Philosophers at War: The Quarrel Between Newton and Leibniz
Probably the most celebrated controversy in all of the history of science was that between Newton and Leibniz over the invention of the calculus. The argument ranged far beyond a mere priority dispute and took on the character of a war between two different philosophies of nature. Newton was the first to devise the methods of the calculus, but Leibniz (who independently discovered virtually identical methods) was the first to publish, in 1684. Mutual toleration passed into suspicion and, at last, denunciation of each by the other as a fraud and a plagiarist. The affair became a scandal, as British mathematicians asserted Newton's claims before the public while their Continental colleagues hotly defended Leibniz's priority. Professor Hall analyzes the situation out of which the dispute arose, the circumstances that caused it to become embittered, the dispositions of the chief actors, and the shifts in their opinions of each other.
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Beginnings in Cambridge
Newton states his claim 1685
Leibniz encounters Newton 16721676
The emergence of the calculus 16771699
The outbreak 16931700
Open warfare 17001710
The philosophical debate
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Acta Algebra already analysis appear areas believed Bernoulli bodies calculus called cause certainly circle claim Collins Commercium Epistolicum concerned copy Correspondence course criticism curves dated differential discovery early edition England English equations Eruditorum evidence example explain expressed fact Fatio firſt force French friends further geometry given Gregory hand Huygens ideas infinite infinitesimal integration interest invented Italy Johann John Keill knew known later learned least Leib Leibniz less letter lines London Math mathematical mathematician matter means mechanical method of fluxions mind motion nature never Newton Newtonian Oldenburg original Paris perhaps Philosophical physical Principia printed problem proved published quadrature quantities reason received relation Royal Society seems taken tangents things thought tion true universal Wallis Whiteside whole writing written wrote