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larger in the East; one was of enormous size—this was nearly extinguished when I opened the door. I endeavored by all possible means to compose the people, who supposed it to be the stars falling.


The following account of a meteoric phenomenon, very similar to that of the 13th ult, is taken from the Richmond (Va.) Gazette of April 23, 1803. This electrical phenomenon was observed on Wednesday morning last, at Richmond and its vicinity, in a manner that alarmed many, and astonished every person that beheld it. From one until three in the morning, those starry meteors seemed to fall from every point in the heavens, in such numbers as to resemble a shower of sky-rockets. The inhabitants happened at the same hour to be called from their houses by the fire-bell, which was rung on account of a fire that broke out in one of the rooms of the Armory, but which was speedily extinguished. Every one, therefore, had an opportunity of witnessing a scene of nature which was never before displayed in this part of the globe, and probably will never appear again. Several meteors were accompanied with a train of fire that illuminated the sky for a considerable distance. One in particular appeared to fall from the zenith of the apparent size of a ball eighteen inches in diameter, that lighted for several seconds the whole hemisphere. During the continuance of this remarkable phenomenon, a hissing noise in the air was plainly heard, and several reports resembling the discharge of a pistol.


Philosophers have not agreed upon the cause of these phenomena. We find the following extract of a letter on the subject in the N. Haven Herald, from Professor Olmsted:—

“With respect to the cause of these meteors, I do not consider it as hitherto explained. Every thing of this kind is loosely ascribed to Electricity; but in my view, without any just grounds. It is my wish to obtain as many facts as I can respecting this phenomenon, and hope then to be able to deduce some rational conclusions. At present, all I can say is, that I think it evident that the point from which the fire-balls emanated was beyond the limits of our atmosphere; that the balls were projected obliquely into the atmosphere; that they were not at first luminous, but became so, and more and more so, as they reached the denser parts of the atmosphere, until they exploded, or burst asunder; and that they consisted of luminous vapor, such as after explosion remained suspended in the air, like a small cloud or fog”

Extract from a letter to the Editors of the Mercantile Advertiser.

“Woodburn, near Hudson, Nov. 15.—A singular occurrence took place on my farm some days ago, which has excited a good deal of speculation among all who have since visited the spot. A beautiful and well grown little wood, which you remember on the left of the road as you approach the house, containing about an acre and a half, suddenly sunk down about thirty feet, most part perpendiculary; so that where not long since the roots of the trees were to all appearance firmly imbedded, the topmost branches only peep out. The wood is bounded by the creek, of which the sides and bottom are blue clay. The land near the bank, from some unexplained cause, seems to have given way all at once, and slid into the creek, which, by the mass thrown into it, is so filled up, that from its previous width of fifty feet, with an occasional depth of twenty, it is reduced to a little rill, which one might easily jump across. A strip of land adjoining the road of about thirty feet wide, and of a considerable length, has sunk straight down, so that where the surface was before level, there is now a perpendicular bank of thirty feet.

The spectacle is altogether curious, but, as you may imagine, presents no great improvement to the appearance of my farm.

From the Springfield (Mass.) Republican, Nov. 10.

The Somnambulist in this town, of whose extraordinary character mention has lately been made, continues to attract, the attention of our citizens by acts unexampled in the history of such persons. The girl lives in some of the most respectable families in town, and, incredible as some of her acts appear, they can be attested by many of our respectable citizens who have witnessed them. The most astonishing of her acts when asleep, and which is contrary to the philosopby of nature, is that of reading with her eyes shut and bandaged. To prove this, a gentleman on Wednesday evening took with him a new book, wrote her name with a pencil on the first blank leaf, and then gave her the book in a room so dark that he could not read. She opened it at the first leaf, and immediately asked why her name was written in that book, as it was not her’s. Another gentleman presented a card, with his hand directly before it, which she read at once. It is too much, perhaps, to believe, that she reads by supernatural powers, or with the organs of vision entirely obstructed— It is more rational to believe, that the same cause (a determination of blood to the head) which physicians say produces her disease and sharpens the other organs of the brain, memory, wit, &c. may also render her sight much more acute and penetrating than we conceive of. A few mights since she threaded a needle twice, and made a bag with her eyes apparently shut, and where there was not sufficient light to see to thread a needle. It is a very common thing for her when asleep to talk, sing, and to do her household work as regularly and correctly and follow directions as well as when awake. The paroxysms increase upon her, both in frequency and duration.


The Newport Spectator says there is a young man in a town in Vermont who cannot speak to his father. Previous to his birth, some difference arose between his mother and her husband, and for a considerable time she refused to speak to him. The difficulty was subsequently healed—the child was born, and in due time began to talk —but when sitting with his father, was invariably silent. It continued so till it was five years old, when the father, after having exhausted his powers of persuasion, threatened it with punishment for its stubbornness. When the punishment was inflicted, it elicited nothing but sighs and groans, which told but too plainly that the little sufferer was vainly endeavoring to speak. All who were present united in this opinion, that it was impossible for the child to speak to his father—and time proved their opinion to be correct. At a maturer age its efforts to converse with its parent could only produce the most bitter sighs and groans.

The individuals we have alluded to, says the Spectator, are all in respectable circumstances, and our informant has not only resided in their neighbonrhood for years, but is personally acquainted with them.


The President commences by congratulating Congress on the prosperous condition of the country, which he attributes to the favour of Divine Providence. ~~ Our relations with foreign nations continue in an amicable state, and all points of difference are in a fair train of adjustment. The view he gives of our financial concerns cannot fail to be most gratifying to every friend of his country, and to demonstrate the immense advantage of a peaceful over a warlike policy, This part of the Message will well bear extracting, even in this brief notice. It follows. “It gives me great pleasure to congratulate you upon the prosperous condition of the finances of the country, as will appear from the report which thc Secretary of the treasury will in due time lay before you. The receipts into the treasury during this present year will amount to more than thirty two millions of dollars. The revenue derived from customs will, it is believed, be more than twenty eight millions, and the public lands will yield about three millions. The expenditures within the year for all objects, including $2,572,240, 99 on account of the public debt, will not amount to twenty five millions; and a large balance will remain in the Treasury after satisfying all the appropriations chargeable on the revenue for the present year. “The measures taken by the Secretary of the Treasury will probably enable him to pay off in the course of the present year the residue of the exchanged four and a half per cent. stock, redeemable on the first of January next. It has therefore been included in the estimated expenditure of this year, and forms a part of the sum above stated to have been paid on account of the public debt. The payment of this stock will reduce the whole debt of the United States, funded and unfunded, to the sum of $4, 760,182 08.—And as provision has already been made for the four and a half per cents above mentioned, and charged in the expenses of the present year, the sum last stated is all that now remains of the national debt; and the revenue of the coming year, together with the balance in Treasury, will be sufficient to discharge it, after meeting the current expenses of the Government. Under the power given to the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund, it will, I have no doubt, be purchased on favorable terms within the year. “From this view of the state of the finances and the public engagements yet to be fulfilled, you will perceive that if Providence pérmits me to meet you at another session, I shall have the high gratification of announcing to you that the national debt is extinguished. I cannot refrain from expressing the pleasure I feel at the near approach of that desirable event. The short period of time within which the public debt will have been discharged is strong evidence of the abundant resources of the country, and of the prudence and economy with which the Government has heretofore been administred.—We have waged two wars since we became a nation, with one of the most powerful kingdoms in the world,—both of them undertaken in defence of our dearest rights—both successfully prosecuted and honorably terminated—and many of those who partook in the first struggle, as well as the second, will have lived to see the last item of the debt incurred in these necessary but expensive conflicts, faithfully and honestly discharged—and we shall have the proud satisfaction of bequeathing to the public servants who follow us in the administration of the Government, the rare blessing.of a revenue sufficiently abundant, raised without injustice or oppression to our citizens, and unincumbered with any burthens but what they themselves shall think proper to impose upon it.” He reccommends the erection of another building for the accomodation of the several Departments. He enters into the merits of the question of the removal of the Government deposits from the United States' Bank. He impugns in no very measured terms the conduct and motives of its managers, and says he should feel justified in ordering against it a scire facias. He lays down the principle, that the only means for preserving the existence of the Indian tribes, is to remove them beyond our boundaries, and to re-organize their political system upon principles adapted to the new relations in which they will be placed. The Post Office Department has extended its mail facilities beyond its means, and it is therefore sound neceso curtail its operations in this respect. e notices the numerous Steam-boat disasters, and recommends immediate attention to the subject. He renews his recommendation of such an amendment of the Constitution, as that the President and Vice-President be elected directly by the people, and their eligibility be limited to one term, either of four or six years,

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Fair art thou, daughter of the boundless heaven,
We greet with joy thy tranquil face at ev'n.
With silent step thou climb'st the eastern sky,
And thousand stars attend thy course on high.
The clouds that stray along the vault of night
Put on a silvery vesture at thy sight.
Light of the silent night, so calm, so fair,
In the wide heaven what can with thee compare:
The stars that gem the azure arch around
Sparkle no more, in thy full radiance drown'd.
Hast thou, when fading in the distant sky,
Lost, for a time, to sublunary eye,
Hast thou thy hall, near Day's bright orb o fire,
To which, like Ossian, thou too can'st retire?
Dost thou within grief's sable shadow dwell,
For sisters that from beauteous heaven fell?
They who with thee their joyous course did run,
Are they no more? their task forever done?
Yes, they have fall'n, fair light, and thou forlorn,
Dostoft retire with hidden face to mourn.
But thou thyself shalt from thy sphere be driven,
And leave thy azure, starry path in heav'n,
The stars which now thy lustre overspreads
And dims, will then exulting list their heads.
Thou now in fullest splendour rid'st on high :
Look from thy gates ethereal in the sky.
Burst, O ye winds ! the gathered cloud in twain,
Let Night's fair queen look forth serene again,
Then shall the mountain's rugged peaks grow bright,
And ocean roll its foam-capt waves in i.

Southald, Oct. 28, 1833 A. G.


ONE Honored Good AGENTs could be advantageously employed in obtaining subscribers for this paper in different sections of the United States.


Henry G. Woodhull, Wheatland,
Noah Fuller, Lockport, Western New York
A. C. Lathrop, Oneida Institute, Whitestown, N.Y.
Apollos Rawson, Marshall, Oneida Co. N. Y.
Aaron Gilbert, New Lebanon, N. Y.
P. Wetmore, Canajoharie, N. Y.
J. B. Headly, New York Mills, N.Y.
Caleb Rice jun. Orleans, Ontario, Co. N. Y.
Ornaldo D. Wood, Rodman, Jefferson Co. N. Y.
D. A. M' Farlan, Plymouth, Wayne Co. M.T.
H. L. & H. S. Barnum, Cincinnati, O.
J. B. Snowdon and Co. Nashville, Ten.
Joseph Painter, Westchester, Pa.
Editor of the Germantown Telegraph, Germantown, Pa.
John A. Weed, Norwalk, Ct.
Austin Hayden, Pittsfield Ms.
Thos. S. Robinson, Richmondville, Lincoln Co. Me.
Rev. Ray Potter, Pawtucket, R.I.

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Should an order for the Magazine be received unaccompanied by advance payment, one number will be sent showing our terms, after which no more will be forwarded till payment shall have been received. Companies of four individuals sending Five Dollars, current here, free of postage, will be furnished with four copies for one year. Companies of ten, sending Ten Dollars as above, will be furnished with ten copies. As the sum of $150, which is the price of the Magazine to a single subscriber, cannot conveniently be sent by mail, it will be necessary that two subscribers at least send payment in a letter together. IIP Schools adopting the Magazine will be supplied at One Dollar per annum for each copy. The postage on the Magazine is 34 of a cent under one hun. dred miles, and l cent . 1-4 for any distance over.

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Fishes are well known to possess a hearing organ, and the skate and shark have the rudiment of an external ear; but, like other fishes, they seem chiefly to receive sound by the internal tubule alone.

That insects in general hear is unquestionable, but it is highly questionable by what organ they obtain the sense of hearing. The antennas, and perhaps merely because we do not know their exact use, have been supposed by many naturalists to furnish the means; it appears fatal, however, to this opinion to observe, that spiders hear, though they have no true antennas, and that other insects which possess them naturally seem to hear as correctly after they are cut off.

The sense of vision exhibits perhaps more variety in the different classes of animals than any of the external senses. In man and the greater number of quadrupeds, it is guarded by an upper and lower eyelid; both of which in man, but neither of which in most quadrupeds, are terminated by the additional defence and ornament of cilia or eyelashes. In the elephant, opossum, seal, cat-kind, and various other mammals, all birds, and all fishes, we find a third eyelid, or nictitating membrane, as it is usually called, arising from the internal angle of the eye, and capable of covering the pupil with a thin transparent veil, either wholly or in part, and hence of defending the eyes from danger in their search after food. In the dog this membrane is narrow; in oxen and horses it will extend over half the eye-ball ; in birds it will easily cover the whole; and it is by means of this veil, according to Cuvier, that the eagle is capable of looking directly against the noonday sun. In fishes it is almost always upon the stretch, as in their uncertain element they are exposed to more dangers than any other animal. Serpents have neither this nor any other eyelid; nor any kind of external defence whatever but the common integument of the skin.

The largest eyes in proportion to the size of the animal belong to the bird tribes, and nearly the smallest to the whale; the smallest altogether to the shrew and mole: . o latter of which the eye is not larger than a pin's ead. The iris, with but few exceptions, partakes of the color of the hair, and is hence perpetually varying in different species of the same genus. The pupil exhibits a very considerable, though not an equal, variety in its shape. In man it is circular; in the lion, tiger, and indeed all the cat-kind, it is oblong ; transverse in the horse and in ruminating animals; and heart-shaped in the dolphin. In man and the monkey tribes, the eyes are placed directly under the forehead; in other mammals, birds and reptiles, more or less laterally; in some fishes, as the genus pleuronectus, including the turbot and flounder tribes, both eyes are placed on the same side of the head : in the snail they are situated on its horns, if the black points on the extremities of the horns of this worm be real eyes, of which, however, there is some doubt; in spiders the eyes are distributed over different parts of the body, and in different arrangements, usually eight in number, and 1 over less than six. The eyes of the sepia have lately n detected by M. Cuvier: their construction is very beautiful, and nearly as complicated as that of vertebra

ted animals.” . Polypes and several other zoohpyites appear sensible of the presence of light, and yet have no eyes; as the nostrils are not in every animal necessary to the sense of smell, the tongue to that of taste, or the ears to that of sound. A distinct organ is not alway requisite for a distinct sense. In man himself we have already seen this in regard to the sense of touch, which exists both locally and generally: the distinct organ of touch is the tips of the tongue and of the fingers, but the feeling is also dissused, though in a subordinate and less precise degree, over every part of the body. It is possible, therefore, in animals that appear endowed with particular senses, without particular organs for their residence, that these senses are diffused, like that of touch, over the surface generally ; though there can be no doubt that, for want of such appropriate organs, they must be less acute and precise than in animals that possess them.t But who of us can say what is possible 4 who of us can say what has actually been done After all the assiduity with which this attractive science has been studied, from the time of Aristotle to that of Lucretius, or of Pliny, and from these periods to the present day,+after all the wonderful and important discoveries which have been developed in it, natural history is even yet but little more than in its infancy, and zoonomy is scarcely entitled to the name of a science in any sense. New varieties and species, and even kinds of beings, are still arising to our view among animals, among vegetables, among minerals:— new structures are detecting in those already known, and new laws in the application of their respective powers. But the globe has been upturned from its foundation; and with the wreck of a great part of its substance has intermingled the wreck of a great part of its inhabitants. It is a most extraordinary fact, that of the five or six distinct layers or strata of which the solid crust of the earth is found to consist, so far as it has ever been dug into, the lowermost, or granitie, as we observed on a former occasion,t contains not a particle of animal or vegetable materials of any kind; the second, or transition formation, as Werner has denominated it, is filled indeed with fossil relics of animals, but of animals not one of which is to be traced in a living state in the present day; and it is not till we ascend to the third, or floetz stratification, that we meet with a single organic remain of known animal structures. M. Cuvier has been engaged for the last fifteen years in forming a classification, and establishing a museum of non-descript animal fossils, for the purpose of deciding, as far as may be, the general nature and proportion of those tribes that are now lost to the world: and in the department of quadrupeds alone, his collection of unknown species amounted in the year 1810 to not less than seventyeight, some of which he has been obliged to arrange under new genera. In the new and untried soil of America, the bones of unknown kinds and species lie buried in profusion; and my late friend, Professor Barton, of Philadelphia, one of our first transatlantic physiologists, informed me by letter a short time before his death, that they are perpetually turning up skeletons of this description, whose living representatives are nowhere to be met with. In few words, every region has ben enriched with wonders of animal life that have long been extinct for ever.

*Le Regne Animale d’stribue d'apres son Organization, 4 tomes

8vo. Paris, 1817. . - -
+Study of Med. vol. iv. p. 14, 2d edit. 1825
t Series i. Lecture vi. 69.

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Where is low that enorm us mammoth whose bulk outrivalled the elephant's 1 where is that gigantic tapir of a structure nearly as mountainous, whose huge skeleton has been found in a fossil state in France and Germany; while its only living type, a pigmy of what has departed, exists in the wilds of America; where is now the breathing form of the fossil sloth of America, the megalonix of Cuvier, whose size meted that of the ox! where the mighty moniter, outstripping the lengthened bulk of the crocodile ! itself, too, a lord of the ocean, and yet, whose only relics have been traced in the quarries of Maestricht; to which, as to another leviathan, we may well apply the forcible description of the Book of Job; “at whose appearing the mighty were afraid, and who made the deep to boil as a cauldron : who esteemed iron as straw, and brass as rotten

wood; who had not his like upon earth, and was a king ||

amid the children of pride.” Over this recondite and bewildering subject sceptics have laughed and critics have puzzled themselves; it is natural history alone that can find us a clue to the labyrinth that enables us to repose faith in the records of antiquity,

and that establishes the important position, that the extra

vagance of a description is no argument against the truth of a description, and that it is somewhat too much to deny that a thing existed formerly, for the mere reason that it does not exist now.



[From Good's Book of Nature.]


Now, admitting the affirmative of this question, we have a right to expect that the language of a people will always be found commensurate with their civilization; that it will hold an exact and even pace with their degree of ignorance, as well as with their degree of improvemeut. It so happens, however, that although language, whatever be its origin, is the most difficult art or science in the world (if an art or science at all,) it is the art or science in which savages of all kinds exhibit more proficiency than in any other. No circumnavigator has ever found them deficient in this respect, even where they have been wofully deficient in every thing else; and while they have betrayed the grossest ignorance in regard to the simplest toys, baubles, and implements of European manufacture, there has been no difficulty, as soon as their language has been, I will not say acquired, but even dipped into, of explaining to them the different uses and intentions of these articles in their own terms.

Again, there is in all the languages of the earth a general unity of principle, which evidently bespeaks a general unity of origin; a family character and likeness which cannot possibly be the effect of accident. The common divisions and rules of one language are the common divisions and rules of the whole; and hence, every national grammar is, in a certain sense, and to a certain extent, a universal grammar; and the man who has learned one foreign tongue, has imperceptibly made some progress towards a knowledge of other tongues. In all countries, and in all languages, there is only one and the same set of articulations, or at least the differences are so few, that they can scarcely interfere with the generality of the assertion ; for diversities of language consist not in different sets of articulations, but only in a difference of their combinations and applications. No people have ever been found so barbarous as to be without articulate sounds, and no people so refined and fastidious as to have a desire of adding to the common stock.

But, independently of a uniform circle of articulations, and a uniform system of grammar, there is also a uniform use of the very same terms, in a great variety of languages, to express the very same ideas; which, as it appears tone, cannot possibly be accounted for except upon the principle of one common origin and mother-tongue; and I

now allude more particularly to those kinds of terms which under every change of time, and every variety of climate, or of moral or political fortune, might be most readily expected to maintain an immutability; as those, for example, of family relationship and patriarchal respect; or descriptive of such other ideas as cannot but have occurred to the mind very generally; as those of earth, sky, death, Deity. I shall beg leave to detain you while I offer a few examples. In our own language we have two common etymons, or generic terms, by which to describe the paternal character papa and father; both are as common to the Greek tongue as to our own, under the forms of rzrras and rath? and have probably alike issued from the Hebrew source-N or Nox, pl. n=N. And I may fearlessly venture to affirm that there is scarcely a language or dialect in the world, polished or barbarous, continental or insular, employed by blacks or whites, in which the same idea is not expressed by the radical of the one or the other of these terms; both of which have been employed from the beginning of time in the same quarter of the globe, and naturally direct us to one common spot, where man must first have existed, and whence alone he could have branched out. The term father is still to be found in the Sanscrit, and has descended to ourselves, as well as to almost every other nation in Europe, through the medium of the Greek, Gothic, and Latin. Papa is still more obviously a genuine Hebrew term; and while it maintains a range almost as extensive as the former throughout Europe, it has an incalculably wider spread over Asia, Asrica, and the most barbarous islands of the Pacific, and extends from Egypt to Guinea, and from Bengal to Sumatra and New-Zealand. The etymons for son are somewhat more numerous than those for father, but the one or the other of them may be traced almost as extensively; as may the words, brother, sister, and even daughter; which last, branching out like the term father, from the Sanscrit extends northward as far as Scandinavia. The generic terms for the Deity are chiefly the three following, Al or Allah, Theus or Deus, and God. The first is Hebrew, the second Sanscrit, the third Persian, and was probably Palavi or ancient Persian. And besides these, there is scarcely a term of any kind by which the Deity is designated in any part of the world, whether among civilized or savage man. And yet these also proceed from the same common quarter of the globe, and distinctly point out to us the same original cradle for the human race as the preceding terms. Among the barbarians of the Philippine Islands, the word is Allatallah, obviously “the God of gods,” or supreme God; and it is the very same term, with the very same duplicate, in Sumatra. In the former islands, I will just observe, also, as we proceed, that we meet with the terms, malahet for a spirit, which is both direct Hebrew and Arabic ; is and qua, one, two, which are Sanscrit and Greek; tambor, a drum, which is also Sauscrit: and inferno, hell, a Latin compound, of Pelasgic or other oriental origin. In the Friendly and other clusters of the Polynesian Islands, the term for God is Tooa, and in New-Guinea, or Papuan, Dewa, both obviously from the Sanscrit; whence Eatooad among the former is God the spirit, or the Divine spirit; Ea meaning a spirit in these Islands. And having thus appropriated the Sanscrit radical to signify the Deity, they apply the Hebrew El, as the Pelasgians and the Greeks did, to denote the sun, or the most glorious image of the Deity; whence, el-langee means the sky, or sun's residence, and papa ellangee or papa langee, fathers of the sky, or “spirits.” Allow me to offer you another instance or two. The more common etymon for death, among all nations is mor, mort, or mut; sometimes the r, and sometimes the t, being dropped in the carelessness of speech. It is mut in Hebrew and Phoenician; it is mor, or mort, in Sanscrit, Persian, Greek, and Latin ; it is the same in almost all the languages of Europe; and it was with no small astonishment, the learned lately found out that it is the same also in Otaheite, and some other of the Polynesian Islands, in whir'

mor-ai, is well known to signify a sepulchre; literally,

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RUINS OF AN ANCIENT AMERICAN CITY. CoNTINUEd. It is by no means improbable that these fantastic forms, and others equally whimsical, were the delineations of some of their deities, to whom they paid an idolatrous worship, consistent with their false belief and barbarous CustomS. We know that the Romans portrayed Jupiter crowned with laurel, the visage presenting mature age, having a long beard and a terrible aspect; and a similar cast of countenance in these representations leads one to reflect on a sameness of manners and religion, as the particular traits in the two heads are alike, with the exception of those advantages conveyed to a bust by Roman sculpture, the rinciples of which this people could have attained but imperfectly, although they might have imbibed some ideas from their conquerors, or from other intermediate nations, the common result of conquest in all ages. Proceeding in the same direction, there is another court similar in length to the last, but not so broad, having a assage round it that communicated with the opposite side; in this passage there are two chambers like those abovementioned, and an interior gallery looking on one side upon the court-yard, and commanding on the other a view of the open country. In this part of the edifice some pillars yet remain on which are the relievos shown in figs. 8, 9, 10, and 11 : they apparently represent a mournful subject, alluding, no doubt, to the sacrifice of some wretched Indian, the destined victim of a sanguinary religion. To convey a satisfactory idea of the stucco used in forming these, as well as the other medio relievos, and in order to afford a clear notion of the ability possessed by the ancient inhabitants in the art of sculpture, I have transported from this chamber the head of the sufferer, fig. 8, and the foot and leg of the executioner or sacrificer, fig. 11, which pieces are numbered 4 and 5, in order to distinguish them. Returning by the south side, the tower, delineated in fig. 12 presents itself to notice: its height is sixteen yards, and to the four existing stories of the building was perhaps added a fifth with a cupola, which, in all probability, it once possessed: although these piles diminish in size and are without ornament, as by the drawing will appear, yet the design of them is singular and very ingenious. This tower has a well imitated artificial entrance, as was clearly proved by making an horizontal excavation of more than three yards, which I wished to carry quite through the edifice, but was forced to desist from the operation, as the stones and earth slipped down in large quantities from the pressure of the solid body A B C, that passes through the centre. This, upon inspection, proved to be an interior tower, quite plain, with windows fronting the former, and gives light to the steps, by which you are enabled to ascend to its summit, from whence it appears obvious that the entrance must have been on the north side, though I did not identify the fact, being unwilling to lose time in removing the accumulated heaps of rubbish, sand, and small stones by which it is concealed. Behind the four chambers already mentioned, there are two others of larger dimensions, very well ornamented in the rude Indian style, and which appear to have been used as oratories. Among the embellishments are some enamelled stuccos, (see figs. 13 and 14;) the Grecian heads represent sacred objects to which they addressed their devotions and made their offerings, probably consisting of strings of jewels, as the attitudes of the statues placed on the sides denote. Beyond

these oratories, and extending from north to south, there

are two apartments each twenty-seven yards long by little more than three broad; they contain nothing worthy of notice, excepting a stone of an elliptical form, imbedded in the wall, about a yard above the pavement, the height of which is one yard and a quarter, and the breadth one ward. y (a.)—Fig. 15 exhibits what seems to have been one of their gods sitting sideways on an animal as delineated in the sketch: to judge from the way in which the ancients used to indicate the same subject, this may be supposed to represent a river god. Father Jacito Garrido, a dominican friar, a native of Hueste in Spain, who visited this province in 1638, where he taught theology, and was well versed in the Hebrew, Greek, and Latin languages, together with three of the native dialects, as well as arithmetic, cosmography and music, has left a Latin manuscript, in which he states it as his opinion, that the northern parts of America had been discovered by the Greeks, English, and other nations; a supposition he deduces from the variety of their idioms, as well as some monuments existing in the village of Ocojingo, situated twenty-four leagues from Palenque; but as his narrative affords no circumstance worthy of attention respecting these ruins, I have in consequence refrained from inserting any extracts. If, instead of his mere conjectures, this reverend writer had endeavored to define the period when these alleged strangers arrived, the duration of their stay, and their final departure from the southern regions, we might perhaps, from knowing their customs and religion, have been put into possession of some clue whereby a solution .." this problem might have been effected. (b.)—But to resume my narrative: below the elliptical stone above described, there is a plain rectangular block, more than two yards long by one yard and seven inches thick, placed upon four feet in form of a table, with a figure in bas-relief in the attitude of supporting it. Fig. 16 represents one of these feet, and no. 6 is the original, which I despatch, in order that the bas-relief may be the more easily understood, as well as to give a specimen of the progress of the natives in this branch of sculpture, so very prevalent on all the stones, although displaying no variety of subject or difference either in the quality or style of the execution. Should government at any time judge it expedient to have any of these specimens deposited in the royal cabinet, the removal may be effected without more expense than that of transporting them from Cadiz to Madrid, because the Indians will undertake the charge of embarking them on board the king's lighter, in the roads of Catajasa, only six leagues distant from Palenque, in which they may be conveyed by the lake Jerminos or by the district of Carmen to Vera Cruz or Campeachy, and thence transported on board the first of his Majesty's ships, sailing from either of these ports for Europe. The well known protection which our beneficent and beloved Monarch displays respecting every thing that relates to arts and ancient history, warrants a belief that this removal would be effected, were any gentleman animated enough to represent to his Majesty, through the medium of his zealous and enlightened minister of the Indies, how greatly the glory of the Spanish arms would be exalted, and what credit would accrue to the national refinement, so superior to the notions of the Indians, in becoming possessed of these truly interesting and valuable remnants of the remotest antiquity. Fig. I7 exhibits characters or symbols that adorn the edges of the table; they must have had a determinate signification in the language of the original natives, as they are frequently found on stones and stuccos, though their use, value and meaning are altogether unknown. At the extremity of the last mentioned apartment, and on a level with the pavement, there is an aperture, like a hatchway, two yards long and more than one broad, leading to a subterranean passage by a flight of steps, which at a regular distance forms flats or landings, each having its respective door-way, ornamented in the front after the manner described in fig. 18.

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