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charge Calvinists with making the term all mean part. They say that Christ died for all mankind, and that Calvinists hold that he died only for the elect; and that as these same Calvinists profess to deduce their doctrine from the Bible, it must be that they make the term all spell part. Lorenzo Dow, catching at this idea, invented a compound term to express it, viz. Adouble-L-part, that is, A-ll, pronounced part ; as if one were to spell the word all, and pronounce it part. At one place where he was permitted to lodge, the mistress of the house, while he was asleep, sent round the neighbourhood, to notify the people that a horse thief was at her house, and that if they did not lock up their horses, they must expect one to be gone before morning. Speaking of a sermon of his in Nashville, Tenn. he says: “The grog-house in Nashville would not contain the people, and somebody prepared the market-house for me; and I spoke, and described the characters of a Christian, a gentleman, and the filth of the earth, which were the subjects of my discourse; and some, .# of coming under the class of filth, behaved well.” In one place, he took his text from the Age of Reason. Some, supposing him to be a Deist, retired before he had an opportunity to explain himself; which they afterwards regretted. He describes his condition, while out on one of his missions, as follows:– “I had no stockings, shoes, nor moccasins, for the last several hundred miles; no outer garment, having sold my cloak in West Florida; my coat and vest were worn through to my shirt; my hat case and umbrella were spoiled by prongs of trees, whilst riding in the woods. Thus, with decency I was scarce able to get back to my friends as I would. It is true, I had many pounds and handsome presents offered me in my journey, but I could not feel freedom to receive them, only just what would serve my present necessity, to get along to my appointments, as I was such a stranger in the country, and so many to watch me (as an impostor) for evil, and but few to lift up my hands for good.” It would seem that this individual, notwithstanding all his eccentricities, received a recommendation as a preacher of the gospel to the world of mankind, signed by the governor, secretary, and twenty-eight members of the legislature of the state of Georgia. At the commencement of one of his meetings, he says: “Finding the people talkative, I got on a table by a porch, out of doors, in the dark, unseen, and with a stamp as if I would have stove the table through and clapping my hands at the same instant with aii my might, I cried with exertion, ‘Hush ' which caused a solemn silence amongst the people, and then began meeting.” His courtship and marriage were perfectly characteristic, and are related in his journal as follows: “I was resolved when I began to travel, that no created object should be the means of rivalling my God, and of course not to alter the situation of my life, unless a way seemed to open in the way of Providence, whereby } might judge that my extensive usefulness should be extended rather than contracted. {{ M—, of Western, came to a big meeting in the woods, and heard that Crazy Dow was there, and after some time sought and found me. He accompanied me to my appointments, consisting of about one hundred miles to travel. He kept what some would call a Methodist tavern, i. e. a house for the preachers, &c. One of my appointments being near his house, he invited me to tarry all night; observing his daughter would be glad to see me. I asked if he had any children : he replied, a young woman I brought up I call my daughter. I staid all night, but so it happened that not a word passed between her and me, though there were but three in the family. I went to my appointments, where we had a precious time; but whilst preaching, I felt un

common exercise (known only to myself and my God) to run through my mind, which caused me to pause for some time. In going to my evening appointment, I had to return by the house, he being still in company with me. I asked him if he would object if I should talk to his daughter concerning matrimony ? he replied, ‘I have nothing to say, only I have requested her, if she had any regard for me, not to marry so as to leave my house.’

“When I got to the door, I abruptly asked his wife who had been there, and what they had been about in my absence: she told me, which made way for her to observe, that Peggy was resolved never to marry unless it were to a preacher, and one who would continue travelling.—This resolution being similar to my own, as she then stepped into the room, caused me to ask if it were so 7 she answered in the affirmative; on the back of which I replied, do you think you could accept of such an object as me? she made no answer, but retired from the room; this was the first time of my speaking to her. I took dinner; asked her one question onore and went to my neighbouring meetings, which occupied some days; but having a cloak making, of oiled cloth, it drew me back to it: I staid all night, and in the morning, when going away, I observed to her and her sister, who brought her up as a mother that I was going to the warm countries, where I ha never spent a warm season, and it was probable I should die, as the warm climate destroys most of those who go from a cold country; but (said I) if I am preserved about a year and a half from now, I am in hopes of seeing this northern country again, and if during this time you live and remain single, and find no one that you like better than you do me, and would be willing to give me up twelve months out of thirteen, or three years out of four to travel, and that in foreign lands, and never say, do not go to your appointments, &c. For if you should stand in my way, I should pray to God to remove you, which I believe he would answer, and if I find no one that I like better than I do you, perhaps something further may be said on the subject; and finding her character to stand fair, I took my departure. In my travels I went to the Natchez country, where I found religion low, and had hard times, but thought this country one day would be the garden of America, and if this family would remove there, it would prove an everlasting blessing (as it respects religion) to the inhabitants, considering their infant state. It lay on my mind for some weeks, when I wrote to them on the subject, though I had no outward reason to suppose they would go, considering the vast distance of near two thousand miles. But now I found she was still single, and they all willing to comply with my request, which removed many scruples from my mind, knowing that it was a circumstance that turned up in the order of Providence, instead of by my own seeking; so our bargain was drawn to a close, but still I thought not to have the ceremony performed until I should return from Europe; but upon reflection, considering the circumstance would require a correspondence, my letters might be intercepted, and the subject known; prejudice arise, jealousy ensue, and much needless conversation and evil be the result; wherefore to prevent the same, a preacher coming in, we were married that night, though only we five were present, this being the third of September, 1804.

[To be continued.)

From the Canton Register of April 13, 1833. PROCLAMATION OF CHOO, l THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR OF CANTON.

Choo-an attendant Officer of the Military Board; a Member of the Court of Universal Examiners; an Imperial Historiographer and Censor; Patrolling Spother of Çanton; a Guide of Military Affairs; and Comptroller of the Taxes—

Hereby issues a proclamation for the purpose of correcting public morals, and delivering strict admonitory orders. In the act of government, moral instructions and the infliction of punishment are mutually assisting. But punishment should come after the act; instructions should go before. That neither should be neglected has long been decided.


Two years have elapsed since my arrival at my offcial station in Canton, and I have observed the multitudinous robberies and thefts therein. Streets and lanes are never tranquil. Daily have I led the local officers to search and seize, so that we have not had strength for anything else; but the spirit of robbery has not, even till now, ceased. This has arisen from my defective virtue; the smallness of my ability; and the inequality in my conduct of majesty and mercy. I feel ashamed of myself.

Since I, the Soother of the people, came to my present

office, I have for two years observed and investigated the state of things among the people at Canton. I have looked at their airs, and enquired about the customs. I have secretly indulged intense sorrow, and been filled with extreme regret. And for nothing more than to see useful property thrown away on useless purposes: to see limited strength wasted on projects from which no benefit could accrue. In country places, the lasting occupations of husbandry and mulberry culture are still attended to with a spirit approaching to simplicity; but in the town of Canton, at Fun-shan, and at all the places where markets are held and official people live, there is a strife and emulation to exceed in gaiety and extravagance. At every anniversary of the birth-day of a god; or when plays are performed at masses for departed shades; or thanksgivings given for divine energies exerted in behalf of any one; or grateful processions with prayers are carried round—all of which are what propriety does not interdict—but every one wants to boast of much, and to fight for great expense; one imitates another, and in worse degree. Some even go the extreme of erecting lofty and variegated pavilions; and for a great distance rearing flowery palaces. Fire trees and silver flowers fill the streets and stop the lanes. Men and women assemble promiscuously, greatly to the detriment of the public manner. The sums expended must be reckoned by thousands and tens of thousands. And in a few days, the whole is of no more use than mud and sand, and is thrown away like a child’s grass dog. I, the Lieutenant-Governor, am in my own person economical and simple, that I may be an example to the people. . It is my sincere desire to make my nursing consist in giving no trouble, and to teach by my own mode of living. This is what you learned gentry and common people know, and all have seen. Hereafter, when any anniversary of a god's birthday occurs, there is no objection to your going to a temple to suspend lanterns, and hang up ornaments, offering sacrifices with abundance and cleanliness. But as to the street exhibitions, you must not listen to the vagabonds who make pretexts to collect money, and gather together men and women promiscuously. If such people assemble, the district constables and street seniors must be responsible. The learned gentry are permitted to proceed summarily, and report them to the local magistrate for punishment—to pull back again the people from the regions of sterile custom. These said learned gentry also should substantiate the wish of me, the o to correct the people, and instruct them in morals; should advise them to substitute plainness for extravagance, and by economy nourish wealth; so that the people of a year of plenty may so hoard that plentiful year's wealth, that the people of a year of scarcity may look up to a year of plenty’s accumulation. Would not this be beautiful! Ah! government love to the people is not so good as the people's love for themselves! but love and compassionate their own persons and families, where would be the occasion of their waiting till other persons laid plans for them And if reciprocally

Would the people :

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One Dollar and o Cents per annum, payable in advance. Should an order for the Magazine be received unaccompanied by advance payment, one number will be sent showing our terms, after which no more will be forwarded till payment shall have been received. Companies of four individuals sending Five Dollars, current here, free of postage, will be furnished with four copies for one year. , Companies of ten, sending Ten Dollars as above, will be furnished with ten copies. Companies that would avail themselves of the discount mentioned in Qur, terms, must not expect an agent to be at the trouble of looking up the individuals to form said companies, but they must take that upon themselves. As the sum of $1 50, which is the price of the Magazine to a single subscriber, cannot conveniently be sent by mail, it will be |...}} that two subscribers at least send payment in a letter together. # of Schools adopting as many as half a dozen copies of the Magazine, as a class book, will be supplied at One Dollar per annum for each copy. - Subscribers are not permitted to commence with the latter part of a volume, but are required to take the back numbers of said volume. They are further required to take at least one volume complete. Whenever there is any delay in forwarding to them the }. numbers, it may be understood that we have them not on hand at the time, but that, as the numbers aro all overco:yped, they will be reprinted and sent.

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In another place, Calmet introduces this passage of Diodorus more in detail, saying, that the Phoenicians having returned from the island, so highly extolled its beauty and opulence as to inspire the Romans with a desire of making themselves masters of it and settling a colony there. This perplexed the Carthagenians, who began to fear their countrymen would be enamoured of a fertility so much praised, and abandon their native soil to settle there. They viewed it, on the other hand, as a safe refuge in the event of any unforeseen calamity, or if their Republic in Africa should fall, to which, as being masters of the sea, they could easily retire to secure themselves and families, more especially as the region was unknown to other nations. Aristotle, continues Calmet, in his book of wonderful things, speaking of this island, says, the Magistrates of Carthage having observed that many of their citizens who had undertaken the voyage thither had not returned, prohibited, under the penalty of capital punishment, any further emigration, and ordered those who had remained there to return to their country, fearing that as soon as the aflair should be known, other nations would endeavour to establish there a peaceable commerce. The other voyage in the Atlantic spoken of by Calmet was anterior to the preceding, and is that attributed to Hercules, who is the supposed author of the Gaditanian columns, and whom Galleo ranks as contemporary with Moses, and chief of the Canaanites who left Palestine on the invasion of Joshua: this hero had the surname Magusanus, derived from the Chaldean word Gouz, signifying to scratch, and by metaphor to pass, from which root, ships and fords of rivers are called Megizze in the Chaldaic idiom ; of his sea voyages, there existed a vestige in the town of West Cappell in the island of Walcherene; it was the painting of a ship and her captain, who was represented at an advanced age, the forepart of his head bald, and his face tanned by the sun; he was worshipped as a deity at a temple in the same town, and sacrifices, according to the Phoenician rites, were offered to him. There were many other heroes of this name: but no writer has decided whether to Magusanus or one of his descendants, or whether to a Phoenician distinguished by the same appellation, we are to attribute the navigation of the Atlantic. Certain, however, it is, that Diodorus speaks of a Hercules who sailed round the world, and who founded the city of Lecta in Septimania; but no writer has pointed out its situation. With how much reason was the prize awarded to that young prince of the royal house of David who maintained, when disputing in the congress of wise men assembled by king Ahasuerus, that truth is the most irresistible gift that can be bestowed; for the power of the most absolute monarch, the stimulating effects of the most generous wine, or the transcendant charms of the most bewitching beauty, is not susliciently strong to subdue it. The coincidence in the memorials of the writers of the old continent, whom I have just mentioned, with

the tradition, as introduced in Montezuma's two discourses, that the Mexicans came originally from the east, with the narrative of Wotan, with the incidents commemorated by the medal, with the report of Captain del Rio, and with the figures of the ultramarine deities Isis and Osiris sketched by him in the temple of the Palencian city, form altogether such an irrefragable body of evidence as it is almost impossible to discredit. The revolution of ages has been the parent of an error among modern writers, and even rendered the truths of the more classic ancients problematical, because the latter have not been studied with sufficient care by their successors; but time itself now steps in to vindicate their credit, and becomes an incontrovertible evidence of the veracity of these slighted and discredited narratives. To connect the various incidents I have adduced, it will now be necessary to examine the periods of the events narrated, and inquire in which o the voyages already mentioned the population of America had its beginning; and in what part, and at what time, the ancestors of Wotan colonized it, and who these ancestors Were. The first voyage was that of Atlas. Atlas was the son of Japetus brother to Saturn, and cousin to Jupiter, who, in the war which the latter waged against his father Saturn and his uncles the Titans, made himself master of the frontiers of Africa; Atlas and Jupiter were therefore contemporaries; the reign of the latter is supposed by many ancient historians to have been coeval with that of Belus king of Assyria; but this supposition determines nothing with certainty, on account of the difficulty which exists in attempting to ascertain the precise epoch when the Assyrian empire commenced. The Abbe Lenglet, after much research, decides it to have been one thousand eight hundred years prior to the Christian aera. See his work, 8vo. edit. tom II, chap. 12. Neither from Atlas, then, nor from any of his posterity, could Votan derive his origin, for this reason, among many others that I omit in order to avoid fatiguing the reader, that the Atlantides were not of the race of the Culebras. Votan’s family must, therefore, be sought for among some of the maritime heroes of succeeding ages. It could not have been from any one of the Phoenicians in the second voyage that has been described, since they found large houses on the island, consequently it must have been peopled long before their arrival, and if we examine attentively the time at which this voyage could have been made, it will appear to be long subsequent to the periods of which Votan speaks in his history. At the time Diodorus alludes to, the Republic of Carthage was in the zenith of its splendour, for it was then able to intercept the expedition sent against the island by the Romans, with the intention of establishing their dominion in the same. This epoch must have been a little prior to the first Punic War; the commencement of |. kingdom of Amaguemecan was at some period during the progress of that contest; this kingdom was not however of long continuance, and its ruin gave rise to that of Tula. From the different epochs of the Punic wars, we may certainly perceive that they were ulterior to the time at which Votan says he undertook his voyages to the old continent, and much more recent than the period when the first American colony was settled by the grand-father of Wotan, as well as many ages posterior to the foundation of the kingdom of Amaguemecan, which, as I have before observed, are the points we must now consider. We will therefore commence by enquiring who was Votan’s grand-father 2 Sallust, quoted by Calmet, in his commentary on the Jugurthine war, states, in the history of the kingdom of Numidia, written in the Punic language, that he had read an African tradition of the arrival in that country of Hercules Tyrius or Lybius, with an army of Medes, Persians, and Armenians; these soldiers married Lybian women, and their language imperceptibly degenerating from its original purity, in process of time they lost the name of Medes and Armenians, and at last, by an astonishing corruption of these words, were called Mauricii or Moors. Hornicus, in his commentary upon this passage of Sallust, relying on the authority of Pausanius, says, that the true name of this Hercules was Macerim, which he supposes to be derived from the Phoenician or Hebrew word mechoer, meaning wise, desirous o knowledge, or investigator. Sallust, from not being well informed in the affairs of the Canaanites, may very probably have confounded the names of the Arabians, !. rians or Amorites, conducted by Hercules; so that the Armenians the Amorites, may have been the Mauricii, or Madianites the Medes, and the Pheresians the Persians. The opinion, says Calmet, of such authors as conceive that the major part of the Canaanites, after being driven from Palestine, occupied the coast of Africa, is neither new nor doubtful; it is confirmed by ancient names, such as Ardanes, Pona, Leptis, Utica, Tangier, and others, which are all of Phoenician origin; and in the time of Saint Augustine these people still retained some record of having originally been Canaanites; for, he says, in his exposition of Saint Paul's epistle to the Romans, when interrogating the country people concerning their origin, they replied in the Punic tongue, that they were Canaanites. To this we may add, that modern critics acknowledge an affinity between the Punic and Canaanite languages; that the places mentioned have Phoenician appellations; the name of Carthage is Phoenician, and so for instance is that of the Canary islands, so called from their inhabitants having been Canaanites, and giving this name generally, while Hornius speaking of Gomera, one of these islands, supposes it to have been peopled by the Amorites. More credit must be ascribed to Votan, who makes the people of the same race as himself, viz. of the Culebras, and consequently Hivites; these islands are thirteen in number, and it can scarcely be doubted that they are the thirteen houses of the Culebras which he speaks of having visited in his voyages: it is also as little to be disputed that in these islands, as well as throughout all the coast, the race of Canaan was found to be mixed with the Hivites. The bird noticed in the Itinerary by Gemelli, shows the course which the Hivites took in their route to these islands; but the arm of the sea observed by Torquemada in all the paintings of the same document, is not, and indeed cannot be, the Rio Colorada (red river) as Claviger and other authors have imagined, whose waters fall into the bay of California, which is the most considerable of all those northward of Mexico, from whence it is pretended those nations came who first peopled the continent, as it evidently represents that part of the Atlantic between the Canaries and America. , See Torquemada and Claviger in their second volumes. All that has been advanced will prove Hercules Tyrius to have been a different person from Magusanus, and subsequent to him; the latter, as Lenglet, under: stands, was Ethens, a contemporary of Moses, and the former a Hivite, from being a Tyrian; it has equally,

been proved that the Hivites founded the kingdom of Tyre, and what Sallust relates convinces us, in all its circumstances, that the irruption of this Hercules was many ages after that of Magusanus. Wotan declares himself to be the third of the Wotans; Sallust affirms that the soldiers of Hercules Tyrius and their wives spoke the African language, but sensibly degenerated from its ancient purity. Diodorus asserts that one Hercules navigated the whole circuit of the earth, and built the city of Alecta in Septimania. All these circumstances, in conjunction with what I have already stated, induce me, and will lead any erudite examiner to conclude, with every appearance of probability, that Hercules Tyrius was the progenitor of Votan, that Septimania is, beyond a doubt, the island Atlantis or Hispaniola, that the city of Alecta was Valum Votan, capital of the same island from whence Votan embarked his first colony to people the continent of America, and whither he departed for the countries on the old hemisphere. I am confirmed in my selection of this island from among the many dispersed throughout the Atlantic, not only on account of its position and magnitude exceeding all the others, but also, from its fertility and numerous navigable rivers, and chiefly from its having been the island of the Olmeca nations. In the Mexican tradition, which has been adopted by many eminent authors, (Siguenza and Boturini among others,) it was consid. ered certain, that the Olmecas arrived at this island from the eastward, and crossed from thence to the continent. Boturini, however, is of opinion, that when the Olmecas were driven from their country, they proceeded to the Antilles Island, and thence to the southern part of America; this may have been the fact with part of that nation when the kingdom of Amaguemecan was destroyed, without being repugnant to the idea that the portion of that race which remained on Terra Fir. ma may have penetrated further into the continent, an' shared in the adversities of the other nations expelled from the same kingdom. I refer the reader to what father Jumilla says on the subject in his “Orinoco Illustrated” respecting those nations that retained the tradition of their having left the island of Hispaniola in order to take possession of those countries. If what has been adduced be combined with the points of history I have extracted from writers of both hemispheres, it will not be difficult to fix the epoch in which Hercules Tyrius lived, and founded the first town in America; that in which his grandson Votan lived; of his voyages to the old continent; of his arrival there from America; of the Phoenician ship driven ashore by the tempest; of the transport of the Carthagenian colony to America; of the prohibitory decree inflicting capital punishment on any of their subjects who should proceed thither, and the recalling of such as had already emigrated; of the periods of the foundation and ruin of Amaguemecan; of the circumstances which caused that event, and, as connected with it, the beginning of the kingdom of the Tultecas. Admitting, then, that Votan was the third of his race, and supposing thirty years to be allowed for each generation, Hercules Tyrius will appear to have lived ninety years before Votan. This period is not so definitively fixed but that the variation of thirty or forty years, more or less, may be admitted; “the error of a few years in the calculation of historical periods may be allowed, but the mistake of two or three centuries is not to be tolerated,” says Dionysius Halicarnassus; and the Abbe Lenglet conjectures, that by an age in chronology the space of thirty years is to be understood. Under such a supposition, the above period will correspond with three hundred and eighty-one years, a little more or less, before the Christian aera. The epoch of Votan’s voyage to the old continent may be decided with certainty, for, he says he was at Rome, and saw the great House of God building.

[To be continued.]




We present our readers with the form of an ancient book, as held with both hands by a young man, who is supposed to be reading it with great earnestness. It is probably meant for some serious, treatise. The form of the page and the direction of the separating column are distinctly marked, and clearly show that it was read down He narrow way of the roll, one end of the book being rolled inward and the other outward.

Several sorts of materials were anciently used in making books; plates of lead and copper, the barks of trees, bricks, stone, and wood, were the first materials employed to engrave those things upon which men desired to transmit to posterity. Josephus the Jewish historian speaks of two columns, one of brick, on which the children of Seth wrote or engraved their inventions and astronomical discoveries. Porphyry mentions some pillars preserved in Crete on which the sacrifices of the Corybantes were recorded. Hesiod's works were originally, written upon tables of lead; the laws of §. upon wooden planks; and the Ten Commandments upon stone. Tables of boxwood and ivory were common among the ancients. The leaves of the palm tree were afterwards used instead of wooden tablets, together with the finest and thinnest part of the bark of trees, such as the lime, the ash, the maple, and the elm; and as these barks were rolled up in order to be removed with greater ease, the rolls were called rolumina, or volumes, a name afterwards generally applied to rolls of paper or parchment. Varro says, that “at the time Alexander built Alexandria in Fgypt, the use of the papyrus for writing on was first found out in that country.” The papyrus is a vegetable production; a kind of great bulrush; growing in the marshes of the Nile. It is a triangular stalk, fifteen feet high, and a foot and a half in circumference. When the outer coat is taken off, there are several other coats. Two

of these coats were attached together by some glutinous

substance, after having been stripped from the stalk, and were then used as paper by o: ancients; one coat being too slender for this purpose; and it is from this,

a very natural transition, that the term paper is derived. any other devices were used in former times, to contrive suitable materials for writing. Pliny tells us, Book 13. Chap. 11, that the most ancient way of

writing was upon the leaves of the palm tree. Afterwards they made use of the inner bark of a tree for this purpose; which inner bark being in Latin called Liber, and in Greek Biblos, from hence a book hath ever since in the Latin tongue been called Liber, and in the Greek Biblos, because their books anciently consisted of leaves made of such inner barks. He likewise mentions another ancient mode of writing among the Greeks and Romans, viz. on tables of wood covered with wax, with a bodkin or style of iron, with which they engraved their letters on the wax. Hence the term style in writing. This mode was mostly made use of in writing letters; hence the Latin %. Tables. But on the invention of the Egyptian papyrus for this use, all the other ways of writing were soon superseded, no material till then invented being more convenient to write upon than this. And therefore, when Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, undertook to establish a great library, and to gather all sorts of books into it, he caused them to be all copied out on this sort of paper. Diodorus Siculus says, that the Persians of old wrote all their records on skins, which, when thus used, were at length, in the time of Eumanes, denominated parchment. Herodotus tells us of sheep-skins and goat-skins, made use of in writing by the ancient Ionians, many hundreds of years before the use of papyrus. Most of the ancient manuscripts that have descended to us, including those of the Old Testament, are written on parchment. These manuscripts of the Old Testament are the rolled, which are used in synagogues, and the square, which are used by private individuals.

The other figure represents an ancient inkstand and pen. The inkstand consists of two parts, one for red and the other for black ink; one of which is shut and the other open. The pen is a reed of considerable length and magnitude. Whether the bands round it are merely joints of the reed, or something added to strengthen it, is not certain, but probably the latter. The reader should be informed, that these representations are copied from some ancient pictures dug out of the ruins of Herculaneum, a once famous city of Italy, which was destroyed by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A. D. 79.

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