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grieved at the death of her favorite Argus, is said to have turned his corpse into a peacock, and to have scattered his hundred eyes about the tail of this avis Junonus. She then committed so to the Furies, to be tormented. In despair and anguish, she fled into Egypt, and begged of Jupiter to be restored to her former shape. Having obtained this boon, she became the goddess of the Egyptians, and was worshipped with divine honors under the name of Isis.
The sirnames of Juno were Argiva, from the people called Argiva, who were accustomed to sacrifice a hecatomb (one hundred oxen) to her honor. She was also called Bunea, from Bunaeus, the son of Mercury, who is said to have built her a temple at Corinth. She was called Coprotina, from the day in July on which Roman maid servants celebrated her festival under a fig tree, in memory of a remarkable circumstance in Roman history —in which it is related that the enemies were incited to hilarity and made drunk by the Roman maid servants, when the Romans rose and destroyed their invaders while in that defenceless state. She was called Cithaerona, from the deception of Jupiter practised by the advice of king Cithaeron, which was, to give out that he was about to be married to another wife. He had placed an oaken image, splendidly attired, in a chariot, and gave out that this was his intended spouse, Plataea, the daughter of Asopus. Juno fell furiously upon this image—but when she found it only wood, she laughed heartily, and was reconciled to her husband. .
She was also called Curis from her spear; Cingula, from the bride's girdle which was enclosed by Juno's good leave at marriage, as she was supposed to be the patroness of chaste women and nuptials. She was called Juga, Lucinea, Opigina, Parthenos, Pronuba, and other names too numerous to mention,-all of which derived their applicability from some fancied relationship to her life, actions, or worship. She was the supposed patroness of virtuous women, and severely punished incontinence and lewdness in matrons. She was therefore called in Rome Matrona or Romana. Consuls and great officers of state, on their elections, were wont to offer solemn rites in her temples. Her favorite messenger and attendant, Iris,was always represented with the rainbow over her head, with its ends in each hand, Hence the poetical name of the “bow in the cloud" has been derived.
Juno's chariot is represented to have been gold, rich and magnificent; it was drawn by two peacocks through the yielding air, and behind her, buoyant in the skies, and leaning over her, was seen the favorite Iris. Her crown was of surpassing richness and beauty. She was the patron of cleanliness and every virtue of housewifery, yet she was queenly in her attire—proud in her stateliness—and most cruel and vindictive in her resentments, particularly in those directed against the illegitimate offspring of Jupiter, and against her rivals in his affections.
For the Family Magazine.
All attempts to prove that the picture writing of the Egyptians, the Chinese, and the Mexicans, was derived from a common origin, have failed. The most philosophical conclusion, therefore, is, that picture writing springs from a principle inherent in our common nature. Let any lonely tribe of the human race, isolated from all mankind, live and multiply by themselves, and that sond desire of leaving some memorial, “that longing after immortality,” will introduce the pictorial writing. Belts of wampum, with various devices interwoven, a sort of rude system of heraldry, are evidences and records of treaties and tokens of amity among the wildest barbarians of our American forests, while the heads of the wolf or panther or eagle, or the figure of the tortoise snake, speak as strongly of the identity of certain indivi
duals, as our written characters, the productions of long ages of improvement. The fact that there are radical differences in these systems of picture writing, not only proves that human nature will have this outlet for the expression of its passions, but that the modes of this expression may be as various as the climes and scenery of the earth. We now speak of those wonderful characters by which every sound of the human voice, every combination of those sounds, and every passion of the mind that gives birth to those sounds, may be expressed. The ancient Hebrew, commonly called the Samaritan Alphabet, has many claims to be considered the oldest alphabet in the world. This was the proper Phoenician alphabet. It had at first only thirteen letters, to which three more were added, making the sirteen characters used in the Samaritan or the ancient Hebrew. The Chaldeans afterwards changed the shape of these letters to a more elegant form, and added sir more, making the twenty-two of the ancient Chaldaic. There is, however, another alphabet which claims a great antiquity on the continent of Asia—it is called Nagari, or, by way of eminence, Deva-nagari, having no common affinities to other alphabets. It has fifty letters —sixteen vowels and thirty-four consonants. The scientific arrangement of this alphabet and its perfection present strong arguments against its being the primeval alphabet. It is, no doubt, the labored production of a later age than that which gave birth to the Phoenician —yet it demands the particular attention of the philologist, as extending in its use, with trifling variations, from the Persian Gulf to China. It is an unborrowed alphabet in its characters, elegant in its appearance, combining a great degree of perfection in its powers. The bricks now sound on that vast and desert plain where Babylon is conjectured to have stood, and the impious tower of Babel to have reared its proud summit towards heaven, have characters inscribed on them, which are conjectured by the learned to be of that symbolical, pictorial, or hieroglyphic character which may have ushered into being the Phoenician, the oldest alphabet of earth. What immortality has the invention of the Alphabet conferred upon human transactions! What far-reaching memories does it link to the doings of a single hour ! Montgomery, the christian poet, says of the immortality conferred npon the city of Troy by the Grecian poet:“For still around the eternal walls The storms of battle rage,
And Hector conquers, Hector falls, Bewept in every age.”
Explan Ation of Words, PhRAs Es, &c. Achibus 1Niti is, 1.Ncurioso fin E. Lat. from Tacitus. Vigilant in the beginning, neglectful in the end. A cruce salus. Lat. Salvation from the cross. Act A ExtERior.A IN picANT INTERIorA secret.A. Lat. (Law maxim.) By the outward acts, we are to judge of inward motives. Actio PERsonAlis MoRitur cum PERson A. Lat. (Law maxim.) A personal action dies with the person; that is, Death terminates all law suits. Act is evuM IMPLET, NoN segn IBUs ANN1s. Lat. from Ovid. He fills his space with deeds, not with lingering years. Actum Est DE REPUBLIcă. It is all over with the Republic. (We hope it will be a long time before this quotation will be applied to ours.) Actus DEI NEMIN1 FAcit INJURIAM. Lat. (Law Maxim,) “No one shall be injured through the act of God.” For illustration, suppose a house to be destroyed by lightning, the tenant is not to be responsible for damages. Actus Legis MULL FAct INJURIAM. Lat. (Law Maxim.) “The act of the law does injury to no man;" that is, No individual judged according to law can be legally said to be treated unjustly.
This mysterious monument of antiquity, or as it has
been called, the “Glory of Wiltshire,” and the “Wonder of the West,” is situated on Salisbury Plain, about two miles directly west of Amesbury, and seven north of Salisbury. It is the general opinion of historians, that it was an ancient temple of the Druids, the pagan priests of Britain, or at any rate, that it was employed by them for the celebration of some of their mysteries. Sir Richard Colt Hoare, who holds this opinion, in describing it, says, “This temple consists of two circles and two ovals: the two latter constituting the cell or sanctum. The outward circle, about 300 feet in circumserence, is composed of huge upright stones, bearing others over them, which form a kind of architrave. Though they evidently show the mark of tools, they are still irregular in their forms and sizes. The height of the stones on each side of the entrance is a little more than 13 feet, and the breadth of one 7 feet, and of the other 6 feet 4 inches; the impost over them is about 2 feet 8 inches deep. The space between the stones in this outer circle varies; that between the entrance-stones is 5 feet, and rather wider than in the rest: this circle consisted originally of thirty stones, of which seventeen still remain standing. At the distance of 8 feet 3 inches from the inside of this outer circle, we find another composed of smaller stones, rude and irregular in their shapes. “We come now to the grandest part of our temple, the cell or sanctum: in forming which, the general plan has been varied; for this inner temple represents twothirds of a large oval, within which is the same portion of a smaller oval. The large oval is formed by five pair of trilithons, or two large upright stones, with a third laid over them as an impost. The placing of the imposts is also varied, for they are not continued all round, as in the outward circle, but are divided into pairs, thereby giving a greater lightness to the work, and breaking its uniformity; neither are they, like those of the outer circle, parallel at top; but they rise gradually in height from east to west.” On examining the stones that "have fallen down, we perceive in those that formed the imposts, or cross-pieces, deep cavities, or mortises; and on the top of the upright blooks "re corresponding projections, acting as tenons,
and giving great solidity to the work. The largest stones in the outer oval measure 22 feet in length. The whole mass of stone-work was surrounded by a deep ditch, on the outside of which was an embankment. From that part of the ruins where it is supposed the entrance was originally placed, a raised pathway is still to be secn, which, after running towards the north-east the distance of 594 yards, branches off to the south and north. The plain in the neighbourhood of these ruins possesses a very singular character, being covered with nummerous barrows, that is, mounds of carth, which, on being opened, appear to have been places of burial, from their containing bones of human beings, and such relics as were usually buried in old times with the deceased. Within a short distance, also, are two long level pieces of ground, surrounded by a ditch and a bank, with a long mound of earth crossing one end, bearing a great resemblance to the ancient Roman courses for horse racing. In the year 1797, three of the stones which formed part of the oval in the centre, sell to the earth; and this appears to have been the only instance on record of any alteration having taken place in these remains of antiquity. For whatever purpose it was erected, or whoever may have been the architects, the immense labour necessarily employed in bringing together the materials, and the amazing mechanical power that must have been used to raise the stones, some of which weigh upwards of 70 tons, to their proper situations, show, that it could have been only constructed for some great national purpose, connected either with religion or the government of the State. The author whose description we have quoted concludes his remarks in this manner:— “Such, indeed, is the general fascination imposed on all those who view Stonehenge, that no one can quit its precincts without feeling strong sensations of surprise and admiration. The ignorant rustic will, with a vacant stare, attribute it to some imaginary race of giants; and the antiquary, equally uninformed as to its origin, will regret that its history is veiled in perpetual obscurity: the artist, on viewing these enormous masses, will wonder that art could thus rival nature in magnificence and
nificent appearance of these ruins; and all with one ac
picturesque effect. Even the most indifferent passenger cord will exclaim,... How grand! How wonderful! How
over the plain must be attracted by the solitary and mag- 'incomprehensible!”
The following description of the above cut is copied, verbatim et literation, from an antique work of Voyages and Travels, by John Pinkerton. “To the east of Brassa is an isle called the Noss of Brassa, wherein a ragged rock looking to the south-east, the highest in all this country, serviceable to mariners for directing their course when sailing to the west from eastern countries; some gentlemen told us that they verily think from the surface of the water to the top of the rock it will be three hundred fathoms, upon which a great many fowls have their nests, whose eggs they take in the summer time, as also some of the sowls, by letting a man down from the top of the rock by a rope tied about his middle : before this isle lieth a rock, ragged on all sides, about one hundred fathoms high from the surface of the water, but by reason of its raggedness and declivity, and its being surrounded with sea on all hands, it is scarce possible to climb it. Yet the owners of the isle, being desirous to be at the fowls and eggs numerous upon it, about one hundred years since there was a man, for the hire of a cow, undertook to climb the lesser rock, and to fasten two poles or stakes thereupon, which he accordingly did, but in coming down, he fell into the sea, and perished. The way how they get into this lesser rock is observable, which is thus: opposite to the two stakes on the lesser, there are also stakes fastened on the higher rock, it being but sixteen fathoms over between the rocks; to which stakes ropes are fastened, reaching from rock to rock; the ropes they put through the holes of an engine called a cradle; all which being so prepared, a man getteth into the cradle, and warpeth himself over from the Noss, or the greater rock to the lesser, and so having made a good purchase of eggs and fowls, bought at the expense of the danger of his life, he returns the same way he went. These ropes hang not on all winter,
but in the summer time ; in the month of June ordimarily, when the day is calm, they cast the ropes from the greater to the lesser rock ; which so they do, they have first some small rope or cordage, to which there is a stone fastened, and they keeping both ends of this small rope in their hands, an able man throweth the stone into the lesser rock, and when cast over the stakes, they heave or list up this small rope with a long pole, that so the bought of the rope may be gotten about the stakes; which being done, they draw to them the small rope till a greater tied to it be brought about also, and so both ends of the greater rope they secure by the stakes on the top of the Noss, on which strong and greater rope the cradle being put, it runneth from rock to rock : easily a man in the cradle goeth from the Noss to the holm or rock, by reason of its descent, but with greater difficulty do they return ; therefore there is a small rope tied to the cradle, whereby men on the Noss help to draw them back. I do not hear that any where such another cradle is to be found; how many are the inventions which man hath found out! This holm is much frequented by fowls, more than any other place on the east side of %. as the other holm of Northmevan is on the west side; the fowls have their nests on the holms in a very beautiful order, all set in rows, in the form of a dove cote, and each kind or sort do nestle by themselves; as the scarfs by themselves, so the kittiwakes, tominories, mawes, &c. There is a fowl there called the scutiallan, of a black colour, and as big as a wild duck, which doth live upon the vomit and excrements of other fowls, whom they pursue, and having apprehended them, they cause them to vomit up what meat they have lately taken, not yet digested. The Lord's works both of nature and of grace are wonderful, all speaking forth his glorious goodness, wisdom and power.”
“It takes every thing,” says the proverb, “to make
a world.” The reader will, we suspect, begin to think this proverb true, on reading the following most farcical occurrence. We copy it from the London EveryDay Book; although it is by no means an “every day” concern; nor is it desirable that it should be. Once in an age is quite sufficient—quite sufficient in very deed.
“And where did she come from ? and who can she be?
Did she fall from the sky 1 did she rise from the sea?”
Late one evening in the spring of 1817, the rustic inhabitants of Almondsbury, in Gloucestershire, were surprised by the entrance of a young female in strange attire. She wore leather shoes and black worsted stockings, a black stuff gown with a muslin frill at the neck, a red and black shawl round her shoulders, and a black cotton shawl on her head. Her height was about five feet two inches, and she carried a small bundle on her arm containing a sew necessaries. Her clothes were loosely and tastefully put on in an oriental fashion. Her eyes and hair were black, her forehead was low, her nose short, her mouth wide, her teeth white, her lips large and full, her under lip projected a little, her chin was small and round, her hands were clean, and seemed unused to labor. She appeared about twenty-five years of age, was fatigued, walked with difficulty, spoke a language no one could comprehend, and signified by signs her desire to sleep in the village. The cottagers were as aid to admit her, and sought the decision of Mr. Worrall, a magistrate for the county, at Knole, whose lady caused her own maid to accompany her to a public house in the village, with a request that she should have a supper, and a comfortable bed.
In the morning, Mrs. Worrall found her with strong traces of sorrow and distress on her countenance, and took her with her to Knole, but she went reluctantly. It was Good Friday, and at the mansion, observing a cross-bun, she cut off the cross, and placed it in i. bosom.
Paper and pen were handed to her to write her name: she .. her hand: and when she appeared to comprehend what was meant, she pointed to herself, and cried “Caraboo.” The next day she was taken to Bristol, examined before the mayor at the Council-house, and committed to St. Peter's Hospital as a vagrant, whither persons of respectability flocked to visit the incomprehensible inmate. From that place Mrs. Worrall removed her once more to Knole. A gentleman who had made several voyages to the Indies, extracted from her signs, and gestures, and articulation, that she was the daughter of a person of rank, of Chinese origin, at “Javasu,” and that whilst walking in her garden, attended by three women, she had been gagged, and bound, and carried off by the people of a pirate-prow, and sold to the captain of a brig, from whence she was transferred to another ship, which anchored at a port for two days, where four other females were taken in, who, after a voyage of five weeks, were landed at another port: sailing for eleven more weeks, and being near land, she jumped overboard in consequence of ill usage, and swimming ashore, found herself on this coast, and had wandered for six weeks, till she found her way to Almondsbury. She described herself at her father's to have been carried on men's shoulders, in a kind of palanquin, and to have worn seven peacock's feathers on the right side of her head, with open sandals on her feet, having wooden soles; and she made herself a dress from some calico, given her by Mrs. Worrall, in the style of her own which had been embroidered. The late Mr. Bird, the artist, sketched her according to this account, as in the engraving.
The particulars connected with these recitals, and her general conduct, were romantic in the extreme. At the end of two months she disappeared; and, to the astonishment of the persons whose sympathies she had excited, the lady Caraboo, a native of Javasu, in the east, was discovered to have been born at Witheridge in Devonshire, where her father was a cobbler! A very full account of her singular imposition is given in “A Narrative” published by Mr. Gutch, of Bristol, in 1817, from whence this sketch is taken. After her remarkable adventures, she found it convenient to leave this country. A Bath correspondent writes as follows:—
To the Editor of the Every-Day Book.
In the year 1824, Caraboo having returned from America, took apartments in New Bond-street, where she made a public exhibition of herself—admittance one shilling each person; but it does not appear that any great number went to see her. -
Having noticed the class of theorists who derive men from oysters, we will next consider the monkey theory.
“There are," says Good in his Book of Nature, “a few wonderful histories afloat, of wild men and wild women found in the woods of Germany and France; some of which are said to have been dumb, others to have had the voice of sheep or of oxen, and others again to have walked on all-fours. And from these few floating tales, not amounting, in modern times, to more than nine or ten, Linnaeus thought proper to introduce the orangotang into the human family, and to regard such instances of wild men as the connecting species between this animal and mankind in a state of civilized society. Whence Lord Monboddo has amused us with legends of men found in every variation of barbarism; in some instances, even ungregarious or solitary; in others, uniting, indeed, into small hordes, but so scanty even in na
tural or inarticulate language, as to be obliged to assist their own meaning by signs and gestures, and consequently, to be incapable of conversing in the dark; of a third sort who have in some degree improved upon their natural language, but have still so much of the savage beast belonging to them, as to employ their teeth and nails, which last are not less than an inch long, as weapons of defence; and of a sourth sort, found in an island of the Indian seas, with the full possession of speech, but with tails like those of cats or monkeys; a set of dreadful cannibals, which at one time killed and devoured every Dutchman they could lay their hands upon.
“It is truly wonderful that a scholar of Lord Monboddo's accomplishments could have allowed himself to be for one moment imposed upon by a mass of trash so absurd and extravagant as not to be worth the trouble of confuting. Such romances are certainly in existence; but they are nothing more than the fabled news of a few low and illiterate mariners, whose names were never sufficient to give them the slightest degree of authority, even when they were first uttered, and which, for the most part, dropped successively into an obscure and ignominous grave on the moment of their birth, and would have silently mouldered away into their elemental nothingness, had not this very singular writer chosen to rake up their decomposing atoms, in order to support an hypothesis which sufficiently proves its own weakness by the scouted and extravagant evidence to which it is compelled to appeal.
“Of the wild men and wild women of Linnaeus, some appear to have been ideots, escaped from their keepers; a few exaggerated accounts of stray children from some wretched hovel of Lithuanian peasants; and one of them, a young negress, who, during a shipwreck on the French coast, had swum on shore, and at once saved herself from death, and what is worse than death, from slavery. She is said to have been sound in the woods of Champagne, about the middle of the last century, and was at first exhibited under the name of la fille sauvage and la belle sauvage, and had the honour, soon afterwards, of being painted as a sign-post to one of our most celebrated inns in this metropolis, which is stil. known by the name of the Bell Sauvage. This young negress was instructed in the French language by the the family into whose hospitable hands she sell, and was afterwards, from some unaccountable whim, denominated Mademoiselle LE BLAN c.”