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WEEKLY ABSTRACT OF GENERAL KNOWLEDGE.
NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JUNE 1, 1833.
were over their water on that day, shall raise their united
voice.” We will consider still further the apocryphal Book of In the vi. Chap. of Genesis, 1, 2, 3 and 4 verses, we Enoch.
find the following very peculiar account. We liave said that it was immaterial whether Jude "And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on quoted Enoch's prophecy from this book, or from ano- the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, ther. The forger of a work, to give it the greater air of That the sops of God saw the daughters of men, that they authenticity, introduces among his own inventions such were fair; and they took them wives of all which they circumstances as are attributed at the time to the hero chose. And the Lord said, My Spirit shall not always of his tale. Hence the circumstance that a quotation strive with man, for that he also is flesh: yet his days is made from a spurious work, is no evidence that that shall be a hundred and twenty years. There were Giants particular quotation is a forgery. Whatever might have in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the been the light in which this Book of Enoch was regarded sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and in the days of the Apostles, the prediction under consi- they bare children to them, the same became mighty deration appears, by its having been quoted by Jude, to men, which were, of old, men of renown." have been regarded as a genuine prophecy of Enoch. Josephus, in noticing these things, expresses himself
This Book contains a series of visions respecting the in the following manner:fallen angels, of their posterity the Giants that occasion "Now this posterity of Seth continued to esteem God ed the Deluge, of the mysteries of heaven, of the place as the Lord of the universe, and to have an entire regard of the final judgment of men and angels, and of various to virtue for seven generations; but in process of time parts of the universe seen by Enoch. The language is they were perverted, and forsook the practices of their Ethiopic; the style a copy of Daniel. It was known in forefathers; and did neither pay those honours to God the Christian world till the eighth century, after which it which were appointed them, nor had they any concern appears to have sunk to oblivion. It was however pre- to do justice towards men; but for what degree of zeal served in Abyssinia, whence it was brought to England they had formerly shown for virtue, they now showed by by Mr. Bruce. towards the close of the 18th century their actions a double degree of wickedness, whereby
Neither the Jewish por the Christian church ever con- they made God to be their enemy. For many angels sidered this Book canonical; yet Tertullian, a Christian of God accompanied with women, and begat sons that father of the second century, regarded it both inspired proved unjust, and despisers of all that was good, on and genuine. The Abyssinian church, a kind of excre account of the confidence they had in their own strength; sence of the Christian church, is the only body of pro- for the tradition is, that these men did what resembled fessed Christians that have ever received it. It was evi- the acts of those whom the Grecians call Giants. But dently written by a Jew not resident in Palestine, at an Noah was very uneasy at what they did, and, being disearly period of Herod's reign.
pleased at their conduct, persuaded them to change their As it may be a gratification to such of our readers as dispositions and their actions for the better; but seeing have a taste for antique curiosities, we will give a speci- they did not yield to him, but were slaves to their wicked men of the style &c. of this work. Alluding to the Son pleasures, he was afraid they would kill him, together of Man, the writer says, “ Before the sun and the signs with his wife and children, and those they had married; were created, before the stars of heaven were formed, his so he departed out of that land.” name was invoked in the presence of the Lord of spi We perceive by the foregoing, that Josephus followed rits. .. .All who dwell on earth shall fall down and wor- the mythological notions of the heathen in the repreship before him ; shali bless and glorify him; and sing sentation which he has given of this case. praises to him in the name of the Lord of spirits.... that the characters denominated in the Bible account Therefore the Elect and the Concealed One eristed in the sons of God, were angels-celestial spirits—and that his presence before the world was created and for ever." | those spirits married mortals for wives, and had, as a Again, when speaking of the terrour which shall afilict consequence, a progeny of monsters denominated Giants. the great rulers of the earth in the day of judgment, he We hardly need remind those who are conversant with expresses himself in the following manner:~"They shall the Bible, that the appellation, sons of God, is applied be astonished, and humble their countenance, and trouble to the pious, and that the appellation, the world, is ap shall seize them, when they behold the Son of the Wo- plied to those who are not so. Keeping this in view, man sitting upon the throne of his glory. Then shall and recalling to mind the description given by Josephus the kings, the princes, and all who possess the earth, glo- of the posterity of Seth and that of Cain—the one pious, rify him who has dominion over all things, him who was the other impious—it is no difficult matter to understand concealed : for, from the beginning, the Son of Man ex- the passage as speaking of the descendants of those men. isted in secret, whom the Most High preserved in the Surely, this is a far more rational interpretation than the presence of his power, and revealed to the elect. ... All other, and is attended with no difficulty at all. With the kings, the princes, the exalted, and those who rule regard to the Giants which are likewise mentioned, we over the earth, shall fall down on their faces before him, have no account of their size. Very large men are some and shall worship him. They shall fix their hopes on times denominated Giants; and the Bible itself calls this Son of Man, and shall pray to him, and petition him those by this appellation who were by no means so large for mercy.”—“He shall call to every power of the heavens, as to be considered a race of beings different from ourto all the holy above, and to the power of God. The selves. Instance the case of Goliath and others. We are Cherubim, the Seraphim, and the Ophanim, all the an not therefore under any necessity of understanding scripgels of power, and all the angels of the Lords, namely ture as teaching the existence of demi-god Tityans and of the Elect one, and of the other Power, who upon earth Briareans, merely because it says, “therc were Giants in
those days.” It does not follow that there were ani- | a terrible aspect, their hair hung loose about their shoulmated mountains, because there were Giants, the term ders, and their beard was suffered to grow untouched. Giant signifying nothing of the kind.
Pallene and its neighborhood was the place of their resiThe Bible mentions the mere fact, of the existence of dence. The defeat of the Titans, with whom they are Antediluvian Giants. For a description of them, we are often ignorantly confounded, and to whom they were left to other sources.
nearly related, incensed them against Jupiter, and they Goliath, to whom we have already referred, was six all conspired to dethrone him. The god was alarmed, cubits and a span (that is, ten feet and seven inches) in and called all the deities to assist him against a powerful height. Orestes is said to have been about the same enemy, who made use of rocks, oaks, and burning woods height. The Greek and Latin historians, together with for their weapons, and who had already heaped mount Josephus, speak of enormous bones seen in their times. Ossa upon Pelion, to scale with more facility the walls In support of the gigantic stature, Plutarch informs us that of heaven. At the sight of such dreadful adversaries, Sertorious opened the grave of Antæus, in Africa, and the gods fled with the greatest consternation into Egypt, found a skeleton six cubits in length. There was one where they assumed the shape of different animals to Gabbarus at Rome, in the reign of Claudius Cæsar, screen themselves from their pursuers. Jupiter, howwhose height was nine feet and nine inches. In 1572, ever, remembered that they were not invincible, provided Delrio saw, at Rohan, a native of Piedmont upwards of he called a mortal to his assistance; and by the advice of nine feet high. In 1719, a human skeleton measuring Pallas, he armed his son Hercules in his cause. With nine feet and four inches was found at Stonehenge, near the aid of this celebrated hero, the giants were soon put Salisbury, in England.
to flight and defeated. Some were crushed to pieces Speaking of Giants, it would not be out of order to in- under mountains or buried in the sea; and others were troduce in this place the heathen fable relative to those flayed alive, or beaten to death with clubs. (Vid. Enfamous personages. It will be found quite amusing, and, celadus, Aloides, Porphyrion, Typhon, Otus, Titanes, so far as relates to the frequent allusions to them in clas- &c.) Homer tells us, that Tityus, when extended on the sical writings, instructive. We copy the article from ground, covered pine acres; and that Polyphemus ate Lempriere's Classical Dictionary.
two of the companions of Ulysses at once, and walked “GIGANTES, the sons of Cælus and Terra, who, ac- along the shores of Sicily leaning on a staff which might cording to Hesiod, sprung from the blood of the wound have served for the mast of a ship.* The Grecian hewhich Cælus received from his son Saturn; while Hy- roes, during the Trojan war, and Turnus in Italy, atginus calls them sons of Tartarus and Terra. They are tacked their enemies by throwing stones which four men represented as men of uncommon stature, with strength of the succeeding ages would be unable to move." proportioned to their gigantic size. Some of them, as Cottus, Briareus, and Gyges, had fifty heads and a hun. Í *He speaks of the Giants Otus and Ephialtes, who were dine dred arms, and serpents instead of legs. They were of 'cubits about, and thirty-six in height.
PRESSED with the business as well as the Editorial | ding to Ovid, the son of Juno alone. Ovid says, that concerns of this paper, we are under the necessity of Juno wished to become a mother without the assistance consigning to the hands of our literary correspondent of the other sex, as an offset to Jupiter's having given our mythological department. We do this the more birth to Minerva, who sprang, all armed, from his head. willingly, because we know that in those hands it will not Flora showed her a flower, in the plains near Olenus, of suffer, but will receive ample justice. To his guidance impregnating virtues ; and when Mars was born, Juno through the fairy realms of ancient story, we now com- entrusted his education to the god Priapus, who instrucmit our readers.
ted him in dancing and every manly exercise. For the Family Magazine.
Mars is generally represented in the attitude of a stern MARS.
fierce warrior, standing in a war chariot, with his shield Mars, the god of war among the ancients, was, according in one hand, and a poised javelin in the other. The to Greek authors, the son of Jupiter and Juno; accor steeds that draw his chariot are Flight and Terror. A
wild looking woman, holding a flaming torch, stands at favorites of his paramour, Venus; but he was wounded his side, and lights his terrible path over the prostrate by Diomedes, a Grecian chief, and hastily retreated to and dying. This female is supposed to be Bellona, the heaven to conceal his confusion, and complain to Jupiter goddess of war, who is called by some his wise, by others that Minerva had directed the unerring weapon of Dihis sister. On his head he wears a helmet, and seems omedes. He had many children, by Venus and others : to thunder along in his course like a dread scourge to he was the father of Tereus, concerning whose wise, the nations. Sometimes Discord precedes bis chariot Progne, and her sister, Philomela, the romantic tale is in tattered garments, and Clamor and Anger follow be told of their having been changed into the swallow and hind. At other times, although not so frequently, he is the nightingale. depicted in a military dress and a long flowing beard ; It was however in Rome, that the war-god received and sometimes is seen mounted formidably on horseback his proudest honors. After the battle of Philippi, Auwith a whip and spear united.
gustus erected a magnificent temple, and dedicated it to The Greeks worshipped Mars, but never with the de- Mars ultor, or the avenger. The priests of Mars were votion and enthusiasm that distinguished the more war first appointed by Numa Pompilius, the second king of like Romans. The Athenians gave him the surname of Rome. It was their duty to guard the sacred shield, to Ares (pronounced Arees) and in consequence of the trial form processions, and dance, with wild and fierce-toned of Mars for incest and murder by twelve gods who held music, through the streets on the approach of war. Betheir court on a hill in Athens, the place ever afterwards fore the consul left the city to lead the Roman legions to bore the name of Areopagus, or Mar's Hill. This was battle, it was customary for him to enter the temple of the spot distinguished by the sittings of the most august Mars; and when he bad finished his prayers, lie woula and upright court the world ever saw—the court of the in a solemn mamer shake the spear which was in the Areopagita, before whom advocates were not permitted hand of the statue of the god, and exclaim with a loud to use the graces of oratory, lest, by the undue influence voice-Mars, vigila! (God of war, watch over the city!) of eloquence over the judges, the cause of justice might At first, the number of the Salii or Priests of Mars was suffer.
twelve-the three elders having the precedence: the The Romans gave him the surname of Gravidus, on first was called præsul, the second, rutis, the third, account of his stately and firm tread in marching, -of magister. The rumber was afterwards increased, and Mavors, Quirinus, and Salisubsulus, or “the Dancer;" virgins, dressed like the Salii, were seen in their prethe Sabines called him Enyalus ; the Carthagegians, cessions. The office of the Salii was honorable, and tilMamers; and the Gauls, Camulus. His wise was Nerio, led by patrician families. The first of March was their or Nerione, a word in the Sabian language signifying great annual festival, when, aster offering sacrifices, they valor and strength-whence was derived the family name danced through the streets to measured music, striking of that personification of lust and cruelty, Nero. their sacred shields with rods. The entertainments or
Deriving from Greece the origin and character of the feasts of the Salii, on these occasions, were rich and great war god, the Romans opened their bosoms to his sumptuous beyond comparison. Distinct from his charworship, and drank so deeply into his bloody spirit, that acter as the god of war, Nars was constituied in Rome the world soon owned them as its conquerers. In the the god of the gladiatorial games and of hunting. early ages of Rome, a shield was found of an unusual When war lowered in the horizon of the “ Eternal shape, and it was pronounced by the oracle consulted on city," or invasion approached, the Salii with furious gesthe occasion to have been dropped from heaven by Mars, tures would strike their shields, as is to invoke the aid of and that he would ever favor the people that should pre the tremendous deity of war, whose delight was to snuff serve it, and would lead them to the copquest of the the blood-tainted atmosphere of martial strife and mortal world. A priesthood was instituted to whom the care agony.
F. of the sacred shield was committed, and a number wore were made similar to it, to render any attempt to steal it
LITERATURE. away unsuccessful. These priests were called Salii, from the verb salio, in allusion to their dances. Two
For the Family Magazine. temples were erected to his honor-one within the city,
LANGUAGE. dedicated to Mars Quirinus, the keeper of the peace of
Pictorial writing, as we have observed before, was the city, and the other outside the walls, near the gate, the earliest written language. It comprehends the entire dedicated to Mars Gravidus, the defender against all out
literature of all nations, who have any literature at all, ward enemies.
at certain stages of their progress in improvement. The The altars of this cruel deity were stained with the invasion of Mexico by the Spaniards found the Mexicans blood of the horse on account of its warlike spirit, of in this precise state. The landing of the invaders, the the wolf on account of its serocity, of magpies and vul- remarkable size and number of their ships, and a detures on account of their voracity. The dog, on account scription of their arms, was communicated through the of watchfulness, was also sacred to Mars; as also the province to its capital, and thence to the remote frontiers, weed called dog's grass, which was supposed to spring by means of pictorial writing. Tliese graphic despatches up on fields of battle that had been drenched with the
were painted on pieces of clothi, woven from the bark of blood of the slain. The raven, on account of the dili
a tree, and exhibited considerable beauty and ingenuity. gence with which he marks the course of armies and Here, no doubt, the expression of ideas by pictures was watches for the dead, was reputed a bird of Mars.
carried to its utmost possible perfection. The mythological history of Mars does not exhibit a
It has been ascertained beyond the possibility of doubt, single lovely or inviting trait of character. Homer, in that pictorial writing was the origin of the alphabetic the Iliad, represents Jupiter as addressing him in the characters. The immense alphabet of the Chinese, following words :
with its almost numberless array of characters, had no * Of all the gods that tread the spangled skies,
other origin. The characters have reached their pre. Thou most unjust, most hateful in our eyes!"
sent form through almost as many variations and trans. Mars was tried for murder on the Areopagus, and migrations as the fabled Judian deities. The early cleared by the voices of six gods, his judges being shapes of the letters resembled lions, bcars, tigers, fowls, equally divided for and against his acquittal. In the and every sensible object. This is the origin of that wars of Jupiter with the Titaus, Mars was unfortuate: formidable alphabet which has presented a barrier to the he was made a prisoner by Otus and Ephialetus, con acquaintance of students with oriental literature biglier fined fifteen months, and only released through the in- | than the wall of China. The plain, easily distinguished tercession of Mercury. In the battle which ended in figure of a dog, found in the earlier Chinese books, nov the overthrow of Troy, and laid its famous piles and bat- looks like any thing else--yet it means a still. tlements in the dust, Mars defended the Trojans, those Ancient literarnre in its upward leadings to the liig!ı
est antiquity, inay be compared to the course of two endeavoring to bring the course of literature to view in majestic streams—one of which is the Phænician branch, its natural progress in the order of developement. and the other the Chinese or Indian.
Whatever may be said of the invasion of Egypt by We stand upon the banks of those old floods that have Napoleon, one good resulted to the cause of letters. moaned along the foundations of long departed empires, The key was found with which Champollion has since and strive to break the misty cloud that hangs over their unlocked the treasures of learning so long secured in the highest sources, and to mark the channels in which they mysterious and impenetrable hieroglyphics. While enhave fowed down to the present times.
gaged in digging the foundations of an entrenchment
near Rossetta in Egypt, the engineers found a remarkaThe Phænician branch will include Hebrew and ble stone, which has received the name of the “Rossetta Egyptian literature, and the succeeding Grecian and stone," on which there were three inscriptions—one in Roman accumulations that have been succeeded by the hieroglyphics, one in some unknown or obsolete charGerman and European in general. The Indian branch acters, and the other in ancient Greek. This Greek will include the Chinese literature, the Burman, Hin- inscription, which was of course readable, communidoostanee, and East Indian in general.
cater, together with the chief matter of the inscription, The sources of our information in regard to early the fact that the same meaning was contained in the Phænician literature will be the remains of early writers, other two inscriptions, as in the Greek. This, of course, preserved in their own volumes, or in the extracts made was a translation of this particular hieroglyphic inscripfrom them by writers whose works are extant, wbile the tion. The stone fell into the hands of the English works from which they quoted are now no more ; and army, and was conveyed to England. Dr. Young, by the investigations of the savans and antiquarians of mod- its explanation, furnished some hints that aided the ern times. We shall use these sources promiscuously, philosophic Champollion in his formation of the hierowithout reference to their comparative antiquity-ouły plyphic alphabets.
Though the great geographical question, the existence recent expeditions, undertaken by order of the governof a north-west passage to India, has hitherto baffled ment of this country, have been attended with very imevery attempt at its discovery, yet the enterprises to which portant benefits. They have thrown great light on the it has given birth have not been undertaken in vain. The geography of the Northern regions; and no great en
kargement of the bounds of science has ever taken place, direct line was only about seven miles. In the evening without being productive of substantial advantages to we encamped at the lower end of a narrow chasm or rent mankind. Our whale fisheries have already profited by in the rocks, through which the river flows for upwards our extended knowledge of the Arctic seas ;-Captain of a mile. The walls of this chasm are upwards of two Parry's plans for securing the health and comfort of his hundred feet high, quito perpendicular, and in some ship’s companies, will afford the most valuable lessons to places only a few yards apart. The river throws itself every succeeding commander who shall be engaged in into it over a rock, forming two magnificent and picturexploring remote parts of the globe; and the volumes in esque falls close to each other. The upper fall is about which he and others have embodied the results of their sixty feet high, and the lower one at least one hundred, labours, are among the most delightful and valuable con- but perhaps considerably more; for the narrowness of the tributions which in our times have been made to the lite chasm into which it féll prevented us from seeing its rature of England.
bottom, and we could merely discern the top of the spray The Arctic regions abound in grand and sublime sce- far beneath our feet. The lower fall is divided into two, nery. Few objects in nature can be more magnificent by an insulated column of rock which rises about forty than the Falls of Wilberforce, in the Hood River; of feet above it. The whole descent of the river at this which we subjoin a copy of the engraving from Captain place probably exceeds two hundred and fifty feet. The BLACK's spirited drawing. They are thus described by rock is very fine sandstone. It has a smooth 'surface, and Captain Franklin.
a light red colour. I have named these magnificent cas"We pursued our voyage up the river, but the shoals cades "Wilberforce Falls," as a tribute of my respect to and rapids in this part were so frequent, that we walked that distinguished philanthropist and Christian. Messrs. along the banks the whole day, and the crews laboured Back and Hood took beautiful sketches of this majestic hard in carrying the canoes thus lightened over the shoals, scene, which are combined in the annexed plate." or dragging them up the rapids; yet our journey in a
THE CHAPEL OAK OF ALLONYILLE. Ainong ancient trees, there are few, I believe, at least cone is hollow throughout the whole of its height. in France, so worthy of attention as an oak which may Several openings, the largest of which is below, afford be seen in the · Pays de Caux,' about a league from access to this cavity. Yvetot, close to the church, and in the burial ground of All the central parts having been long destroyed, it is Allonville. I had often heard it mentioned, but in a only by the outer layers of the alburnum, and by the slight manner; and I am astonished, after having exa- bark, that this venerable tree is supported; yet it is still mined it, that so remarkable a tree should so long have full of vigour, adorned with abundance of leaves, and remained so little known.
laden with acorns. This oak has sessile leaves and acorns, on foot-stalks,
Such is the Oak of Allonville, considered in its state and is therefore of the true naval species. Above the of nature.
The hand of man, however, has endeavourroots, it measures upwards of thirty-five English feet ed to impress upon it a character still more interesting, round, and at the height of a man, twenty-six feet. A by adding a religious feeling to the respect which its little higher up it extends to a greater size, and at eight age naturally inspires. feet from the ground, enormous branches spring from The lower part of its hollow trunk has been transthe sides, and spread outwards, so that they cover with formed into a chapel of six or seven feet in diameter, their shade a vast extent. The height of the tree does carefully wainscotted and paved, and an open iron gate not answer to its girth ; the trunk, from the roots to the guards the humble sanctuary. Above, and close to the summit, forms a complete cone; and the inside of this chapel, is a small chamber, containing a bed; and lead