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ing to it there is a staircase, which twists round the body of the tree. At certain seasons of the year, divine service is performed in this chapel. The summit has been broken off many years, but there is a surface at the top of the trunk, of the diameter of a very large tree, and from it rises a pointed roof, covered with slates, in the form of a steeple, which is surmounted with an iron cross, that raises itself, in a truly picturesque manner, from the middle of the leaves, like an antique hermitage, above the surrounding wood. The cracks which occur in various parts of the tree, are, like the fracture whence the steeple springs, closely covered with slates, which, by o: bark, doubtless contribute to its preservation. ver the entrance to the chapel an inscription appears, which informs us that it was erected by the Abbé du Détroit, curate of Allonville, in the year 1696; and over the door of the upper room is another, dedicating it “To our Lady of Peace.” The oak is a tree which grows but slowly: in its youth, and to about forty years of age, it increases the most. After this period, it becomes less rapid in its growth, and abates progressively. According to M. Bosc, an oak of a hundred years old is not commonly more than a foot in diameter. It is well-known, however, from the spreading forth of the boughs, how much the growth depends upon the soil. If the calculation given by M. Bosc seems too small for the first century of the life of an oak, it becomes, on the contrary, too great, if applied to the centuries which follow, on account of the gradual wakening vegetative powers, the natural effect of age. Following this clue, the Oak of Allonville, giving in the middle portion of its trunk a diameter of more than eight feet, must, according to this computation, be above eight hundred years of age : even supposing, (which is by no means allowable,) that it has always continued increasing a foot in a century. Certainly, this tree, the summit of which was majestically reared toward the clouds of old, and which has been shortened and contracted on every side, cannot for ages have grown in such proportion. One cannot but think, that its increase has been scarcely perceived for the hundred and twenty-five years since it has been converted into a chapel, by the happy thought of M. l'Abbé du Détroit. One must not then give to the tree of Allonville less than 800 or 900 summers. Perhaps in its youth it lent its shade to the companions of William the Conqueror, when they assembled to invade the British shore. Perhaps the Norman troubadour, on his return from the first crusade, there often sang to his admiring sellow countrymen the exploits of Godfrey and of Raymond. At the period when every thing belonging to religion was condemned, the Revolutionists, having come to Allonville to burn the oak, were vigorously opposed by the country people, and the sanctuary was preserved. Saturday Magazine.
We will now resume the subject of natural history, after a suspension of two weeks, rendered necessary by press of other matter.
In our brief survey of man thus far, we have found five distinct classes, differing from one another in some leading particulars, yet not in so great a degree as to reclude the idea of their belonging to one race. We lave seen a connection, a gradation, a blending between these different classes, insomuch that it has been not a little difficult to draw the line, and to define precisely where, one class terminated, and another began. For though we have observed a marked difference between the central points (so to speak) of each portion or class, yet have we likewise seen, that the extremes meet ; which has sorced upon us the conclusion, that there is no ra. dical difference between these different classes, but that
all constitute one species, derived from one common source. It is worthy of observation, that those who find an insuperable obstacle in the way of their admission of mankind to be all of one descent, find none at all in tracing a gradation between man and beast—between beast and vegetable—between vegetable and mineral—in fine, between a man and a stone! No difficulty in the way at all ! The gradation is palpable! There are mongrel links to this chain in very great abundance! Semi-mansemi-beast, semi-beast-semi-vegetable, and semi-vegetable-semi-mineral non-descripts, are to be found by the wholesale. Ledges and ditches and hedges and barriers are leapt with the greatest facility; and not only are all men, but all things, recognised as one. Mountains become mole-hills in the twinkling of an eye, and ordinary difficulties totally disappear. A few vertebrae more or less, an extra pouch connected with the larynx, or hands instead of feet, constitute no obstacle at all to the admission of the orang and pongo into the human family, in the estimation of those who deem a thick lip or a tawny skin a demonstration, that the one possesing it cannot be a man! To exhibit fully the marvellous faith which some of those individuals possess, and to shew that they are of all men the least deserving of the name of Sceptics—in some respects to say the least—we will make a brief extract from Good's Book of Nature, with which we will close at the present time. “The Mosaic statement,” (that the whole human race originated from one source,) “has met with two distinct classes of opponents. The one has regarded this statement as altogether untrue, and never intended to be believed; as a mere allegory or fiction; the other has rather complained that the statement is inexplicit, than that it is untrue. At the head of the former class stand the names of some of the first natural historians and scholars of modern times, as Linnaeus, Buffon, Helvetius. Monboddo, and Darwin. And from whom do these philosophers, thus departing from the whole letter and spirit of the Mosaic history, pretend to derive the race of man? The four former from the race of monkeys; and the last, to complete the absurdity, from the race of oysters; for Dr. Darwin seriously conjectures, that as aquatic animals appear to have been produced before terrestrial, and every living substance to have originated from a form or nucleus exquisitely simple and minute, and to have been perpetually developing and expanding its powers, and progressively advancing towards perfection, man himself must have been of the aquatic order on his first creation: at that time, indeed, imperceptible from his exility, but in process of years, or rather of ages, acquiring a visible or oyster-like form, with little gills, instead of lungs, and, like the oyster, produced spontaneously, without distinction into sexes; that, as reproduction is always savourable to improvement, the aquatic or oyster mannikin, by being progressively accustomed to seek its food on the nascent shores or edges of the primaval ocean, must have grown, after a revolution of countless generations, first into an amphibious, and then into a terrestrial animal; and, in like manner, from being without sex, first also into an androgynous form, and thence into distinct male and female. “It is not necessary to notice this dream of a poetising philosopher, which had also been dreamed of long before his own day, any further than to remark, that it is in every respect inferior to the opinion of two of the most celebrated schools of ancient Greece, the Epicurean and the Stoic, who, though they disagreed on almost every other point, concurred in their dogma concerning the origin of man, and believed him to have sprung, equally with plants and animals of every kind, from the tender soil of the new-formed earth, at that time infinitely more powerful and prolific; produced in myriads of little wombs, that rose like mole-hills over the surface of the ground, and were afterwards transformed, for his nourishment, into myriads of glandular and milky bulbs, so as to form a marvelleus substitute for the human breast.
In the correct and elegant description of Lucretius,
Grecian or Roman philosophers, except that which supposed mankind to have been propagated by eternal generation, and of course the universe, like himself, to be eternal and self-existent: compared with which, an origin from the dust of the earth, even after the manner of vegetables, is incomparably less monstrous and absurd.”
THE CHAMPION For the Family Magazine. The custom so rise in feudal times among chivalrous nations, of deciding disputed rights by an appeal to arms, has given origin to the title of this officer, who only appears before the public in his official capacity on the days of the coronations of the sovereigns of England. While the king is at dinner, this officer rides proudly into Westminster Hall, armed cap-a-pie in heavy armor of antique form, mounted on a horse gorgeously caparisoned, and throws down his gauntlet by way of challenge, proclaiming by a herald—"That if any man, shall deny or gainsay, the King's title to the crown, he is ready to defend it in single combat.” When this is done, the custom is for the King to drink his health, and send him a golden cup full of wine, which the champion drinks, retaining the cup as his see. This office was instituted quite early in English history: it was committed to the Dymocke family at the coronation of Richard II, and has continued in it ever since. A manor in Lincolnshire is held in perpetuity by this family, on the consideration that the lord thereof shall be the Champion of the King. The coronations of the sovereigns of England are celebrated with great magnificence, and a rigid observance of the ancient feudal rites and the due forms of heraldry. George Naylor, the Garter King-at-arms on the coronation of George the Fourth, wrote a magnificent book of 400 pages, containing 70 engravings descriptive of the ceremonies on that occasion. The price of the book was twenty-five guineas a copy. F.
ABDUHL. RAHHAHMAN. (concLUDED.) His character was exemplary in a high degree. When he visited Washington, New York, Boston, and other of the Atlantic cities, soon after his emancipation, he had with him recommendatory letters from Mr. Clay, and other distinguished gentlemen who had become interested in his story, together with a large number of certificates from respectable citizens of Mississippi, who had
known Prince as a slave from ten to twenty-five years.
afterwards, Mr. Gurley received the following note from him:— Monrovia, May 4, 1829. Rev. SIR:—I am .. to inform you that I arrived safely in Africa, with my wife, and found the people generally in good health. You will please inform all my friends that I am in the land of my forefathers, and that I shall expect my friends in America to use their influence to get my children for me, and I shall be happy if they succeed...You wils please inform my children, by letter, o, arrival in the Colony. As soon as the rains are over, if God be with me, I shall try to bring my countrymen to the Colony, and to open the trade. I have found one of my friends iu the Colony. He tells me we can reach home in fifteen days, and promises to go with me. I am unwell, but much better. I am, with much respect, your humble servant, - - A BioUHL. RAHHAH MAN. This note was received in July, but probably not before the writer of it was no more among the living. He died of a trifling but neglected disorder, on the 6th of that month, not less to the regret of the colonists, who had become much attached to him, than of all who had known him in this country, and respected and loved him even in the capacity of his bondage. Honour to the memory of Abduhl, and peace to his ashes. He was a barbarian, and a slave; but, in his honesty and humanity, the “noblest work of God.” He was man's victim, but nature's nobleman. The Colonizationist.
ITEMS GF NEWS. Durant, the aeronant, made an aerial excursion on Wednesday afternoon last. In two minutes, he lost sight of the earth. In six, he rose to the top of the clouds, into clear sunshine. He continued to ascend thirty-nine minutes, and supposes he reached a height of 16,000 feet, or three miles. At this |o. the cold was intense. He was absent from the earth upwards of an hour and a half, and finally alighted in Westchester Co. 11 miles from our City Hall. John Randolph, the eccentric man, the distinguished orator, the wondrous genius, sleeps in death. He departed this life at Philao on Friday of last week, aged 59 years, 11 months, and 21 aws. t is stated that Randolph, the assailant of the President, has embarked for Liverpool.
FAMILY Physician. We have at length found time to peruse the first number of this periodical, and are therefore prepared to speak of it under.." for it is a rule with us not to pass judgment on a thing without thorough examination—and another rule, not to puff every thing as a matter of course, but to speak of cach o
to its merits; for indiscriminate praise makes one's commendations of little value. The Family Physician is a monthly periodical, published at No. 6, Courtlandt street, at $1.25 per annum. We think it calculated to be eminently useful; and it is certainly very interesting. Its object is not so much to make people their own physicians, as to give them those general ideas | diseases, ... preventives, &c. which will guard them against the quackery of empirics, and give them the proper confidence in the prescriptions of the ofo, who understand their calling. It is well sustained in point of talent, and, as far as we can i.e. in point of medical knowledge. On the whole, we consider it among the most valuable periodicals of the times.
THE CARPENtERs' Turn Out.
While we were engaged in perusing the No. of the medical work above mentioned, with a view to a notice of it in the Magazine, our attention was arrested by the movement of a procession directly by the door of our office. On inquiry, we ascertained it to be a procession of the journeymen carpenters of this city, who had struck for higher wages—twelve and a half cents more a day —having heretofore received but one dollar and thirty-seven and a half cents. The procession extended to a great length. We were informed by one of the individuals composing it, that it consisted of twelve hundred and fifty men. They walked two by two, and had for their banners the flag of the United States. They made an imposing appearance, both as to number and respectability.
ARTI Ficial EYEs.
We have seen a specimen of the skill of Dr. I. Francis of this city, in the insertion of an artificial eye in a socket formerly occupied by a real one. The imitation of the natural eye was so good, that we should not have suspected the individual had ever been deprived of an eye, had we not been informed of the fact. Any one who has been so unfortunate as to be disfigured by the loss of an eye, would find it well worth his while to apply to Dr. F. by whom he could be restored to every thing but sight. His office is at No. 7 Chambers st. near Chatham.
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WEEKLY ABSTRACT OF
NEW YORK, SATURDAY, JUNE 8, 1833.
The history of the human race before the flood. is at the most but very brief. We wish, therefore, in order to render it as interesting to the reader as possible, to make the most of the scanty materials in our possession relative to that period. We trust we shall on this account be excused for lingering a little, and dilating on this remote portion of time.
Searching the records of antiquity, we find diverse fragments of heathen authors which tend to throw some additional light on that obscure and ancient period. Moses is not the only writer who treats of antediluvian history, as some perhaps may suppose; and extravagant as they seem to consider him, he is moderation itself compared with some others. Berosus, the Chaldean historian, for instance, computes the lives of the Antediluvians by a term of years called sarus. Each sarus was six hundred and three years; and he supposes that some of them lived ten, twelve, thirteen, and even eighteen sari, or ten thousand, eight hundred, and fifty-four years. He says there were ten kings of Chaldea before the flood, viz. Alorus, Alasporus, Amelon, Amenon, Metalarus, Doarus, Aedorachus, Amphis, Oliartes, and Xisuthrus. Sanchoniatho, the Phoenician historian, says, that the first mortals were Protogonus and Æon ; that by these were begotten Genus and Genea; the children of these were Phos, Pur, and Phlox; and of these were begotten Cassius, Libanus, Antilibanus,and Brathys. Memrumus and Hypsuranius were descended from these, and their children were Agreus and Halieus; and of these were begotten two brothers, one of them named Chrysor and Happhaestus; the name of the other is lost. From this generation came two brothers, Technites and Autochthon, and of them were begotten Agrus and Agrotes; Amynus and Magus were their children, and Misor and Sydec were descended of Amymus and Magus. The son of Misor was Taautus or Tyoth. This is the Phoenician genealogy of the first ages of the world, and it requires no great pains to show how far it agrees with the accounts of Moses. The first mortals mentioned by Sanchoniatho, and called Protogonus and AEon, were undoubtedly Adam and Eve; and his Misor, the father of Taautus, is evidently the Mizraim of Moses. From Protogonus to Misor, Sanchoniatho computes eleven generations, and sron Adam to Mizraim, Moses makes twelve; so that Sanchoniatho falls short of Moses only one generation, and this, we conceive, happened by his not having recorded the Flood.
“The Egyptian dynastics are, by all that have treated of them, allowed to give an account, first of their gods: secondly, of their demi-gods and heroes; thiudly of their kings; and in this order the historians agree to treat of the Egyptian antiquities. The substance of the Egyptian accounts is, that there were thirty dynasties in Egypt, consisting of one hundred and thirteen generations, and which took up the space of thirty-six thousand five hundred and twenty-five years. That after this period was run, then there reigned eight demi-gods in the space of two hundred and seventeen years. After them succeeded the Cycli Cynici, i. e. according to Manetho, a race of heroes, in number fifteen, and their reigns took up four hundred and forty-three years: then began the reigns of their kings, the first of whom was Menes. Menes, therefore, by Syncellus called Mestraim, being the Mizraim of Moses, the eight demi-gods and fifteen
heroes that reigned in Egypt before him, were, as Mametho rightly conjectures, antediluvians; and we have to inquire how their reigns took up two hundred and seventeen, and four hundred and forty-three, in all six hundred and sixty years. “It was a usual and customary thing, for the ancient writers to begin their antiquities with some account of the origin of things, and the creation of the world. Moses did so in his book of Genesis; Sanchoniatho's Phoenician history began in the same manner; and it appears from Diodorus that the Egyptian antiquities did so too. Their accounts began with speculations about the origin of things, and the nature of the gods; then follows an account of their demi-gods and terrestrial deities; after them come their heroes, or first rank of men; and last of all their kings. Now is their kings began from the Flood; if their heroes and demi-gods reached up to the beginning of the world; then the account they give of the reigns of gods before these, can be only their theological speculations put into such order as they thought most truly philosophical. The substance of what they offer is, that the supreme God is eternal,—to his reign they assign no time; that the sun, moon, and stars ran their courses thousands of years before man was upon the Earth; into this notion they were led by their astronomy; that Egypt was peopled six hundred and sixty years before the Flood; and very probably it might not be peopled sooner, considering that mankind began in Chaldea, and that first the plantation went eastward with Cain, and that Seth and his family settled near home. Amongst these first o of Egypt, there were eight demi-gods, and fiften heroes, i. e. three and twenty persons illustrious and eminent in their generations. After the Flood reigned Menes, whom Moses called Mizraim, and after Mizraim, a succession of kings down to Nectanebus. “Manetho wrote his history by order of Ptolomy Philadelphus, some time after the Septuagint translation was made. When the Hebrew antiquities were published to the world, the Egyptians grew jealous of the honour of their nation, and were willing to show that they could trace up their memoirs even higher than Moses could carry those of the Israelites; for this end Manetho made his collection; it was his design to make the Egyptian antiquities reach as far backwards as he could, and therefore as many kings' names as he could find in their records, so many successive monarchs he determined them to have had : not considering that Egypt was at first divided into three, and afterwards into four sovereignties for some time, so that three or four of his kings many times reigned together. When he got up to Menes, then he set down the names of such persons as had been famous before the times of this their first king; and then, it being a point of his religion that their gods had reigned on Earth, and their astronomy teaching that the reigns of the gods took up the space of 36,525 years. he added these also, and by this management his antiquities seem to reach higher than the accounts of Moses; when in reality, if rightly interpreted, they fall short of Moses by such a number of years as we may fairly suppose might pass, before mankind could be so increased as to people the Earth from challea, the place where Adam and Eve lived, unto Egypt. We shall furnish more of these Antediluvian fragments ere we complete this portion of history.
For the Family Magazine. This female deity, the queen of heaven, the wife and sister of Jupiter, may be regarded, from the moral qualities ascribed to her, not only as the “Regina Deorum,” the queen of the gods, but also the impersonation of the female character, as understood by the ancients. Juno was the daughter of Saturn and Ops—and consequently sister to Jupiter, Pluto, Neptune, Vesta, Ceres, &c. She was born on earth, although a celestial goddess. Her nativity was either at Argos or Samos, and her education was entrusted, according to Homer and Ovid, to Oceanus and Tethys. There is much sublimity in the fabled account of the marriage of Jupiter and Juno. At these august nuptials, all the gods from the empyrean regions, the demons from Tartarus and the Stygian pools, all the race of mankind, and all the brute creation. were assembled. We scarcely know of a more sublime gathering described in the entire range of heathen mythology. The genius of a Homer or a Milton would alone do justice to the majesty of the idea. Bright spirits, clad in the beautiful robes of immortalitv, may be supposed to form the magnificent centre of this stupendous painting; next are seen, in wide and sweeping circles, the “gorgons and chimeras dire,” the gigantic and monstrous creations of the world below; and then, in still wider sweep, are gathered the denizens of the world—while far behind, lengthening over the hills to the blue edge of the horizon, the tribes of earth, air, and ocean, come swarming on like the clouds of heaven propelled to one common centre by an impetuous whirlwind. Yet but little happiness was destined to flow from these pompous nuptials. Heaven, earth, and hell were soonconvulsed by the bickerings, jealousies, and strifes of “the father of gods and men” and his proud and transcendently beautiful wife. Juno had some children as the fruits of her marriage, . others not so directly derived from that event. The earliest of Grecian poets, Hesiod, makes her the mother of Mars, Hebe, Lucina, and Vulcan. Her mind is described as being lacerated and excited to madness by the repeated and daily debaucheries of Jupiter. She was at length driven to such a state of desperation as to renounce his bed, and to retire to Eubaea. To bring about a reconciliation, Jupiter had recourse to the advice of Citharon; and to fraudulent artifices, for the purpose of gaining forgiveness. However, the reconciliation thus effected was not harmonious, and often would the celestial regions ring with the clamor of domestic discord— not sparing blows and violence. Jupiter retaliated her
cruelty on his illegitimate son, Hercules, by suspending her from the heavens with a golden chain, having tied a heavy anvil to her feet. Irritated by this infamous punishment, Juno instigated a conspiracy among the gods to dethrone and imprison her lord. #. delivered Jupiter from this combination by the aid of the tremendous Briareus. Apollo and Neptune were banished from heaven, as some say, for the part they took in this conspiracy. Juno was worshipped by sacrifices offered in great solemnity, at Argos, Samos, Carthage, and afterwards at Rome. The burnt offerings on her altars, on the first day of each month, were a ewe lamb and a sow. Cows were not offered, because she is said to have assumed the form of that creature when the gods retreated before the Giants into Egypt. The goose, the hawk, the peacock, among birds, were sacred to her, and among flowers, the dittany, the lily, and the poppy. The power of Juno was extended over gods and men; she even had the privilege of occasionally hurling the thunder of Jupiter. Minerva was sometimes her messenger, but her most devoted servant among the clestials was Iris, who always went on her errands to stir up discord and strife. This messenger, however, had a more interesting office deputed to her by her mistress; it was her task to hover over the couches of dying women, and cut from their heads a lock of hair, thus enabling the spirit to release itself from the painful struggles of the }. conflict. Juno sent this messenger to the dying ido:—
“Tum Juno omnipotens longum miserata dolorem,
Difficilesque obitus, Irim demisit Olimpo,
Quae luctantem animum nexosque resolveret artus.' . Virgil
Then mighty Juno, to relieve her pain,
The prominent traits of character developed by Juno were jealousy, cruelty, and pride. Jupiter loved Io; the daughter of #. and Juno came so near to making a discovery of them together, that Jupiter turned Io into a white cow; but the crafty goddess suspecting the deceit, asked Jupiter to present her the cow, over which she immediately placed the hundred-eyed Argus as a watch, and fed her with bitter herbs. Jupiter sent Mercury to release her, and he, under the disguise of a shepherd, came to Argus, and with the sweet music of his pipe, lulled him to sleep, when he cut off his head. Juno