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The following description of this superb vehicle, is extracted from the London Every Day Book.
The Times, in speaking of it, remarks, that “The Burmese artists have produced a very formidable rival to that gorgeous piece of lumber, the lord mayor's coach. It is not indeed quite so heavy nor quite so glassy as that moving monument of metropolitan magnificence; but it is not inferiour to it in glitter and in gilding, and is sar superiour in the splendour of the gems and rubies which adorn it. It differs from the metropolitan carriage in having no seats in the interior, and no place for either sword-bearer, chaplain, or any other inferior officer. The reason of this is, that whenever the “golden monarch” vouchsafes to show himself to his subjects, who with true legitimate loyalty worship him as an emanation from the Deity, he orders his throne to be removed into it, and sits thereon, the sole object of their awe and admiration.”
Before more minute description it may be remarked,
that the eye is chiefly struck by the sretted golden rooi, rising step by step from the square oblong body of the carriage, like an ascending pile of rich shrine-work. “It consists of seven stages, diminishing in the most skilful and beautiful proportions towards the top. The carving is highly beautiful, and the whole structure is set thick with stones and gems of considerable value. These add little to the effect when seen from below, but ascending the gallery of the hall, the spectator observes them, relieved by the yellow ground of the gilding, and sparkling beneath him like dew drops in a field of cowslips. Their presence in so elevated a situation well serves to explain the accuracy of finish preserved throughout, even in the nicest and most minute portions of the work. Gilt metal bells, with large heart-shaped crystal drops attached to them, surround the lower stages of the pagoda, and, when the carriage is put in motion, emit a soft and pleasing sound.” The apex of the roof is a pinnac.e, called the tee, elevated on a pedestal. The tee is an emblem of royalty. It is formed of movable belts, or coronals of gold, wherein are set large amethysts of a greenish or purple colour; its summit is a small banner, or vane, of crystal. The length of the carriage itself is thirteen feet seven inches; or, if taken from the extremity of the pole, twenty eight feet five inches. Its width is six feet nine inches, and its height to the summit of the tee, is nineteen feet two inches. The carriage body is five feet seven inches in length by four feet six inches in width, and its height, taken from the interior, is five feet eight inches. The four wheels are of uniform height, are remarkable for their lightness and elegance, and the peculiar mode by which the spokes are secured, and measure only four feet two inches: the spokes richly silvered are of very hard wood, called in the east iron trood ; the felloes are cased in brass, and the caps to the naves elegantly designed of bell metal. The pole, also of iron wood, is heavy and massy; it was destined to be attached to elephants, by which the vehicle was intended to be drawn upon all grand or state occasions. The extremity of the pole is surmounted by the head and fore part of a dragon, a figure of idolatrous worship in the east; this ornament is boldly executed, and richly gilt and ornamented, the scales being composed of a curiously coloured talc. The other parts of the carriage are the wood of the oriental sassafras tree, which combines strength with lightness, and emits a grateful odour; and being hard and elastic, is easily worked, and peculiarly fitted for carving. The body of the carriage is composed of twelve panels, three on each face or front, and these are subdivided into small squares, of the clear and nearly transparent horn of the rhinoceros and buffalo, and other animals of eastern idolatry. These squares are set in broad gilt frames, tudded at every angle with raised silvered glass mirors: the higher part of these panels has a range of rich small looking-glasses, intended to reflect the gilding of the upper, or pagoda stages. The whole body is set in or supported by four wreaned dragon-like figures, fantastically entwined to answer me purposes of pillars to the pagoda roof, and carved and ornamented in a style of vigour and correctness, that would do credit to a European design: the scaly or body part is of talc, and the eyes of pale ruby stones. The interior roof is latticed with small looking-glasses studded with mirrors as on the outside panels. The upper part of each face of the body is composed of sash glasses, set in gilt-frames, to draw up and let down after the European fashion, but without case or lining to protect the glass from fracture when down; the catches to secure them when up, are simple and curious, and the strings of these glasses are woven crimson cotton. On the frames of the glasses is much writing in the Burmese character, but the language being utterly unknown in this country, cannot be deciphered; it is supposed to be adulatory sentences to the “golden monarch” seated within. The body is staid by braces of leather; the springs, which are of iron, richly gilt, differ not from the present fashionable C spring, and allow the carriage an easy and agreeable motion. The steps merely hook on to the outside: it is presumed they were destined to be carried by an attendant; they are light, and elegantly formed of gilt metal, with cane threads. The Burmese are yet ignorant of that useful formation of the fore part of the carriage which enables those of European manufacture to be turned and directed with such facility: the fore part of that now under description, does not admit of a lateral movement of more than four inches; it therefore requires a very extended space in order to bring it completely round. On a gilt bar before the front of the body, with their heads towards the carriage, stand two Japanese peacocks, a bird which is held sacred by this superstitious people; their figure and plumage are so perfectly represented, as
sury, or by contribution
to convey the natural appearance of life; two others to correspond are perched on a bar behind. On the fore part of the frame of the carriage, mounted on a silvered pedestal, in a kneeling position, is the tee-bearer, a small carved image with a lofty golden wand in his hands, surmounted with a small tee, the emblem of sovereignty: he is richly dressed in green velvet, the front laced with jargoon diamonds, with a triple belt round the body, of blue sapphires, emeralds, and jargoon diamonds; his leggings are also embroidered with sapphires. In the front of his cap is a rich cluster of white sapphires encircled with a double star of rubies and emeralds: the cap is likewise thickly studded with the carbuncle, a stone little known to us, but in high estimation with the ancients. Behind the carriage are two figures; their lower limbs are tattooed, as is the custom with the Burmese: from their position, being on one"onee, their hands raised and open, and their eyes directed as in the act of firing, they are supposed to have borne a representation of the carbine, or some such fire-arm weapon of defence, indicative of protection. The pagoda or roof constitutes the most beautiful, and is, in short, the only imposing ornament of the carriage. The gilding is resplendent, and the design and carving of the rich borders which adorn each stage are no less admirable. These borders are studded with amethysts, emeralds, jargoon diamonds, garnets, hyacinths, rubies, tourmalines, and other precious gems, drops of amber and crystal being also interspersed. From every angle ascends a light spiral gilt ornament, enriched with crystals and emeralds. This pagoda roofing, as well as that of the great imperial palace, and of the state warboat or barge, bears an exact similitude to the chief sacred temple at Shoemadro. This carriage was taken, with the workmen who built it, and all their accounts.From these it appeared that it had been three years in building, that the gems were supplied from the king's trea
from the various states, and that the workmen were remunerated by the government. Independent of these items, the expenses were sta ted in the accounts to have been twenty-five thousand rupees, (three thousand one hundred & twenty five pounds.) The stones are not less in number than twenty \ thousand, which in re-o puted value at Tavoy, were a lac of rupees, twelve thousand five hundred pounds. It was captured in the month of September, 1825, at Tavoy, a sea-port in the Burmese empire.
EN LARGED WIEw of THE TEE, or Pinn ACLE.
(Fae simile of the Moorish Prince's writing.)
This interesting individual, commonly called the “Moorish Prince,” was a native of the celebrated city of Timbuctoo, in Central Africa, of which city and the province connected with it, his grandfather was king. Abduhl's father, when a young man, was sent to conquer the Soosoos, a nation living at the distance of some twelve hnndred miles. He succeeded, established a new kingdom called Foota Jallo, (the same with which the Liberians have had some intercourse,) and sounded its capital, Teembo, now known to travellers as one of the largest cities on the continent. He went back and forth several times, from Teembo to Timbuctoo, from which place he finally removed his family. Prince being then about five years of age, to his newly acquired territory. At twelve years of age, Prince was sent to Timbuctoo, to obtain an education, being the rightful heir to the throne, in preference to an elder brother, whose mother was a Soosoo, while Prince's was a Moor. While at Timbuctoo, his grandfather, very far advanced in life, resigned his throne to his son, an uncle of the Prince. The family were all Mahometans.
When Prince was nineteen years of age, Dr. Cox, an American citizen, surgeon on board a ship, arrived at Sierra Leone. Having gone a hunting in the interior, and getting lost in the woods, he sound, on his return to the coast, that his ship had sailed. He undertook an excursion into the country, and becoming lame and sick. arrived, at length, within the territory of Foota Jallo. Being the first white man ever seen by the inhabitants, he was carried, as a great curiosity, to the king, Prince's father, at Teembo, who entertained him for six months with the greatest hospitality. During this time, he was an inmate at Prince's house, adjoining that of his father. Restored to perfect health, he was sent by the king, with gold, ivory, clothes, and an escort of armed men to protect him, to Sierra Leone, where, providentially, his ship had returned, and he came back in it in safety to this country. -
Seven years afterwards, Prince, being a Colonel in his father's cavalry, was sent, with a party of seventeen hundred men, to retaliate upon the Hebohs, who had very
much annoyed the trade of the people of Foota Jallo with the sea-coast. After a successful campaign, Prince, on his return was taken prisoner by the Hebohs, who surprised him and his party in ambush. He was sold to the Mandingos, and they, in turn, sold him to a slaveship, at the mouth of the Gambia. Thence he was carried to Dominique, and thence to Natchez, where he was sold to his late master, Colonel Foster. About sixteen or eighteen years after this transaction, as Prince was selling sweet potatoes in Washington, a neighbouring town, i. was met and recognized by his old acquaintance and inmate at Teembo, #. Cox. In the fulness of his gratitude, the doctor went to Col. Foster, and offered him one thousand dollars as the ransom of his slave; but the colonel valued him so highly for the salutary influence he exerted over his other slaves, and at the same time doubted so much whether Prince's fortunes would be bettered by emancipation, that he rejected these proposals. Such interest, however, was made in his behalf subsequently, and especially by a son of Dr. Cox, (who had meanwhile deceased,) that in the spring of 1828 Prince received his freedom gratuitously at the hands of his master. The citizens of Natchez also contributed two hundred dollars for the liberation of his wife, a slave on the same plantation, and this accordingly was accomplished. Prince was now about sixty-six years of age, (having been born in 1760,) and had passed about forty years in bondage. [To be concluded in our next.]
In our last, we considered language under its earlier and o developments. Natural language, common to man and beast, and in some degree to every thing that has life, may be regarded as the simplest mode of natural sounds. Next in order ranks the language of intelligence, which we have briefly considered under the denomination of oral language. The third classification includes written language, of which something like a connected history may be given, because it is capable of furnishing its own memorials. The vast and incalculable sum of spoken words which were uttered and heard, and which had their effect, before the inhabitants of the youthful earth knew the art of committing their thoughts
to the tablet, the papyrus, or the parchment, to be read
by the future, are all lost to mankind. They areas if they had never been spoken. But where letters have interposed their aid, “thoughts that breathe and words that burn” have become permanent and fixed for the contemplation of all future generations of men. There is a strong principle in mankind to connect their names or actions with the future. They would not die and be forgotten, like the beast that leaves no memorial save a track on the sand, which rain and wind shall soon obliterate. This is, indeed, a glorious, an aspiring principle—a principle which is strongly characteristic of man, and illustrates his superiority over the brute. The first demonstrations of this principle were probably extremely simple. A wandering man would mark the fact of his journeying, by engraving the figure of an arrow on a stone, or in the bark of a tree, which would also be an index to the direction in which he travelled. The fact that he intended to return might be indicated by a reversed arrow, to which the representation of one or two or more moons might be affixed, to denote the expected term of his absence. The date of the transaction might be indicated by some figure which should represent the season, whether of flowers, or the usual time in which particular birds or beasts were wont to appear. Pictorial or graphic writing was evidently the earliest literature, as it could be read without an alphabet. For instance, a person who was desirous to record for the inspection of posterity the character of a warrior or chief of renown, had only to picture, on some medium or other, the
the figure of a man, distinguished by the sign of his tribe or family, which was after that of a bird or an animal. This would identify the individual in some degree. Then the natural progress of the historian would be, to depict his qualities in the same pictorial series. If courage was a remarkable trait in his character, it might have been designated by the figure of a lion or any other brave beast—and thus, from this wide stock of symbolic materials, quite a connected story could be depicted— including battle scenes and other enterprises of moment to the welfare of mankind. This was pictorial writing. It gave a few glaring ideas to the mind of qualities and actions; yet it had no power as a medium of argument, reasoning, or the expression of abstract principles. It was the error of two thousand years, to have classed the Egyptian hieroglyphics in this species of writing ; but thus read, they could not be understood—they had no palpable and connected meaning; and quite up to the present generation, they were considered as either unmeaning figures, or characters of a dark and hidden inport, that must forever be as mute as the grim forms that wrote them and seemingly guarded them in the dusky catacombs. The question—What was the first written language 2 is one on which much has been said and written. It opens a fair field of investigation to which we will approach, aided by all the light shed over the subject from the most remote history, as well as modern researches. It is a mournful sight to gaze upon the scenery where mighty nations once lived, and enacted their '... of magnificence and glory. The brown and dusty hills of Palestine, the far-reaching, sterile plains of ancient Phoenicia, and the sea-shore on which the waves of the ancient Tyrrhene now beat in lonely murmurs, tell no tale of departed empire. Desolation has gnawed away the columns of the “queen of cities.” The site of Babylon is even now conjectural. Nineveh is a mighty shade— an echo coming down to us from a far off age. The rocks and scattered bricks of those vast piles of human power that once heaved up their summits and battlements towards heaven, contain few inscriptions. The written language of that once powerful land is now its only memorials. he earliest Phoenician historian whose writings are preserved in the extracts found in later historians, is Sanchoniatho-a contemporary of Solomon, the third king of Judah. His works are dedicated to the father of that king of Tyre who assisted Solomon in the erection of the first temple. The works of this writer, however, as we shall hereafter show, are not the earliest productions of written language besides the writings of Moses of whose existence we have conclusive proof. F.
Explanation of Words, PHRASEs, &c.
A causa PERs.A, PA Role Ass A1. Italian. “When the cause is lost, there is enough of words;” that is, Let a thing go, after it is decided. AccEDAs Ad curl A.M. Lat. (Law terms.) “You may approach the court.” It is used as the name of a writ by which proceedings may be removed from an inferiour to a superiour court. Acceptissi MA sem PER MUNERA sunt, Auctor QUAE PRET10s A FEcit. Lat. from Ovid. “Those gifts are ever the most acceptable which the giver has made precious;” that is, The value of a present is enhanced, in proportion to our estimation of the donor. AccusARE NEMo so. Dr. BET, Nisi coraM DEo. Lat. (Law maxim.) “Nobody is bound to accuse himself, unless it be before God;" that is, No one is under obligation to be a legal witness against himself. AccERIMA PRox1MoRUM od1A. Lat. from Tacitus. “The quarrels of relatives are the most violent.” By a very natural transition, it may be applied to civil war. Ac ET1AM. Lat. (Law phrase.) “And also:” a clause added to a complaint of trespass, which adds “and also" a plea of debt.
But thou slumberest; faint and quivering
Our youth is like the dream of the hunter on the hill of heath. He sleeps in the mild beams of the sun; he awakes amidst a storm; the red lightning flies around; trees shake their heads to the wind He looks back with joy on the day of the sun, and the pleasant dreams of his rest! When shall Ossian's youth return? When his ear delight in the sound of arms? When shall, I, like Oscar, travel in the light of my steel? Come, with your streams, ye hills of Cona! listen to the voice of Ossian. The song rises, like the sun, in my soul. I feel the joys of other times!
I behold thy towers, O Selma! the oaks of thy shaded wall; thy stream sounds in my ear; thy heroes gather around. Fingal sits in the midst. He leans on the shield of Trenmor: his spear stands against the wall; he listens to the song of his bards. The deeds of his arm are heard; the actions of the king in his youth ! Oscar had returned from the chase, and heard the hero's praise. He took the shield of Branno from the wall; his eyes were filled with tears. Red was the cheek of youth. His voice was trembling, low. My spear shook its bright head in his hand: he spoke to Morven's king.
INDIAN MEthod of DRIv1Ng Away THE Cholera MoRBUs.
It was only during our last journey through Boondi, that I was amused with my friend's expedient to keep death out of the capital, as likewise with the old Regent's mode of getting rid of this most unwelcome visitor in Kotah. i. assembled the brahmins, astrologers, and those versed in incantations, a grand rite was got up, sacrifice made, and a solemn decree of desvatto, or banishment, was pronounced against murri (the cholera.) Accordingly, an equipage was prepared for her, decorated with funeral emblems, painted black, and drawn by a double team of black oxen; bags of grain, also black, were put into the vehicle, that the lady might not go forth without food, and, driven by a man in sable vestments, followed by the yells of the populace, Murri was deported across the Chumbul, with the commands of the priests that she should never set foot again in Kotah. When my friend heard of the cholera's expulsion from Kotah, and that she was supposed to be on the road to Boondi, he called all the wise men of this city to provide means to keep her from entering therein. To this end, all the waters of the sacred Ganges at hand were in requisition, an earthen vessel was placed over the southern portal from which the sacred water was continually dripping, and against which no evil could prevail. Whether my friend's supply of the holy water failed, or Murri disregarded such opposition, she reached his palace— and he himself fell her victim.—Colonel Tod's Annals of Rajasthan.
The CALMuck TARTARs.
Calmuck women ride better than the men. A male Calmuck on horseback looks as if he was intoxicated, and likely to fall off every instant, though he never loses his seat; but the women sit with more ease, and ride with extraordinary skill. The ceremony of marriage among the Calmucks is performed on horseback. A girl is first mounted, who rides off at full speed. Her lover pursues; and, is he overtakes her, she becomes his wife, returning with him to his tent. But it sometimes happens that the woman does not wish to marry the person by whom she is pursued, in which case she will not suffer him to overtake her; and we were assured that no instance occurs of a Calmuck girl being thus caught, unless she has a partiality for her pursuer.—Dr. Clarke's Travels in Russia &c.
Let no one count the number of his friends, till they have been bolted in the sieve of his own adversity; for there is much bran in prosperous friendship.
The following resolutions were passed by the American Lyceum at their Anniversary recently held in this city. The Committee are convinced from personal observation, as well as from the facts presented to the Lyceum at its present meeting. that the combination of manual labour with study is a means not only of promoting health, and securing vigor of constitution, but also of rendering intellectual efforts more easy and energetic, and of regulating the passions both of body and mind. They would therefore propose for the adoption of the Lyceum the Hilo. resokutions: Resolved, in the opinion of this Lyceum, 1. That no system of education is complete which does not provide for the vigor of the body, as well as the cultivation of the mind, and the purity of the heart. 2. That the combination of manual labour with study is not onl important, as the means of promoting health, but that it is also cal.. to invigorate the mind for intellectual labour, and to aid in regulating the feelings and restraining the passions of youth, which are so often excited by a sedentary #. 3. That the acquisition of some mechanical employment in early life is desirable to every individual, as a means of relaxation and health, as a resource in case of difficulty, and especially as a means of rendering labour respectable in the eyes of all, and of promoting mutual regard and sympathy between the different portions of society in a republican government. 4. That in view of these facts, the Lyceum earnestly recommend to parents to secure the benefit of manual labour to their children from the earliest period practicable, as a part of domestic education. 5. That the introduction of manual labour in those institutions for education in which children are separated from their parents, would be of essential benefit to the wealthy in promoting health and improvement, and to the indigent in enabling them to procure an education at an expense greatly reduced—and that the Lyceum regard the establishment of such schools, as an important and desirable branch of a system of national education for our country.
Peace appeared about to dawn on the East, through the intervention of the Allied Powers.
The cholera has entirely subsided at Matanzas, and great joy has been manifested on the occasion, by the firing of guns, illuminations, &c. This scourge of the human race seems to be wending its dark and mysterious way back upon us again. It has already made its appearance at New Orleans and Cincinnati; and unless we make haste to cleanse this city, we may expect soon to see it raging here. Indeed, we doubt whether it has ever entirely left us since its appearance last summer.
Immense damage has been occasioned at the West by the recent flood. The canal has in some places been so injured as to interrupt navigation. The Mohawk was never before known to have risen to such a height. The freshet appears to have extended over a large tract of country. We hear of much damage in Pennsylvania.
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