sommering has carried the comparison through a great diversity of genera and species: but the following brief table will be sufficient for the present purpose. The weight of the brain to that of the body forms—
M. Sommering has hence endeavoured to correct the rule of Aristotle by a modification, under which it appears to hold universally; and, thus corrected, it runs as follows: “Man has the largest brain of all animals in proportion to the general mass of nerves that issue from it.” Thus, the brain of the horse gives only half the weight of that of a man, but the nerves it sends forth are ten times as bulky. The largest brain which M. Sommering ever dissected in the horse-tribe weighed only llb. 4oz. while the smallest he ever met with in an adult man was 2lbs. 5}oz.f It is a singular circumstance, that in the small heartshaped pulpy substance of the human brain denominated the pineal gland, and which Des Cartes regarded as the seat of the soul, a collection of sandy matter should invariably be found after the first few years of existence; and it is still more singular, that such matter has rarely, if ever, been detected but in the brain of a few bisulcated animals, as that of the fallow-deer, in which it has been found by Sommering; and that of the goat, in which it has been traced by Malacarne.| The nervous systems of all the vertebral or first four classes of animals, mammals, birds, amphibials, and fishes—are characterised by the two following properties:– first, the organ of sense consists of a giand or ganglion, with a long and bifid chord or spinal marrow descending from it, of a smaller diameter than the gland itself; and secondly, both are severally enclosed in a bony case or covering. In man, as we have already observed, this gland, or ganglion, is (with a few exceptions) larger than in any other animal, in proportion to the size of the body; without any exception whatever in proportion to the size of the chord or spinal marrow that issues from it. In other animals, even of the vertebral classes, or those immediately before us, we meet with every variety of proportion; from the ape, which in this respect approaches nearest to that of man, to tortoises and fishes, in which the brain or ganglion does not much exceed the diameter of the spinal marrow itself. It is not therefore to be wondered at that animals of a still lower description should exhibit proofs of a nervous chord or spinal marrow, without a superior gland or brain
t Study of Med. iv. 11, 2d edit.
S. Dissertatio de basi Encephal, 1778, and Tabula baseos Encephali, 1799. See Blumenb. p. 292.
Il Dissert, p. 10. See also Blumenbach, Anat. Comp. p. 206.
of any kind; and that this chord should even be destitute of its bony defence. And such is actually the conformation of the nervous system in insects, and for the most part in worms; neither of which are possessed of a cranium or spine, and in none of which we are able to trace more than a slight enlargement of the superior part of the nervous chord, or spinal marrow, as it is called in other animals—a part situated near the mouth, and apparently intended to correspond with an organ of the brain. The nervous chord, however, in these animals, is for the most part proportionally larger than in those of a superior rank; and at various distances is possessed of little knots or ganglions, from which fresh ramifications of nerves shoot forth, like branches from the trunk of a tree, and which may be regarded as so many distinct cerebels or little brains.
In zoophytic worms we can scarcely trace any distinetion of structure, and are totally unable to recognise a nervous system of any kind. The common and almost transparent hydra or polype, which is often to be found in the stagnant waters of our own country, with a body about an inch long, and arms or tentacles in proportion, appears to consist, when examined by the best glaszes, of nothing but a granular structure, something like boiled sago, connected by a gelatinous substance into a definite form.” Ilyilatids and infusory animals exhibit a similarity of make. The common formative principle of all these may be measonably conjectured to consist in the living power of the blood alone, or rather of the fluid which answers the purpose of blood; and their principles of action to be little more than instinctive.
Can we then conceive that all these different kinds, and orders, and classes of animals, thus differently organized and differently endowed with inteliigence, are possessed of an equality of corporeal feeling' or, to adopt the language of the poet, that—
the poor worm thou tread'st on, In corporal suffering, feels a pang as great As when a giant dics'
This is an interesting question, and deserves to be examined at some length. It may, perhaps, save the heart of genuine sensibility from a few of those pangs which, even under the happiest circumstances of life, will be still called forth too frequently; and if there be a human being so hardened and barbarized as to take advantage of the conclusion to which the inquiry may lead us, he will furmish an additional proof of its correctness in his own person, and show himself utterly unqualified for the discusS1011. Life and sensation, then, are by no means necessarily connected: the blood is alive, but we all know it has no sensation; and vegetables are alive, but we have ro reason to suppose they possess any. Sensation, so far as we are able to trace it, is the sole result of a nervous structure. Yet, though thus limited, it has already appeared that it does not exist equally in every kind of the same structure, nor in every part of the same kind. The skin is more sensible to pain than the lungs, the brain, or the stomach; but even the skin itself is more sensible in some parts than in others, which are apparently supplied with an equal number of nerves, and of nerves from the very same quarter. It is perhaps least sensible in the gums; a little more so on the hairy scalp of the head; but more so on the front of the body; and most of all so in the interior of the eyelids: while the bones, teeth, cartilages, cuticle, and cellular membrane, though largely supplied with nerves, have no sensation whatever in a healthy state. As the degree of intelligence decreases, we have no reason to believe that the intensity of touch is employed as a local power. And hence we may reasonably conjecture that in some of the lowest ranks of animals, the sensibility may not exceed, even in their most lively organs, the acuteness of the human cellular membrane, cuticle or gums. This, however, does not rest upon conjecture, or even upon loose, indefinite reasoning. We find in our own sys
* Bluine abach Anat. Comp. § 203.
tem that those parts which are most independent of all the other parts, and can reproduce themselves frost readily, are possessed of the smallest portion of sensation ; such are all the appendages of the true skin, the cuticle, horn, hair, beard, and nails: some of which are so totally independant of the rest, that they will not only continue to live, but even to grow, for a long time after the death of every other part of the body.
Now it is this very property by which every kind of animal below the rank of man is in a greater or less degree distinguished from man himself. All of them are compounded of organs which in a greater or less degree approach towards that independence of the general system which, in man, the insensibie or less sensible parts alone possess; and hence all of them are capable of reproducing parts which have been destroyed by accident or disease, with vastly more facility and perfection than mankind can do.
I have once or twice had occasion to apply this remark to the lobster, which has a power not only of reproducing its claws spontaneously, when deprived of them by accident or disease, but of throwing them off spontaneously whenever laid hold of by them, in order to extricate itself from the imprisoning grasp. The tipula pectiniformis, or insect vulgarly called father-long-legs, and several of the spider-family, are possessed of a similar power, and excercise it in a smilar manner. These limbs are renewed by the formative effect of the living principle in a short period of time, but it would be absurd to imagine that in thus voluntarily parting with them, the animal puts himself to any very tolerable degree of pain; for in such case he would not exert himself to throw them off. The gad-fly, when it has once fastened on the hand, may be cut to pieces apparently without much disturbance of its gratification; and the polype appears to be in as perfect health and contentment when turned inside out as when in its natural state. This animal may be divided into halves, and each half by its own formative and instinctive effort will produce the half that is deficient, and in this manner an individual of the tribe may be multiplied into countless numbers.
RUINS OF AN ANCIENT AMERICAN CITY :
Public attention has been recently excited in relation to the ruius of an ancient city in Guatemala. It would seem that these ruins are about to be thoroughly explored; and much curious and valuable matter in a literary and an historical point of view is anticipated as the result.
It is not, perhaps, very generally known that these ruins were partially explored as long ago as 1787. This however is the fact. The result of this examination was published in a volume in the Spanish language, together with various drawings copied from the ruins; which volume was afterwards translated into English, and, by the favor of a literary friend, is now in our possession. We deem the present a most auspicious moment, now that public attention is turned to the subject, to spread its contents before our readers, as an introduction to future discoveries which may from time to time be announced during the course of the researches now in progress.
The following account of the ruins under consideration is contained in a report of Capt. Antonio del Rio, the individual who explored them, to Don Jose Estacheria, Brigadier, Governor, and Commandant General of Guatemala, &c.
Sir-In compliance with a resolution of his Majesty, communicated by his royal order, bearing date May 15th, 1786, relative to another examination of the ruins discovered in the vicinity of Palenque, in the province of Ciudad Real de Chiapa in New Spain, you was pleased, on the 20th of March last, to desire that I should proceed thither, in order to renew the operations directed by the different items comprised in the said order, and to exert all the industry and means in my power for the accomplishment of the intended object. I accepted this charge with the greater degree of satisfaction, as I thereby felt convinced of the honorable confidence you reposed in me for the execution of this task; and I therefore lost no time in repairing to the spot, where I arrived on the 3d of May, and on the 5th proceeded to the site of the ruined city, which is there called Casas de Piedras (stone houses.) On making my first essay, I experienced some of the difficulties attendant upon such an undertaking, in consequence of my being unable to discover the direction in which I ought to advance, owing to a fog so extremely dense, that it was impossible to distinguish cach other at the distance of five paces; and whereby the
principal building, surrounded by copse wood trees of
large dimensions, in full foliage and closely interwoven, was completely concealed from our view. This first impediment occasioned my return to the village on the following day, with the intention of concerting with Don Joseph Alonzo de Calderon, deputy of the district, the necessary means of procuring as many Indians, and persons speaking the Spanish language, as could be collected, for the purpose of effectually clearing these woody obstructions. Accordingly, an order was issued to the inhabitants of the town of Tumbala, requiring two hundred Indians who should be provided with axes and bill-hooks: none however arrived until the 17th, and then only seventy-nine in number, furnished with twenty-eight axes, after which twenty more were obtained in the village, and with these supplies I again moved forward on the 18th to the stone houses. The operation of selling immediately commenced, and was completed on the 2d instant, which was followed by a general conflagration, that soon enabled us to breathe a more pure and wholesome atmosphere, and to continue our operations with much greater facility. I was convinced that, in order to form some idea of the first inhabitants, and of the antiquities connected with their establishments, it would be indispensably necessary to make several excavations; and to this object I therefore directed my chief attention, as by so doing I was led to hope that I should find medals, inscriptions, or monuments that would throw some light upon my researches; and I therefore commenced this work without delay, notwithstanding the scarcity of proper implements, as the number was by this time reduced to seven iron crowbars and three pick-axes, a very small supply indeed for the accomplishment of so laborious an undertaking as these immense masses of stone ruins presented to the view in every direction. By dint of perseverance, I effected all that was necessary to be done, so that ultimately there remained neither a window nor a doorway blocked up, a partition that was not thrown down, nor a room, corridor, court, tower, nor subterranean passage in which excavations were not effected from two to three yards (varas) in depth; for such the obje- of my mission and the research to which it was directed required, and the result of these labours proved as follows:– From Palenque, the last town northward in the province of Ciudad Real de Chiapa, taking a south-westerly direction, and ascending a ridge of high land that divides the kingdom of Guatemala from Yucatan, or Campeachy, at the distance of two leagues, is the little river Micol, whose waters flowing in a westerly direction unite with the great river Tulija, which bends its course towards the province of Tabasco; having passed Micol, the ascent begins, and at half a league from thence, the traveller crosses a little stream called Otolum, discharging its waters into the before-mentioned current: from this point, heaps of ruins are discovered, which render the road very difficult for another half league; when you gain the height whereon the stone houses are situated, being fourteen in number, some more dilapidated than others, but still having many of their apartments perfectly discernible. A rectangular area, three hundred yards in breadth by four hundred and fifty in length, presents a plain at the base of the highest mountain forming the ridge, and in the centre is situated the largest of these structures which has
been as yet discovered: it stands on a mound twenty yards high, and is surrounded by the other edifices, namely: five to the northward, four to the southward, one to the southwest, and three to the eastward. In all directions, the fragments of other fallen buildings are to be seen extending along the mountain, that stretches east and west about three or four leagues either way, so that the whole ran may be computed to extend between seven and eight leagues, but its breadth is by no means equal to its length, being little more than half a league wide at the point, where the ruins terminate, which is towards the river Micol, that winds round the base of the mountain, whence descend small streams that wash the foundation of the ruins on their banks, so that, were it not for the thick umbrageous foliage of the trees, they would present to the view so many beautiful serpentine rivulets.
It might be inferred that this people had had some analogy to, and intercourse with the Romans, from a similarity in the choice of situation, as well as from a subterranean stone aqueduct of great solidity and durability which passes under the largest building.
I do not take upon myself to assert that these conquerors did actually land in this country; but there is reasonable ground for hazarding a conjecture that some inhabitants of that polished nation did visit these regions; and that, from such intercourse, the natives might have imbibed, during their stay, an idea of the arts, as a reward for their hospitality.
(To be continued.)
ANCIENT IRISH WAR CLUB.
The unique and hitherto undescribed implement of wou, of which the above woodcut is an exact representation, was found, some years since, in the county of Roscommon, and is now in the possession of Mr. Underwood, of Sandymount. It is of bronze, hollowed, so as to receive a handle at one end, and perhaps a ball or spear at the other. Like all our very ancient weapons, its workmanship is of distinguished excellence; and we have not found anything *resembling it in the published antiquities of any other country.
That the ancient Irish had war clubs called crannibh, appears from old authoritiés: in an insurrection in the Friary of St. Saviour, (county of Dublin,) in 1381, we are informed that some of the brethren were armed with clubs.
(Mon. Hib. p. 208.)—Dublin Penny Journal.
PICTURE OF GRAMMAR.
GRAMMAR is substantively the same in all languages.— In English we have nine sorts of words, or parts of speech; viz. the article, noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection; and these may all be defined, with a little attention, in common conversation, by reference to objects that meet the eye, and circumstances connected with them,-for circumstances will often change the nature of a word from one part of speech to another, and this mutability can best be explained by evident demonstrations of a pictorial description. Previous to the invention of letters, men were obliged to convey their thoughts in this way, that is by pictures or representations of things intended to be understood, and this method of communication was called hieroglyphical. It had then, and still may have its use in the illustration of a subject, especially when verbal rules appear ambiguous, or are not thoroughly understood: but then they had no other method; now we have two, and can make use of both.
Let us take, for instance, the figure of a tree. Now this is the name of the thing or noun by which it is called, and is common to all trees; whence it is denominated a common name or noun. But suppose some peculiar circumstance connected with a tree, in consequence of which it might receive a particular name to distinguish it from other trees, as for example, the Chapel-Oak; this particular name would be called a proper name or noun. Again, there is a property or quality belonging to trees, such as tall, short, small, large, crooked, smooth, rough, &c. and in these qualities there is a comparison, as the oak is tall, the elm is taller, but the fir is tallest. Here we not only compare, but point out particular things by the article the ; not an oak, but one particular oak; not a fir, nor any fir, but this identical fir is tallest of the three trees presented to our view.
Suppose I ask where your tree shall be planted, the answer may be, before the house,_then what is before but a
preposition, showing the relative situations or localities of the house and tree 4
But take another object, such as a horse, and ask what he is doing ; he is grazing, trotting, or galloping ; all these being actions, are expressed by verbs; and those verbs require adverbs, to specify the manner in which the actions are performed; as he grazes greedily, he trots neatly, he gallops . ; here also we have another part of speech introduced, namely, the pronoun he, instead of repeating the noun horse, and hence we learn what a pronoun is, and its proper use.
Ask of what things we have been speaking; the reply will be, a horse and a tree; in this reply, the conjunction and is used to join two things, which at once shows the use and place of that part of speech; in short, all the nine parts of speech may be pointed out and exemplified by conversation on any picture or landscape.
Though the manner of conducting an exercise in this mode of discipline belongs entirely to the discretion of the tutor, and is more adapted to oral demonstration than to any written description, yet an example may be given in a sort of question and answer, as follows:
Tutor. Now let us have a design, or imaginary picture: —what shall we put into it?
1st boy, a house;
2nd boy, a tree;
3rd boy, a dog;
4th boy, a cow;
of the things you have chosen is a noun. Quest. Pray what sort of a house is yours to be 1st boy, a small house; And your tree ?—2nd boy, a large tree; And your dog!—3rd boy, a black spotted dog; And your cow 1–4th boy, a spotted cow;