Page images

two passages, the North-West and the Polar; remarking on the obstacles that have frustrated their accomplishment, and the disiderata yet remaining for that purpose. OBSTACLES TO THE ACCOMPLISHMENT OF THE NORTH-WEST PASSAGE. The difficulties which impede the navigation of the Arctic Seas, arise, as we have before observed, from the extreme cold to which their high latitude exposes them. Owing to the spherical form of the earth's surface, and the obliquity of its axis, the sun is, for a considerable portion of the year, entirely withdrawn from these regions, Throughout this long and dreary night, an intense frost prevails. As early as the month of August, snow begins to fall; a rapid formation of ice ensues; along the shores and bays, the fresh water, poured from rivulets, or drained from the thawing of former collections of snow, becomes quickly congealed; the surface of the sea is spread over with ice, and its waters are firmly bound up into one solid mass. The gloomy darkness of impenetrable winter now reigns throughout; occasionally, indeed, relieved or aggravated by the moon's feeble rays. At length the sun re-appears, but it is long before his faint and languid beams impart much warmth to the dreary waste. Gradually, however, their power increases; the snow begins to melt, the ice slowly dissolves, and the ocean is once again set free. The massy sheet which its surface lately formed is now broken into a thousand fragments, of various size and thickness: these, impelled by the violence of winds and currents, are dispersed in all directions, sometimes meeting with fearful shock, and shivering each other into atoms. This disruption of the ice generally happens about the month of June; and a few weeks are commonly sufficient to disperse the floating fields. The sea is at last open, for a short and dubious interval, to the pursuits of the adventurous seaman; but the navigation is accomplished only with great difficulty to him, and at the imminent hazard of his being crushed by these floating fields of ice. Another obstacle not less formidable impedes his progress; namely, the icebergs, or insulated mountains of ice, which float like lofty towers upon the ocean, threatening to overwhelm with instant destruction the frail bark that sails beneath. These are formed by the congelation of the fresh water that pours annually into the ocean, and are collected along the indented shores and in the deep bays enclosed by precipitous rocks. Every successive year adds to their size, till at length, by the action of their own accumulated weight, and the undermining of the sea, the enormous blocks are broken off, and precipitated into the ocean below. These mountains of hard and perfect ice are probably the gradual production of many years. Their substance is clear, compact, and solid; and their tint of a fine green, verging to blue. Its clearness is generally interrupted by numerous small air bubbles; but large pieces may be occasionally obtained possessing a degree of purity and transparency equal to that of the most beautiful crystal. Captain Scoresby states, that with a lump of ice of by no means regular convexity, used as a burning lens, he has frequently burnt wood, fired gunpowder, melted lead, and lit the sailors pipes, to their great astonishment; the ice itself remaining, in the mean while, quite firm and pellucid. The saltwater ice, on the other hand, is porous, incompact, and only imperfectly transparent, and is annually formed and destroyed. The appearance of a numerous collection of icebergs is described as interesting in the extreme. Along the western coast of Greenland, they form an immense rampart, which presents to the mariner a sublime spectaele, resembling at a distance whole groups of churches, mantling castles, or fleets under full sail. HISTORY TO THE CLOSE OF THE EIGHTEFNTH CENTURY. The first navigator whose efforts appear to have inspired a reasonable hope of finding the North-West Passage, was Gaspar de Cortereal, a Portuguese, who, in the year 1500, discovered the country called Labrador. Coasting thence to the northward, and reaching the wide opening

of Hudson's Strait, he concluded that he had found the so-much-desired passage into the Pacific, which he named the Strait of Anian. He returned to Portugal, and in the following year embarked on a second expedition, with two vessels; but having been separated from his consort by bad weather, he was never heard of more. His brother, Michael de Cortereal, who sailed in quest of him, shared a similar fate; and it was only the positive order of the king, Manuel, which restrained a third brother from continuing the fruitless search. The two Cabotas had previously engaged in the same enterprise; but their efforts had terminated only in the discovery of Newfoundland. Cortereal was succeeded by Aubert and Jaques Cartier on the part of France, and by Estevan Gomez on that of Spain; but all the endeavours of these navigators to discover any opening in the northern coast that held out the least hope of a passage in that quarter, were in vain. About the same period, the idea of a voyage to the North Pole was first suggested by Master i. Thorne, of Bristol, who is said to have exhorted King Henry VIII. “with very weighty and substantial reasons, to set forth a discoverie, even to the North Pole.” Among other advantages that were held out as the probable results, was the discovery of a shorter passage to China and the East Indies: but although an expedition was sent out for this purpose, the proceedings connected with it are scarcely at all known. The voyage of “The Trinitie and the Minion” to the north-west, followed in 1536, but without any further success: and between the years 1553 and I556, Sir Hugh Willoughby, Richard Chancelor, and Stephen Burough, performed three several voyages in quest of a North-East Passage, but could not, on account of immense shoals of ice, proceed further than the Strait of Weigats. Notwithstanding the failure of so many attempts, the belief that America was to be passed somewhere on the north-west still remained unimpaired among the merchants and navigators of England, and was supported by the writings of the most learned men in the nation. Under the auspices of Queen Elizabeth, Martin Frobisher made three successive voyages, in 1576, 1577, and 1578; but his progress was exceedingly small. Yet their promoters were still satisfied “ of the likelihood of the discovery of the North-West Passage,” and they accordingly resolved on a new expedition. The conduct of this was entrusted to the celebrated John Davis, who, in 1585, succeeded in passing up the strait which now bears his name, as high as latitude 66° 40', and discovered the inlet called Cumberland Strait. He performed two subsequent voyages in the succeeding two years, in the second of which he stood sixty leagues up Cumberland Strait. o further attempt was made until the commencement of the seventeenth century, when George Weymouth departed on an expedition, fitted out at the joint expense of the Muscovy and Turkey Companies; but his voyage was a complete failure. In the years 1605, 1606, and 1607, the King of Denmark despatched Henry Hall three several times, but all his attempts were fruitless. As neither the passage by the north-east, nor that by the north-west, seemed to hold out much hope of success, it was resolved again to try the route across the North Pole. Accordingly Henry Hudson, an experienced and intrepid seaman, was selected for this enterprise; and in the year 1607, he set sail from England, and stood directly for the east coast of Greenland, which he reached in latitude 73°, naming the point Hold arith Hope; thence continuing northward, he advanced to about latitude 81°, when he was compelled by the ice to return. In the following year he was employed without success in search of a NorthEast Passage; and in 1609 by the Dutch, in an expe dition of very dubious object. In 1610 he embarked on his last and fatal voyage once again to the northwestward., Keeping to the westward, he passed the strait which now bears his name; but, soon afterwards, his crew mutinied, and, turning him adrift in a boat, abandoned him to a miserable fate. Sir Thomas Button followed next, in 1612, and

passing through, Hudson's Strait, reached the main iand of America in latitude 60° 40'. Having wintered, he advanced as high as latitude 65°, on the east coast of Southampton Island, and returned to England in the summer of 1613. (To be Continued.) FALLS OF NIAGARA.—BY RE v. F. W. P. GREEN wood. * (Concluded.)

Flights of secure wooden steps bring us to the top of the bank,” where we again stand on a level with the descending Falls. We soon found that the greatest variety of interest was on this, the American side. The village of Manchester is situated on the rapid, just above the Fall. A bridge is thrown boldly over the rushing and “arrowy” rapid to a small Island, called Bath Island, where there are one or two dwellings and a paper-mill; and from this spot another bridge runs with equal boldness to Goat Island. The whole breadth of the space thus traversed is one thousand and seventy-two feet.

Goat Island is a paradise. I do not believe that there is a spot in the world which, within the same space, comprises so much grandeur and beauty. It is but about a mile in circumference, and in that mile you have a forest of tall old trees, many of them draperied with climbing and cleaving ivy; a rich variety of wild shrubs and plants; several views of the rapids; an opportunity to pass without discomfort under the smaller American Fall, and the very finest view, I will venture to say, of the great Crescent, or Horseshoe Fall. Turn to the left, as you enter this Eden, and you come out into a cleared and open spot, on which you discern a log hut with vines round its doors and windows, and a little garden in front of it, running down to the water's edge; a flock of sheep, feeding quietly, or reposing pleasantly under scattered clumps of graceful trees; while, beyond this scene of rural repose, you see the whole field of the rapids, bearing down in full force, upon this point of their division, as if determined to sweep it away. Or turn to the right, and treading the shady for rest, step aside to the margin of the smaller American Fall,f and bathe your hands, if you please, in its just leaping waters. Then, pursuing the circuit of the island, descend a spiral flight of stairs, and treading cautiously along the narrow footpath cut horizontally in the side of the cliff, enter the magnificent hall formed by the falling flood, the bank of which you have just left, and command your nerves for a few moments, that, standing as you do about midway in the descent of the Fall, you may look up, eighty feet, to its arched and crystal roof, and down, eighty feet, on its terrible and misty and resounding floor. You will never forget that sight and sound.

Retrace your steps to the upper bank, and then, if your strength holds out, proceed a short way further to the enjoyment of a view already referred to, which excels every other in this place of many wonders. It is obtained from a bridge or platform, which has recently been thrown out over some rocks, and is carried to the very brink of the Horseshoe Fall, and even projects beyond it, so that the spectator at the end of the platform is actually suspended over it. And if he is alone, and gives way to his feelings, he must drop upon his knees, for the grandeur of the scene is overpowering. The soul is elevated, and at the same time subdued, as in an awful and heavenly presence. Deity is there. The brooding and commanding Spirit is there.

* On this bank, near the ferry-house, there is a stone imbedded in the ground, rudely carved, on which there has lately been discovered, by removing the moss which had grown over it, the following inscription:—I. W. 1747. This is by far the most ancient date to be found in the vicinity. I V., whoever he was, when he looked upon the Falls, must have been surrounded by a perfect wilderness.

hat poet will speak in his name, and describe his feelings, and record his thoughts, as he stood here alone with God?

f This is separated from the greater Fall by a diminutive island, covered with trees, which tenaciously maintains its terrible position, in emulation, as it were, of Goat Island. This lesser Fall, small as it is compared with the others, would of itself be worth a journey.

“The Lord is upon many waters.” The heights and the depths, the shadows and the sunlight, the foam, the mist, the rainbows, the gushing showers of diamonds, the beauty, and the power, and the majesty all around and above, environ the spirit with holiest influences, and without violence compel it to adore. “Deep calleth unto deep.” The cataract, from its mysterious depths, calleth with its thunder, back to the deep lake, and up to the deep sky, and forward to the deep ocean, and far inward to the deep of man's soul. And the answer of the lake, and the answer of the sky, and the answer of the ocean, are praise to the Maker, praise to Him who sitteth above the water-flood, praise to the Almighty God! And where is the soul which will not also hear that call, and answer it even with a clearer and louder answer, and cry, Praise to the Creator, praise to the infinite, and holy, and blessed God!

These Falls are not without their history; but, like their depths, it is enveloped with clouds. Geologists suppose, and with good apparent reason, that time was when the Niagara fell over the abrupt bank at Queenstown, between six and seven miles below the place of the present Falls, and that it has, in the lapse of unknown and incalculable years, been wearing away the gulf in the intermediate distance, and toiling and travelling through the rock, back to its parent lake. The abrupt termination of the high bank and table land at Queenstown ; the correspondence of the opposite cliffs to each other all the way up to the Falls; the masses of superincumbent limestone which both the American and Canadian cataracts hurl from time to time into the boiling abyss;* all seem to favor this supposition. But when did the grand journey begin When will it end! How vain to ask! How momentary human life appears, when we give our minds to such contemplations ! Where was the cataract toiling in its way, when none but the awe-struck Indian came to bow before its sublimity Where was it, when the moss-buried trunk, which now lies decaying by its borders, was a new-sprung sapling, glittering with the spray-drops which fed its infant leaves? Where was it, before the form of a single red man glided through the forest? Where was it, when lofty trees stood by it in the intimate sympathy of centuries, which long since have been resolved into earth 1 Where was it, when winds and clouds were its only visitors; and when the sun and blue heaven by day, and the moon and stars by night, alone looked down and beheld it, the same as they do now 1 And is not science blind and foolish, when, being in her elements and leading-strings, she lisps impiety, instead of prayer :

Four days flew by us like the waters of the rapids, while we staid here, and then came our time for departure. As we rode down to Lake Ontario, on the bank of the river, and turned every moment to catch glimpses of the Falls, we were favored, when between two and three miles on our way, with a full view of the whole cataract, through an opening in the woods. We stopped and alighted, in order to enjoy the melancholy pleasure of contemplating it for the last time. It looked softer and gentler in the distance, and its sound came to the ear like a murmur. I had learned to regard it as a friend; and as I stood, I bade it, in my heart, farewell.

Farewell, beautiful, holy creation of God —Flow on in the garments of glory which he has given thee, and fill other souls as thou hast mine, with wonder and praise. Often will my spirit be with thee, waking, and in dreams. But soon I shall pass away, and thou wilt remain. Flow on, then, for others' eyes, when mine are closed—and for others' hearts, when mine is cold. Still call to the deeps of many generations. Still utter the instructions of the

* Within a few years, several pieces of the upper stratum have been thrown down. The waters, however, are now obliged to act upon a surface three times wider than that which sormerly sustained them, and the limestone is becoming more and more.compacted with the harder chert, as they approach Black Rock. Their retrocession must therefore be slow, beyond the power of computation. Beneath the limestone strata, there is a layer of loose shale, which is easily washed away, and which is always first hollowed out before the limestone falls.

Creator to way-faring spirits, till thou hast fulfilled thy work, and they have all returned, like wearied travellers, to their home.

NIAGARA. (From the Spanish of Jose Maria Meredia.)

Tr EMENdous tor RENT' for an instant hush The terrors of thy voice, and cast aside Those wide-involving shadows, that my eyes May see the fearful beauty of thy face. I am not all unworthy of thy sight; For, from my very boyhood, have I loved, Shunning the meaner track of common minds,To look on Nature in her loftier moods. At the fierce rushing of the hurricane, At the near bursting of the thunderbolt, I have been touched with joy; and, when the sea, Lashed by the wind, hath rocked my bark, and showed Its yawning caves beneath me, I have loved Its dangers and the wrath of elements. But never yet the madness of the sea Hath moved me as thy grandeur moves me now.

Thou flowest on in quiet, till thy waves Grow broken 'midst the rocks; thy current, then, Shoots onward, like the irresistible course Of destiny. Ah! terribly they rage— The hoarse and rapid whirlpools there! My brain Grows wild, my senses wander, as I gaze Upon the hurrying waters, and my sight Wainly would follow, as toward the verge Sweeps the wide torrent : waves innumerable Meet there and madden; waves innumerable Urge on, and overtake the waves before, And disappear in thunder and in foam.

They reach—they leap the barrier : the abyss Swallows, insatiable, the sinking waves. A thousand rainbows arch them, and the woods Are deafened with the roar. The violent shock Shatters to vapour the descending sheets: A cloudy o fills the gulf, and heaves The mighty pyramid of circling mist To heavem. The solitary hunter, near, Pauses with terror in the forest shades.

+ * + +

God of all truth" in other lands I've seen Lying philosophers, blaspheming men, Questioners of thy mysteries, that draw Their fellows deep into impiety; And therefore doth my spirit seek thy face In earth's majestic solitudes. Even here My heart doth open all itsels to thee. In this immensity of loneliness, I feel thy hand upon me. To my ear The eternal thunder of the cataract brings Thy voice, and I am humbled as I hear. Dread torrent' that, with wonder and with fear, Dost overwhelm the soul of him that looks Upon thee, and dost bear it from itself, hence hast thou thy beginning ' Who supplies, Age after age, thy unexhausted springs? hat power hath ordered, that, when all thy weight Descends into the deep, the swollen waves Rise not, and roll to overwhelm the earth? The Lord hath opened his omnipotent hand, Covered thy face with clouds, and given his voice To thy down-rushing waters; he hath girt Thy trembling forehead with his radiant bow. 1 see thy never-resting waters run, And I bethink me how the tide of time * Sweeps to eternity. Se pass, of man,— Pass, like a noon-day dream,_the blossoming days, And he awakes to sorrow. 4. + + Hear, dread Niagara' my latest voice. Yet a few years, and the cold earth shall close Over the bones of him who sings thee now Thus feelingly. Would that this, Iny humble verse, Might be like thee, immortal. I, meanwhile, Cheerfully passing to the appointed rest, Might raise my radiant forehead in the clouds, To listen to the echoes of my fame. U. States Review and Literary Gazette.

Never quit your hopes. Hope is often better than enjoyment. Hope is often the cause as well as the effect of youth. . It is certainly a very pleasant and healthy passion. A hopeless person is deserted by himself; and he who forsakes himself is soon forsaken by triends and fortune. —Berkeley.


Unavoidable circumstances have prevented the appear ance of Numbers 45 and 46 in due season. The Editor has now the very great pleasure of announcing, that he has taken a partner into the business concerns of the establishment, by which means, all the necessary energies will be imparted to that department. The work may now be considered as established on a permanent foundation, and may be expected to be continued till the whole circle of general knowledge shall have been completed. Subscribers will hereafter receive the Magazine with such promptitude as in some measure to atone for past remissness. This, together with better paper, will, we trust, restore us to their confidence and favour. Back Numbers will now soon be furnished to all who have not yet been supplied.


One rule which we have adopted in relation to subscribers, is this:—To throw our old list aside at the close of a volume, and to know no one as a subscriber thereafter, until his name shall have been re-entered, and payment made, for an additional volume. But as our list is somewhat extensive, and as agents must necessarily be some little time in calling on all for their renewal, it becomes necessary that they commence the business before the close of the volume, to give all an opportunity to renew who desire it prior to the commencement of a new one, and thus render the suspension of the paper in their cases unnecessary. We will just add, that the size and price of the Magazine for the 2d. volume will be the same as the first.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

published At 19, ANN st.

R. N. white, ENGRAVER,

- TERMs. One Dollar and Fifty Cents per annum, payable in advance. Should an order for the Magazine be received unaccompanied by advance payment, one number will be sent showing our terms; after which, no more will be forwarded till payment shall have been received. Companies of four individuals sending Five Dollars, current here, free of postage, will be surnished with four copies for one year. Companies of ten, sending 'Ten Dollars as above, will be furnished with ten copies. Companies that would avail themselves of the discount mentioned in our terms, should not expect an agent to be at the trouble of looking up the individuals to form said companies, but they must take that upon themselves. As the sum of $150, which is the price of the Magazine to a single subscriber, cannot conveniently be sent by mail, it will be necessary that two subscribers at least send payment in a letter together. IEP Schools adopting as many as half a dozen copies of the Magazine, as a class book, will be supplied at One Dollar per annuin for each copy. Subscribers are not permitted to commence with the latter part of a volume, but are required to take the back numbers of said volume. They are further required to take at least one volume complete. Whenever there is any delay in forwarding to them the back numbers, it may be understood that we have them not on hand at the time, but that, as the numbers are all stereotyped, they will be ne-printed and sent. No subscriber will be retain d on our subscription list after the teria for which payment shall have been made has capired.

[merged small][ocr errors][merged small][merged small]
[ocr errors]

It has sometimes been supposed, that the portion of the globe inhabited b |. Antediluvians was submerged at the time | the Deluge by internal convulsions, and that it now lies at the bottom of the Pacific ocean. One reason assigned for this supposition is, that amid all the Antediluvian fossil remains every where to be found, no human bones have been discovered. But, after no little reflection on the subject, we are forced to the conclusion that they must have inhabited central Asia. The garden of Eden was situated thereabouts, and it is not at all probable that when man was expelled thence, he would journey a great distance to find a place for settlement. Having once settled, it is further probable that, although, from the increase of population, the settlement would be extended, yet the spot first settled would continue as a kind of centre to the rest. We repeat, it then, that the Antediluvians most probably inhabited central Asia. The language of that portion of our race has been a subject of much speculation. Some have supposed it was the Hebrew, some the Chaldean, and some the Chinese. But whoever reflects at all upon the subject, must be convinced that it was neither one nor another: in fine, that it was no language at present known. The continual changes occurring in language make it very different at different periods. Some terms become obsolete; new terms are invented; modes of expression become more intricate and refined ; and, above all, words, phrases, and sentences are adopted from one language into another: insomuch that it is altogether unlikely that there is a language in existence at the resent day such as the confusion of tongues at abel made it, much less such as was spoken by Adam. Nevertheless, there is reason to believe that the substratum of the Hebrew, Chaldean, and Chinese languages, is essentially the same as was that of the primitive language. . The reasons for this supposition will be given when we treat on those languages. Time was evidently divided by the Antediluvians into weeks, months, and years. The Sabbath appears to have been instituted at the termination of the creation, which would divide it into peeks. From the dates given in the account of the Flood, it seems that the division into months was in use, and that there were twelve of them reckoned to a year. The account of the ages of the Antediluvians, shows that the division into years was in practice. But it is supposed that the Antediluvian year was but 360 days, and that, at the time of the Deluge, the motion of the sun was altered, by which the year became longer by five days and nearly six hours. That such a change had been made, was noticed by most of the ancient philosophers.” In consequence of this change, the various postdiluvian nations, in process of time, found it necessary to alter their reckoning. It has been generally supposed that the Antediluvians ate no animal food. #. undation for this supposition is, that no #: "...i. to eat it appears to have been given till after the Deluge; whereas, express permission was given to eat vegetable food. But it should be recollected, that very little is said respecting those

times, either in relation to rites or morals. It appears, however, that the distinction was made between clean and unclean beasts, &c. prior to the Flood; also, that animal sacrifices were offered, and that too without recorded direction to that effect. Under these circumstances, one would be somewhat inclined to infer, that animal food was used. This however is not material to us, seeing its use was expressly authorized after the Deluge. ...Again: it has been thought by some, that the Antediluvians must have brought the art of ship-building to great perfection, or Noah could never have constructed such an ark as he did. But, from the very account of the building of the ark, we should suppose the contrary. It appears that he was directed in its construction by God himself, even to the very pitching of it within and without; which seems almost like any thing rather than a prior acquaintance, by Noah and the Antediluyians, with ship-building. The probability is, that they knew nothing about the subject, and that they had nothing to do with commerce, forming, as they did, but one great and compact eommunity. ut after allou: conjectures; after all the alsegories of heathen mythology, and all the hints derivable from history, sacred and profane, very little can be learned respecting Antediluvian times. The sum of the matter is, that those first inhabitants of the earth lived to a vast age; that all spoke the same language; that they made no small progress in civilization; that they became extremely wicked ; and that they went on “eating, and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, till the Flood came, and swept them all away.” This most famed of all events in the annals of the world, we will consider at some length. “God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts . of his heart was only evil continually. And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. And the Lord said, I will destroy man, whom I have created, from the face of the earth; both man and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air: for it repenteth me that I have made them. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord. Noah was a just man, and perfect in his generations; and Noah walked with God.” He was the son of Lamech, and was of the ninth generation from Adam. At the age of five hundred years, he is mentioned, as having had three sons, Shem, Ham, and Japheth. “And God said unto Noah, the end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them. ...And behold I will destroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood: rooms, shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch. And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of: The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits, [four hundred and fifty feet,1 the breadth of it fifty cubits, [seventy-five feet.] and the height of it thirty cubits, [forty-five feet.] A window shalt thou make to the ark, and in a cubit . inches] shalt thou finish it above; and the oor of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof: with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.

* See Plutarch de Placit. Philos. lib. ii. c. 8, lib., iii. c. 12, lib. v, c. 18; Plato Polit. p. 174, 175, 269, 270, 271; and Laertius in vit. Anaxagor, lib. ix. seg. 33.

And behold I, even I, do bring a flood of waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh wherein is the breath of life, from under heaven; and every thing that is in the earth shall die. But with thee will I establish my covenant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons' wives with thee. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall be male and female. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; and it shall be food for thee and for them. Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female; of fowls also of the air by sevens, the male and his female. And Noah did according unto all that the Lord commanded him.”

Six hundred years had rolled over his patriarchal head; the ark was completed ; himself and family, and all the designated beasts, and creeping things, and fowls of the air, were safely within the ark; when lo! “all the fountains of the great deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.” Forty days the rain came down in, torrents; “the waters irr reased, and bare up the ark, and it was lifted up ... above the earth, and went upon the face of the waters. And the waters prevailed exceedingly upon the earth; and all the high hills that were under the whole heaven were covered. Fisteen cubits upward,” above the summit of the loftiest mountain “did the waters prevail,” insomuch that there was not a foothold left for man or beast on the face of the earth. “And every living substance was destroyed which was upon the face of the ground, both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, and the fowl of the heaven: and §. only remained alive, and they that were with him in the ark. And the waters prerailed upon the earth a hundred and fifty days.”

It was about the first of November, Anno Mundi 1656, that the Deluge began. Five long months was the ark with its inmates floating on the world of waters; till at length, by their gradual subsiding, it rested, about the first of April, A. M. 1657, on the mountains of Ararat, supposed by some to be the Gordyaean hills, which separate Armenia from Mesopotamia; and by others, the hills beyond Bactria, north of India. . Forty days after this, Noah opened the window of the ark, and sent out a raven, which went to and fro until the earth was dry. He also sent forth a dove, to see if the waters were abated ; which finding no place to rest, on account of the general prevalence of the waters still, returned to the ark, and was taken in by Noah. Seven days afterwards, he sent her forth again. In the evening, she returned with an olive leaf in her beak. Still he remained in the ark. Seven days after this, he sent her forth again, but, finding resting places sufficient, she returned no more. Yet Noah continued in the ark till the earth was well dried. About the tenth of November, A. M. 1657, which was a i. and ten days from the time Noah had entered the ark, God commanded him to leave it, together with his family, and the various living creatures that were with him; which he accordingly did. In testimony of his gratitude to his almighty Preserver, he erected an altar, and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings thereon. God then made a covenant with Noah and his sons, that he would no more cut off all flesh, or destroy the earth by a Deluge; of which he made the rainbow the token.

In our next, we shall consider some objections urged against the reality of this historical event, the Deluge; and also present some corroborative evidences of it. Our object in this department of our work, is to give the true history of the world. Of course, we must give what we deem to be so. If we are met by objections in our progress, we must obvište them, and

give our evidence.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small]

“Though the Caracal resembles the lynx in size, in the formation of the body, and the aspect of the head; and though like that animal, it seems to have the peculiar and almost singular characteristic of a stripe of black hair at the extremity of the ears; I do not scruple, nevertheless, from their disagreement in other respects, to treat of them as animals of different species. “The Caracal is not spotted like the lynx; it has hoir rougher and shorter; its tail is larger, and of a uniform colour; its snout is more elongated; in appearance it is less mild, and in disposition it is fiercer. The lynx is an inhabitant of the cold, or at most of the temperate regions; the Caracal is only found in the hot countries; and it is as much from their difference in disposition and climate that I have judged them to be of two different species, as from the inspection and comparison of the animals themselves. “The Caracal, which is the lynx of the ancients, is common in Barbary, in Arabia, and in the southern half of Asia, and in all those countries, which are inhabited by the lion, the panther, and the leopard; like them it depends on prey for its subsistence; but, unlike them, from its inferior size, its inferior strength, to procure that prey it has much difficulty. Hardly, indeed, has it aught to subsist on but what the more potent carnivorous animals are disposed to leave for it. It follows the lion, who, when the immediate cravings of his appetite are gratified, is of a disposition altogether unhostile. From the refuse of what this noble animal has devoured, the Caracal frequently enjoys a comfortable meal. When, however, he is i. to his own powers for support, he attacks hares, rabbits, and birds; of the latter he is exceedingly fond, and will pursue them with astonishing swiftness to the tops of the tallest trees. “The Caracal is somewhat larger than a fox, and much fiercer and stronger. It has been known to attack, tear in pieces, and destroy in a few minutes, a large dog, who, fighting for his life, defended himself with all his strength. It is very difficult to tame this animal; yet if taken when very young, and afterwards reared with care, some affirm that it may be trained to the chase, to which it is by nature inclined, and in which it is sure to succeed, provided it is not let loose but against such animals as are its inferiors, and unable to resist it. Should it be a service of danger, with every expression of reluctance it declines it. It is stated that in India they make use of this animal to take hares, rabbits, and even large birds, all of which it surprises, and seizes with singular address and facility. It is, however, doubtful whether the Caracal is ever thus employed. In captivity it is extremely sulky, and growls fiercely whenever it is noticed.”

[ocr errors]
« PreviousContinue »